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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Library 

Library List No. 43 Washington 25, D. C, June T948 



MARKETING OF DAIRY PRODUCTS, 1936 - 1940 
A List of References 



Compiled by 
Donald W. Gooch, Robert M. Harmon, and Oliver M. Shipley 



This list contains references to reports of studies and research in the economics of the marketing of 
dairy products for the period 1936 through 1940. References apply to the United States, Canada, and 
western Europe, particularly Great Britain, Germany, Holland, and the Scandinavian countries. Some 
references on Australia, New Zealand and a few of the Latin American countries are included also. 

References wholly or largely on cooperative marketing are omitted because this aspect has been 
covered in Library List 41, Bibliography on Cooperation in Agriculture. Technological aspects of 
the marketing of dairy products are also omitted. Hence references on refrigeration, storage and 
warehousing, and transportation deal not with technology, but with economic subjects such as the 
impact on costs and prices of dairy products. 

References are arranged chronologically. Within each year they are arranged alphabetically by 
author, or by title where no author is given. 

A list giving the principal official source for each country of statistics of production and trade in 
dairy products is appended. 

Material which was not available for examination is marked with an asterisk (*). 

The Index is arranged alphabetically by author and subject. 

Call numbers are those of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Library. 






1 1 l B * A RY 






■■:.. 



SOURCES CONSULTED 

Card catalog, U. S. D. A. Library. - 

Agricultural Economics Literature, 1936 - 1940. 

Agricultural Index, 1936 - Sept. 1942. 

Experiment Station Record, 1936 - 1941. 

Public Affairs Information Serv. Bulletin, 1936 - 1940. 

Bercaw, L. O. ,.•_•»-!.'■•<=«! 

The dairy industry in the United States. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Libr. List 11, 56 p. 

July 1940. 

Bercaw, L. O. 
State trade barriers; selected references. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Lib. List 1, rev. 
June 1940. 

Colvin, E. M. 
Transportation of agricultural products in the United States, 1920 - June 1939. U. S. Bur. 
Agr. Econ. Bibliogr. 81, 812 p. Nov. 1939. 

Hannay, A. M. 
Price fixing by government in foreign countries, 1926 - 1939. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. 
Bibliogr. 86, 631 p. July 1940. 

Larson, N. G. 
The dairy industry in the United States, 1940 - 1941. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Bibliogr. 97, 
133 p. Feb. 1942. (Supplements Economic Library List No. 11.) 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Information. Div. of Publications. 
Index to publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1936 - 1940, edited 
by Mary A. Bradley. Washington, 1943. 

U. S. Supt. of Documents. 
Catalog of the public documents. . .of the Government of the United States, 1935 - 1940. 
Washington, 1940 - 1945. 

U. S. Supt. of Documents. 
United States Government publications: monthly catalog, 1936 - 1941. Washington, 
1936 - 1942. 



MARKETING OF DAIRY PRODUCTS, 1936 - 1940 



1936 



1. ABBOTT, F. H. California's butter labeling act- 
and factors leading to its adoption. Natl. Butter and 
Cheese J. 27: 6-8. Dec. 10, 1936. 286.85 B98Bu 

Steps leading to the improvement of milk and cream 
quality and of the butter product itself indicate the pro- 
gram which has been under way in California for approx- 
imately 15 years, eventually resulting in a State law re- 
quiring all butter sold in package form to be labeled as 
to quality. A survey of the percentage of first quality 
♦ratter sold in comparison with other grades indicates a 
large reduction in the sales of all undergrades with a 
comparable increase in volume Of sales of first quality 
hiitter. 

2. ALLRED, C. E., and POWELL, J. C. Consump- 
tion of dairy products and eggs in rural Tennessee with 
regional comparisons. Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rural Res. 
Ser. Monog. 19, 22 p. Ref. Aug. 15, 1936. 

173.2 W89Co 

"The principal objectives of this study are to ascertain 
(1) the per capita consumption of dairy products and eggs 
among white farm owners in the different regions of 
Tennessee; (2) the main causes of the regional differen- 
ces; and (3) the regional variations in amount sold and 
purchased for home consumption." Schedules completed 
by 663 farm owners form the basis for the results given 
in the study. 

3. AMESS, A. H. R., and JOHNSON, H. C. The science 
of dairying. Ed. 2. Auckland, Whitcombe & Tombs, 
1936? 260p.,illus. 44 Am36 

A well -illustrated textbook. The economics of dairy 
farming, marketing and care of milk, and dairy legisla- 
tion and standards are treated in separate chapters. 

4. ANOTHER milk agreement. New A. A. A. order 
gives it control over Washington, D. C. milk supply. 
Amer. Creamery 82: 810. Oct. 7, 1936. 286.85 N482 

Provisions of the order are noted. These include classi- 
fication of milk into two classes according to use, estab- 
lishment of minimum prices which handlers are to pay 
producers, and establishment of a differential for butter 
fat content. The order does not involve prices which con- 
sumers are to pay for milk bought from handlers. 

5. ARMENTROUT, W. W., and STELZER, R. O. Milk- 
distribution costs in West Virginia. H. A study of the 
costs incurred by 75 producer-distributors in the Clarks- 
burg, Fairmont, Morgantown, and Wheeling markets for a 
twelve-month period during 1934-1935. W. Va. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. B. 270, 32 p. June 1936. 100 W52 

Results of the study show that the average cost of distri- 
buting milk was $1.76 per 100 pounds of milk-equivalent 
sold, and that the distribution cost of producer-distribu- 
tors was lower than that of milk distributing plants. 

6. BACKMAN, J. Adventures in price fixing. New 
York, Farrar & Rinehart, 1936. 57 p. 284.3 B12 

Discusses the Paterson Butter Plan in Australia, Ch. 8. 

7. BARTLETT, R. W. Changes in city market outlets 
for fluid milk. 111. Agr. Ext. Serv. Paper 32, 12 p. Nov. 
1936. 275.2 n62C 

Shows that the responsible factors are: changes in pur- 
chasing power of consumers, a marked decline in the rate 
of increase in population, a shift in the distribution of 
foods from independent to chain stores, the use of a class 
I price that has been too high in relation to prices for 
milk for manufactured products, and the use of gross 
handling margins for wagon deliveries of milk which have 
been too high in relation to store margins of milk and 
margins of competing foods. 

8. BARTLETT, R. W. Transportation of milk in the 
St. Louis milkshed. Farm Econ. 18: 352-362. Mav 1936 
280.8 J822 ' 

Paper presented at the Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting of 
the American Farm Economic Association at New York, 
December 28, 1935. A study by the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 



9. BAXTER, T. Stimulating a lasting revival, 
farmer & Stock-Breeder 50: 2315, 2317. Sept. 29, 1936. 
10 F228 

Tells of the accomplishments of the British Milk Market- 
ing Board and points out that organization of milk market- 
ing has brought the best milk prices since 1924. Legisla- 
tion is needed to protect the home producer from the low 
prices of competing products from overseas. 

10. BELSHAW, H., WILLIAMS, D. O., and STEPHENS 
F / i B ' j A g ricultural organization in New Zealand; a survey 
of land utilization, farm organization, finance and market- 
ing. Melbourne, Melbourne Univ. Press, 1936. 818 d 
281.1993 B41 y ' 

Partial contents: Ch. 28, General survey of markets and 
price movements (including butter and cheese), by D. O. 
Williams; Ch. 30, The processing and marketing of dairv 
produce, by F. B. Stephens; Ch. 35, Control boards (in- 
cluding the Dairy Control Board, 1923), by F. B. Stephens- 
Ch. 36, Farming industries during the world crisis- HI 
Ottawa and after - D, United Kingdom policy in reeard 'to 
dairy produce. 

11. BENDKEN, H. A. An American looks at European 
indifference to ice cream. Food Indus. 8: 15. Jan 
1936. 389.8 F737 

Ice cream, while available in all European countries 
has nowhere become a staple commodity or an important 
industry. Ice cream manufacturing is not a distinct indus- 
try as most of it is made by confectioners, hotels and 
peddlers. Economic conditions which have kept ice cream 
in the luxury food class are the principal reasons for the 
lack of success in the introduction of the industry to 
Europe. 

12. BENDLXEN, H. A. Three years of educational 
butter scoring work at the State College of Washington 
Inst, of Dairying, State Col. of Wash. Proc. 9: 60-68 
Mar. 1936. 44.9 W27 

Results of testing 733 samples of butter sent in bv 77 
plants. 

* A~' BERRY » A - E. Milk control regulations in Ontario, 
1936. Canad. Pub. Health J. 27: 504-510. Oct. 1936 
449.8 P964 

Reviews the more important sections relating to pas- 
teurization plants and to milk plants handling raw milk 

14. BESANA, G., and DEL GUERRA, M. Sottoprodotti 
del latte e loro utilizzazione. Milan, Ulrico Hoepli, 1936. 
435 p. 44 B462 

Skim milk, casein, whey, lactose, lactic acid, and butter 
residues. 

15. BONOW, M. Developments in Swedish production 
of margarine, 1919-1935. Rev. Internatl. Coop. 29(7): 
249-255. July 1936. 280.28 In8B 

Table, p. 252, gives production, home consumption and 
retail price of butter, 1925-1934. 

16. BOUCHER, G. P. Some facts concerning milk con- 
sumption in Canada. Econ. AnnaL 6(3): 35-37. June 
1936. 281.8 Ec72 

An analysis of records obtained in 1935 by the Econom- 
ics and Dairy Branches of the Dominion Department of 
Agriculture in cooperation with the Quebec and Alberta 
Departments of Agriculture from 3213 families in the 
provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. The survey 
showed that the amount of milk used as a beverage repre 
sented 62 percent of all the milk consumed. 

17. BROOKE, SIR B. Control of milk industry. Suc- 
cessful marketing scheme. Times Trade and Engin. 
(n. s.) 40(873, Northern Ireland Sect.): xxiv. Nov. 1936. 
286.8 T482 

The Milk and Milk Products Act (Northern Ireland), 
1934, brought both producers and distributors under a 
uniform system of control. This article deals with grad- 
ing, and the regulation of sanitation and prices. Prices to 
the producer, as well as retail prices, are fixed by the 
Joint Milk Council. Retail prices are subject to the ap- 
proval of the Ministry of Agriculture. 



18. BROWN, C. A. Problems arising from the basic- 
surplus milk marketing plan. Milk Plant Monthly 25(9): 
40, 42. Sept. 1936. 44.8 C864 

Discusses advantages and disadvantages of this plan, 
and gives factors which raise production costs. 

19. BROWN, E. F. Current trends in milk consump- 
tion; performance of the milk market in N. Y., Boston 
and Philadelphia. Ser. 2-4. New York, Milk Res. Coun- 
cil, 1936. 3 v. 281.344 M59C 

2nd series covers 1935; 3rd, Jan.-Apr. 1936; 4th, Apr.- 
July 1936. Fourth series contains "Note on the Trends in 
Rochester, New York." New York experienced a steady 
rise in total consumption until 1930. There is evidence 
that this represented a net gain in per capita consumption 
also. From the peak year, 1930, consumption dropped off 
rapidly to 1932, then more rapidly still to 1934, at which 
time a comparatively slight gain commenced. 
Boston, on the other hand, experienced increased milk 
consumption until 1931, and even in 1932 had a greater 
consumption than in 1930. After 1933 the consumption 
plummeted, reaching a low in 1933, showing a slight gain 
in 1934, then sinking again. Comparatively, Boston's 
consumption is still considerably above New York's. The 
trend in Philadelphia followed a middle course. Remain- 
ing level from 1929 to 1930, it sagged slightly in 1931, 
rapidly in 1932, then began to gain. Philadelphia is now 
appreciably ahead of both Boston and New York on the 
path" back to normal milk consumption. 

20. BROWN, H. L. Accounting and overhead. Proper 
accounting will give facts on motor vs. horse delivery 
costs. Milk Plant Monthly 25(3): 28-30; (4): 36-38; (5): 
32-34. Mar.-May 1936. 44.8 C864 

Results of the study show the motortruck to be the most 
economical and efficient means of delivering milk. 

21. CASKEY, W. Effects of seasonal milk production 
on marketing costs. Milk Dealer 25(6): 68, 70, 72. 
Mar. 1936. 44.8 M595 

Based on a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at 
the University of Illinois in 1936. Results of the study 
show that the use of the classified price plan in the New 
York mUkshed resulted in widening the seasonal produc- 
tion in the area, whereas the use of the basic -surplus 
8 Ian in the Philadelphia milkshed resulted in substan- 
lally narrowing seasonal production; also that a wide 
seasonal production lowers the average price to produc- 
ers and results in higher unit costs of country plant opera- 
tions. 

22. CASKEY, W. The relation of seasonal milk pro- 
duction to costs of production and marketing. 111. Farm 
Econ. 11: 54-55. Apr. 1936. 275.28 H5 

To bring about a more even seasonal production of milk 
is sound economically because it tends to produce a lower 
unit cost of production, lower total costs for maintaining 
high quality of a sufficient volume of milk to meet market 
requirements, lower transportation costs, and lower costs 
of maintaining milk-receiving stations. These aggregate 
reductions in costs would materially increase the incomes 
of dairymen producing for city markets without increased 
cost to the consumer. 

23. COHEN, R. L. The history of milk prices; an 
analysis of the factors affecting the prices of milk and 
milk products. Oxford, Agr. Econ. Res. Inst., 1936. 
205 p. 284.344 C66H 

"This study is an attempt to show, both analytically and 
statistically, the factors which have determined the prices 
and supplies of milk and milk products during the pre-war 
period of individual buying and selling, the period of war- 
time control, the post-war period of partially organized 
bargaining, and the period up to the end of 1934, when the 
Milk Marketing Scheme was in operation." 



24. CONFEDERAZIONE FASCISTA DEI LAVORATORI 
DELL'AGRICOLTURA. n lavoro agrtcolo nelle attivtta 
delle corporazioni; relazioni proposte e deliberazioni. 
Rome, S. A. Arte della stampa, 1938- 557 p. 

281.176 C762L 

Includes information on the dairy industry in Italy: pro- 
duction and production costs, consumption, prices, and 
commerce. 

25. CONNECTICUT MILK MARKETING PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE. Report. Sept. 28, 1936. 16 p. 
280.344 C762 

A study of price structure, distribution, production 
costs, and sanitary requirements. Recommendations for 
a milk plan. 

26. CONSUMERS' COMMITTEE FOR ENGLAND. Milk 
marketing scheme, 1933. London, 1934-36. 3 v. (18 p.) 
284.344 C76M1 

Shows trend of prices under the scheme. 

"27. CORBIN, C. L, ERWIN, R. E„ and FRANK, L. C. 
Interstate uniformity of milk laws and regulations. 
Internatl. Assoc. Dairy and Milk Insp. Ann. Rpt. (1935) 
24: 222-237. 1936. 44.9 In89 

Offers views for and against uniformity from the stand- 
points of scientists, municipalities of the same area, con- 
trol officials, the dairy farmer, and the distributor; 
states the case of the consumer and considers the possi- 
bility of realizing increased consumption through uni- 
formity. Discusses Public Health Service Standard Milk 
Ordinance in connection with such a program. 

Discussion, p. 237-247. 

28. COUNCIL OF STATE GOVERNMENTS. Milk con- 
trol hearing. Held in New York City, Feb. 1, 1936. 17 p. 
280.344 C83 

Discusses the milk control problem in the New York 
City region and proposals made for its solution. 

29. COWDEN, T. K., and FOUSE, E. G. The supply 
and utilization of milk in Pennsylvania. Pa. Agr. Expt. 
Sta. B. 327, 111 p. 1936. 100 P381 

Presents data on the quantity of milk handled and daily 
per capita sales; number of dealers and distributors, and* 
the volume of their sales; utilization of milk in manufac- 
tured products; ownership of milk plants; average pro- 
duction per farm; participation of farmer organizations in 
milk marketing; inspection of milk plants by health au- 
thorities; and interstate trade in milk. 

30. CREDICOTT, J. W. The cost of serving small 
dealers. Ice Cream Rev. 19(9): 37, 82, 84, 86, 88. Apr. 
1936. 389.8 Ic22 

The components of this cost are the cost of manufactur- 
ing the ice cream and the cost of the service, or the dis- 
tribution cost, which is more variable. The latter is 
studied in its four divisions: cabinet depreciation, cabinet 
maintenance, selling cost, and delivery and truck cost. 

31. CUNNINGHAM, L. C. Seasonal costs and returns 
in producing milk in Orange county, N. Y. N. Y. (Cornell)' 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 641, 41 p. Jan. 1936. 100 N48C 

Describes the dairy situation in 1930-31, and presents 
data on yearly costs and returns in producing milk, sea- 
sonal and monthly costs, and factors affecting costs and 
returns. 

32. CUNNINGHAM, L. C Seasonal variation in the 
cost of producing milk. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 97: 
2383-2384. Nov. 1936. 280.8 C812 

A study based on records of 437 dairy farms in four 
representative sections of New York State. The cost of 
producing 100 pounds of milk was found to vary from 54 
percent of the yearly average cost in June to 128 percent 
in January and February. Tables show seasonal variation 
(month by month) in the cost of producing milk and in the 
farm price of milk in New York, and the cost of produc- 
ing 100 pounds of milk by formula. 



33. CUNNINGHAM, L. C. Trends of the important 
costs of producing milk. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 95: 
2338-2339. May 1936. 280.8 C812 

In terms of the amounts of milk required to meet them, 
the trends of the important costs of producing milk from 
1900 to 1935 have been upward in the case of hired men's 
wages and of dairy cow prices, and downward in the case 
of grain and hay prices. 

34. DAIRY INDUSTRY COMMITTEE. Vital facts about 
a vital food. Washington, 1936. 24 p. 281.344 D142V 

Contains material on amount of fluid milk utilized for 
cheese, dry milk, evaporated milk, and ice cream. 

. DAVIS, E. M., and MORBECK, G. C. Test of woods 
Dutter containers with reference to imparting odor and 
flavor. U. S. D. A. Misc. P. 250, 4 p. 1936. I Ag84M 
The tests are described. Woods of 14 species are listed 
in order of freedom from imparting odor or flavor to 
butter as determined from the tests. 

36. DAWE, C. V., and BLUNDELL, J. E. The financial 
aspect of milk production. Bristol U. Dept. Agr. and 
Hort. B. 15, 17 p. 1936? 10 B775 

Costs and profits of 110 Bristol Province, England, 
dairy farms Oct. 1934-Sept. 1935. On a basis of 2,425,336 
gallons of milk a profit is shown which amounts to almost 
three farthings per gallon, or to 7.8 percent on costs. 

37. DAWE, C. V., and BLUNDELL, J. E. Winter feed- 
ing for milk production (an economic study). Bristol U. 
Dept. Agr. and Hort. B. 16, 55 p. 1936? 10 B775 

Based upon data collected from records of 133 herds, 
Oct. 1934-Mar. 1935. Studies winter feeding costs and 
endeavors to establish general principles which are valid 
for any winter. A statistical table showing food cost per 
cow per day and food cost per gallon is included. 

38. DEVAULT, S. H., and HAMILTON, A. B. Economic 
study of dairy farms in Maryland. Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. 
B. 405: 221-251. Oct. 1936. 100 M36S 

Records were obtained on 540 dairy farms in Maryland 
during 1931-33. About 90 percent of the records obtained 
in 1933 were for the same farms that were surveyed the 
first year. Farm organization and operation practices 
are reported, and incomes, costs and profits analyzed. 
Some of the factors that determine the efficiency of pro- 
duction and organization are evaluated to show how they 
affect farm profits. 

39. DIETZE, C. VON. Preispolitik in der weltagrar- 
krise. Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1936. 

248 p. Ref. 284.3 D56 

Considers prices and price plans for basic commodities, 
including dairy products, by country. 

40. DISCOUNT for cash illegal. Amer. Creamery 82: 
237. June 17, 1936. 286.85 N482 

New York State milk control officials ruled that a 2 per- 
cent discount on milk and cream bills, allowed the A. P. 
Company by certain dairies, was illegal. Because of the 
discount, the officials ruled, the A. P. Company was pur- 
chasing milk at prices lower than the minimums estab- 
lished by law and the official orders of the milk commis- 
sion. 

41. DDCEY, R. N. Milk: delivery to the station. Farm 
Econ. 2(2): 27-28. Apr. 1936. 281.8 F223 

A count made once every four years between 1924 and 
1936 at a railway station about 40 miles from London 
shows that the quantity of milk handled in 1936 was only 
about one-quarter of that in 1924, due to the competition 
of road transportation. 

42. DOAN, F. J. Sunlight causes "off-flavors" in milk 
and other dairy products. Penn StateFarmer 2: 67, 82. 
Dec. 1936. 276.8 P38 

Includes information on the degree of protection afforded 
by paper as against glass bottles, and the effect of colored 
containers on the development of these "off -flavors." 

43. DOUTHITT CORPORATION. Charting the course; 
a compendium history of the dry milk industry. Chicago, 
1936. 15 p. 44 D742 

Processes for drying skim- milk are described and po- 
tential uses for the product are discussed. 



44. DOW, G. .F. An economic study of milk production 
costs in herds of producer -distributors in Maine. Maine. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 385, 51 p. 1936. 100 M28S 

Information for this study was secured by the survey 
method and includes costs for the year ending April 30, 

1935. Records of 108 producers, who distribute all or 
part of their own milk supply in local markets, were stud- 
ied. The records include information from three areas, 
Portland, Bangor and Waterville. Milk production was 
higher for the Portland area. 

45. DUANE, M. Government regulation of prices in 
competitive business. Temple Law Q. 10: 262-271. May 

1936. 284.3 D85 

Cites judicial decisions respecting milk price-fixing 
laws in New York and Pennsylvania. 

46. ECKLES, C. H., COMBS, W. B., and MACY, H. 
Milk and milk products; prepared for the use of agricul- 
tural college students. Ed. 2. New York, McGraw-Hill, 
1936. 386 p. 44 Ec5M 

Chapters and sections discuss market milk, manufacture 
and marketing of butter and dried milk. 

47. FABIAN, F. W. New problems in ice cream sani- 
tation. Internatl. Assoc. Milk Sanit. Ann. Rpt. 25: 330- 
346. 1936. 44.9 In89 

Grading, and the regulation of sanitation in the manu- 
facture of ice cream. 

48.. FRANK, L. C. Coordination of American milk con- 
trol report. Internatl. Assoc. Dairy and Milk Insp. Rpt. 
1935: 9-17, 19-21. 1936. 44.9 In89 

Coordination of control efforts is needed to solve the two 
principal milk problems which confront the industry: 
1. The production of more milk than can be sold at a prof- 
itable price, and 2. The sale of milk of inferior quality. 
These problems are closely related and production of 
quality milk in accordance with the Public Health Service 
plan would help solve them. 

Discussion, by J. R. Jennings, S. V. Layson, and W. B. 
Palmer, p. 21-27. 

49. GAUMNITZ, E. W., REED, O. M., and STECK, L. J. 
An analysis of the possibilities of increasing returns to 
dairy farmers through the subsidization of exports of but- 
ter from the United States. U. S. Agr. Adjustment Admin. 
Paper (Dairy Foreign Trade Ser.) 1, 28 p. 1936. Ref. 
1.94 D14Pfo 

World trade barriers in relation to butter are discussed 
and the encouragement of exports of butter by foreign 
countries is commented upon. Concludes that the exporta- 
tion of a substantial quantity of butter would have the ef- 
fect of increasing domestic prices to such a degree that 
returns to producers from a given volume of production 
would be greater, assuming that foreign markets could be 
developed. 

50. GAUMNITZ, E. W., and STECK, L. J. Possibilities 
of increasing exports of dry skim milk from the United 
States. U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin. Paper (Dairy Foreign 
Trade Ser.) 2, 16 p. 1936. 1.94 D14Pfo 

The factors involved in a program pointing towards the 
exportation of dry skim milk from the United States 
through the payment of bounties to exporters are analyzed. 
Because of limited markets and import restructions, ex- 
pansion of exports through subsidies would be difficult. 

51. GAUMNITZ, E. W., and REED, O. M. The price 
structure for milk. U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin. Tech. 
Paper 1, 81 p. . 1936? 1.94 D14Tec 

Discusses the situation for the country as a whole and 
within a milkshed, and the utilization of milk in a market 
as influenced by the demand. 

52. GAUMNITZ, E. W. The status of the Agricultural 
Adjustment programs with respect to the dairy industry. 
Dry Milk Indus. Ann. Mtg. Proc. 3: 35-45. Apr. 16, 1936. 
44.9 D84 

Discusses the effect of recent court decisions on the 
operation of the marketing agreements, with special ref- 
erence to the dry skim milk industry. 

54. GOLDSMITH, I. B., and WINKS, G. W. Price fixing: 
from Nebbia to Guffey. 111. Law Rev. 31(2): 179-201. 
June 1936. 284.3 G572 

An examination and discussion of several Supreme Court 
decisions in cases regarding price fixing. A favorable de- 
cision by the Court in the Nebbia v. New York case per- 
mitted regulation of milk prices by the State of New York. 



55. GT. BRIT. COMMITTEE OF INVESTIGATION. 
Milk marketing scheme. Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. J. 43(3): 
219-225. June 1936. 10 G79J 

Recommendations on the average wholesale price of 
milk sold for liquid consumption; on the minimum retail 
prices; on means to effect substantial reductions in dis- 
tributive costs; and on the price of milk for manufacture 
into butter. 

56. GT. BRIT. MILK MARKETING BOARD. Amend- 
ment of milk marketing scheme, 1933. London, 1936. 
42 p. 280.344 G794 

These proposed amendments to the Scheme relate to 
depot transport charges and deductions, contributions by 
producer-retailers, election procedure; abolition of ex- 
emption of wholesale producers having four cows or less, 
and procedure for revocation of the scheme. ^ 

57. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Arrangements under the milk acts, 1934 
and 1936, for increasing the demand for milk within the 
area of the Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales 
by publicity and propaganda. London, H. M. Stationery 
Off., 1936. 3 p. 280.344 G792Ar 

Outlines a campaign to stimulate the consumption of 
milk. Cost of the campaign is estimated at £60,000. 

58. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Report of the Committee of Investigation for 
England on complaints made by the Central Milk Distribu- 
tive Committee and the Parliamentary Committee of the 
Co-operative Congress as to the operation of the Milk 
Marketing Scheme, 1933. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 
1936. 93 p. 280.344 G7922 

Complaints regarding reduction in the transit risk allow- 
ance and the prices for milk utilized for manufacture and 
for liquid consumption established by the Milk Marketing 
Board for the contract period, 1935-1936. 

59. GT. BRIT. SCOTTISH OFFICE. Arrangements 
under section H of the Milk Act, 1934... for increasing the 
demand for milk by the supply of milk at reduced rates in 
schools within the area of the Aberdeen and District Milk 
Marketing Scheme, 1933. Edinburgh, H. M. Stationery 
Off., 1936. 4 p. 280.344 G793 

Milk is to be supplied at the price of one half penny per 
third of a pint. 

60. *GT. BRIT. SCOTTISH OFFICE. COMMITTEE OF 
INVESTIGATION FOR SCOTLAND. Report... on com- 
plaint made by representatives of milk distributors on the 
Permanent Joint Committee appointed under the scheme 
as to the operation of the Scottish Milk Marketing Scheme 
1933. London, 1936. 16 p. 280.344 G7932 

61. GREENE, H. T. Milk kept fresh 42 days by vacuum 
packing. Food Indus. 8(7): 328-329. July 1936. 

389.8 F737 

A system whereby the air in the top of the filled bottle 
is replaced with dry steam just before a gasketed metal 
cap is pressed on to assure closing of the bottle mouth. 

62. GUILD, H. C. Paklce— saving money in the ice de- 
partment. Internatl. Assoc. Milk Dealers. Plant Sect. 
Proc. 29: 46-51. Oct. 12-14, 1936. 44.9 In8 

Considers the use of the ice in dairies, and the cost of 
making compared with purchasing it. 

63. HALE, R. W. Milk-production costs at the Agri- 
cultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland, Gt. Brit. 
Min. Agr. J. 43: 768-776. Nov. 1936. 10 G79J 

Includes tables giving average prime costs per cow, and 
average prime costs per gallon of milk produced, 1928-29 
through 1935-36. 

64. HALF and half milk. Business Week 356: 27-28. 
June 27, 1936. 280.8 Sy8 

Concentrated fresh milk carrying a minimum of 7.8 per- 
cent butterfat and 25.5 percent total solids is sold in Ohio 
at 8 c. a pt., with pasteurized milk selling at 10 c. or more 
a qt. Profits apparently depend on the dairy's having vac- 
uum pans available without extra investment and on the 
use of milk brought at the surplus price to the farmer. 



65. HAMILTON, W. A. The milk supply of London. 
South. Austral. Dept. Agr. J. 39: 1421-1431. July 1936. 
23 So84 

The Milk Marketing Scheme is seen to provide for unity 
of control, improvement in prices to the producer and dis 
tributor and in the quality of milk, more reasonable hours 
of labor in production, more rational distribution, and 
greater extension of the supply of milk. Disadvantages 
noted are the danger of overproduction caused by a fixed 
price, the fact that farmers are neglecting other forms of 
produce for the more profitable one of milk, and the Gov- 
ernment subsidy which maybe regarded by the industry as 
an essential for all time. 

66. HERRMANN, L. F., STELZER, R. O., and BOWLING, 
G. A. Milk-production costs in West Virginia: I. A study 
of the costs incurred by 51 farms in the Morgantown and 
Fairmont markets in 1934-1935. W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. 
B. 268, 32 p. 1936. 100 W52 

The total cost of producing 100 lbs. of 4 percent milk 
was $2.15 in the Morgantown market and $2.14 in the 
Fairmont market. Feed was the largest item of expense 
with labor costs next in importance. 

67. HINE, G. S. Kansas cream quality campaign. 
Kans. State Bd. Agr. Rpt. 55(217A): 93-97. Mar. 1936. 
2 K13Re 

The Food and Drug Administration of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture provided impetus for this campaign, 
inaugurated January 1, 1935. The organization behind it 
consists of an executive board and ten district chairmen 
with county committees for each county. One can out of 
every twelve inspected was condemned on the first govern- 
ment inspection as unfit for food purposes. Various regu- 
latory factors are discussed. 

68. HITCHCOCK, J. A., and WILLIAMS, S. W. Studies 
in Vermont dairy farming. The Champlain Valley during a 
major depression. Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 405, 24 p. 
July 1936. 100 V59 

Discusses production per cow, labor efficiency, type of 
market (grade A or grade B), and size of business in rela- 
tion to returns for the year 1932-33. 

69. HOLMAN, C. W. Present day problems of dairy 
farmers. . Natl. Coop. Milk \ rod. Fed. Ed. Ser. 6, 28 p. 
1936. 281.3449 N21 

Deals with the effect upon dairy farmers of Government 
foreign trade policy as exemplified in reciprocal trade 
agreements, the problem of butter surpluses and butter 
substitutes, and the expansion of dairying under the new 
soil conservation program. 

70. HOMOGENIZED milk-a true "child" of the past 25 
years gains earned recognition. Milk Dealer 26(3): 64. 
Dec. 1936. 44.8 M595 

Consumer preference in the United States and Canada. 

71. HOPPER, W. C. Charge account records of pur- 
chases of cheese by 92 families in the cities of Oshawa 
and Montreal. Sci. Agr. 17: 162-163. Nov. 1936. 

7 Sci2 

The per capita consumption during 1935 of 150 indivi- 
duals in 50 Oshawa families was 6.9 pounds of all types of 
cheese. In Montreal, for 214 individuals in 42 families, 
it was 5.6 pounds. However, these figures do not accurate- 
ly reflect the average consumption of cheese for either 
city as a whole, since the majority of the families whose 
charge accounts were examined had medium or high in- 
comes. Monthly sales of cheese for the same year to the 
50 Oshawa families are also shown. 

72. HORN, D.-'W. Ice cream contamination by dippers 
in retail stores. Internatl. Assoc. Dairy and Milk Insps. 
Ann. Rpt. 1935: 249-252, 254-256. 1936. 44.9 In89 

Also in Milk Insp. 5(8): 21-23. Aug. 1936. 44.8 M5929 
Results of bacterial counts from samples taken in Dela- 
ware County, Pa., by a health officer, 1929-1935. Deals 
in part with function of Board of Health. 



*Not examined. 



73. HUDSON, S. C. A classification and summary of 
research projects in dairy marketing, including a classi- 
fied list of research projects in the marketing of dairy 
products in the United States and Canada. Ithaca, N. Y., 
Cornell Col. Agr., Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm Mgt, 1936. 
33 p. 280.344 C81 

The introductory part of this publication appears also in 
J. Farm Econ. 18: 320-329. May 1936. 280.8 J822 

A classified list of 240 projects in progress or com- 
pleted, with introductory analysis including agencies en- 
gaged in such research, distribution of projects by areas, 
and number of pages, figures, etc. in published studies. 

74. JACKSON, C. J., HOWAT, G. R., and HOAR, T. P. 
Discoloration and corrosion in canned cream. J. Dairy 
Res. 7(3): 284-290. Sept. 1936. 44.8 J823 

Investigation initiated by "defects in canned cream which 
must be considered as a potential source of danger to the 
cream-canning industry. The defects are discoloration of 
the can and, what is more serious, of the contents." 

75. JACOBSON. M. S. Butterfat and total solids in New 
England farmers milk as delivered to processing plants. 
J. Dairy Sci. 19: 171-176. Mar. 1936. 44.8 J822 

Results of analysis over a 16-month period of more 
than 100,000 samples of milk from Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island producers. Samples represented all breeds and 
grades of cows. 

76. JEANNENEY, J. M. Essai sur les mouvements 
des prix en France depuis la stabilisation monetaire 
(1927-1935). Paris, Librairie du Recueil Sirey, 1936. 
257 p. (Etudes economiques publiees sous la direction de 
M. Gaetan Pirou... t. 1) 284.3 J34 

Includes a study of price movements of milk, butter and 
cheese, p. 95-174. 

77. JESNESS, O. B., WAITE, W. C, and QUINTUS, 

P. E. Twin City milk market. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 
331, 24 p. July 1936. 100 M66 

Retail prices of milk, Minneapolis and St. Paul, 1919- 
1935; distributors' spread on the basis of 3.5 percent milk 
annual averages 1919-1935; and distribution costs per 
unit of product, 1929-1933 are included. 

78. KAHLER, K. M. A study of the control of butterfat 
testing. Columbus, Ohio State U., 1936. 13 p. 44 K12 

Describes the control of testing in Columbus and Dayton, 
Ohio, and gives extracts from regulations in California, 
New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Indiana. Suggests 
provisions of a testing law for Ohio. 

79. "KILLING two birds with one stone" with combina- 
tion truck. Ice Cream Rev. 20(2): 31. Sept. 1936. 
389.8 Ic22 

The truck is arranged in two compartments with suita- 
ble temperatures for milk and butter in one, and ice 
cream in the other. Refrigeration costs of the truck and 
a similar one described are half or less than formerly. 

80. LAYSON, S. V. Experiences of milk dealers with 
homogenized milk. Milk Plant Monthly 25(11): 23-27. 
Dec. 1936. Ref. 44.8 C864 

Results of a survey of 16 pasteurization plant operators 
in Illinois, show that consumers generally prefer it to 
regular milk and that sales of cream increase where 
homogenized milk is handled. 

81. LAYSON, S. V., HUFFER, E. G., and BRANNON, 

J. M. Results of bacteriological survey of milk jugs and 
milk bottles. Milk Plant Monthly 25(2): 34-36, 90. Feb. 
1936. 44.8 C864 
Report on tests made at a number of Illinois plants. 

82. LEFEBURE, R. Scientific feeding, stable labor 
control reduce horse route costs. Milk Dealer 25(4): 40- 
41. Jan. 1936. 44.8 M595 

Horse costs have dropped approximately $4.00 per 
route per month according to a study made by the Horse 
and Mule Association of America. 

83. LOUWES, S. L. Measures taken by the Dutch Gov- 
ernment in connection with the agricultural crisis. 
Amsterdamsche Bank, n. v., Statis. Dept. Financ. & Econ. 
Rev. 48: 1-8. July 1936. 280.9 Am7 

Deals in part with the scheme to keep up the prices of 
dairy products, involving a system of levies out of which 
a subsidy is paid to the farmer. 



84. MCDOWALL, F, H. The cheese yielding capacity 
of milk, and its relation to the method of payment for milk 
for cheesemaking. New Zeal. J. Sci. and Technol. 18(3):. 
137-364. Aug. 1936. Ref. 514 N48 

Yield of cheese is not directly proportional to the fat 
content of the milk: Three systems of payment are 
studied and compared. Payment on the cheese test de- 
rived from the casein/fat ratio in the milk is preferred. 
Details of this system and the general implications of its 
adoption are outlined. 

85. MACK, M. J. Dairying observations in Sweden. 
Hoard's Dairyman 81: 58-59. Feb. 10, 1936. 44.8 H65 

Compares conditions in that country with those in the 
United States. Points out that dairying in Sweden has 
reached a sound and stable position due to national con- 
trol and subsidizing of export butter and cheese. 

86. MACKLIN, T. Developments under California fluid 
milk and cream stabilization act. Pacific Rural Press 
132(19): 525. Nov. 7, 1936. 6 P112 

Explains provisions of the law under which producers of 
fluid milk in seven marketing areas have taken steps to 
develop stabilization and marketing plans. 

87. MACKLIN, T., KUHRT, W. J., and VEHLOW, E. L. 
Regulating the marketing of farm products by State author- 
ity. Calif. Dept Agr. Monthly B. 25: 295-340. July- 
Sept. 1936. 2 C12M 

Reports developments under the State fluid milk and 
cream stablization and marketing law of 1935. 

88. MANHART, V. C. Effect of a milk plant quality 
program on the price paid to producers for milk. Ind. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 404, 12 p. Mar. 1936. 100 In2P 

A study of a milk quality program in an Indiana milk 
plant to determine the equitableness of the program to the 
producers. Grading and costs are included. 

89. MANHART, V. C„ and MOORE, A. V. Milk quality 
improvement effected at the farm by a plant program. 
Ind. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 405, 16 p. Mar. 1936. 100 In2P 

A simple, inexpensive milk quality program requiring no 
skilled technician or special laboratory was put into effect 
by an Indiana dairy plant. Milk pruchases were made on 
the basis of three grades— premium, regular and low— as 
determined by flavor, methylene blue and sediment tests. 
Benefits were: (1) The milk plant received a better quality 
milk which, when sold as fluid milk, commanded a price 
of more than lea qt. higher than the prevailing price for 
pasteurized milk in the same market; (2) the consumer 
received a safe, good quality milk; (3) the producer of 
premium milk received a premium of about 4.5 c. per lb. 
milk fat which represented an increase of more than 17 
percent over the prevailing price paid in the territory. 

90. MASSACHUSETTS. MILK CONTROL BOARD. Sum- 
mary report on cost of distributing milk in the Boston 
market. Boston, Rittenhouse, 1936. 204 p. 

280.344 M383 

An exhaustive analysis of data on dealers' spreads and 
the relative costs of the principal methods of distributing 
cream and milk to consumers. 

91. MATTHEWS, H. T. The Accredited Milk Scheme in 
operation. Roy. Sanit. Inst. J. 57: 231-236. Oct 1936. 
449.9 R812 

In less than a year's operation of the Accredited Milk 
Scheme, the volume of accredited milk produced is very 
nearly one-third of the whole, and 10 percent of aU pro- 
ducers are accredited. These are paid a bonus of 1 d. per 
gal. derived from levies paid by themselves and all other 
producers. The scheme is under the jurisdiction of the 
Milk Marketing Board of Great Britain. 

Discussion, p. 236-244. 

92. MEADE, D., and MEAD, R. K. Sale of dairy prod- 
ucts at roadside markets in Maryland. Md. Agr. Expt. 
Sta. B. 394: 595-626. Mar. 1936. 100 M36S 

A survey of 13 dairy roadside markets made during the 
summer of 1934. Factors such as weather, time of day, 
direction of traffic, qualities of products that appeal, and 
prices are considered in relation to sales. 



93. MILK hearing at Albany. Amer. Creamery 82: 654- 
655. Sept. 13, 1936. 286.85 N482 

Report of a meeting to consider various changes in the 
present method of milk control in New York State. Ques- 
tions considered were: 1, price return to the producer; 2, 
method of pricing, with especial reference to the milk 
price classification plan; and 3, control of prices to con- 
sumer. 

94. MISNER, E. G. Cycles of the numbers of cattle and 
of the prices of dairy products. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm 
Econ. 93: 2278-2279. Feb. 1936. 280.8 C812 

Cycles for the period 1921-1935 of the prices received 
by New York farmers for 3.7 percent milk in the 201-210- 
mile freight zone, of the wholesale price of 92 score but- 
ter at New York City, and of the number of all cattle on 
farms in the United States and of dairy cows and heifers 
on farms in New York, show that milk and butter prices 
deviated from their trends inversely to numbers of cattle. 
The price of butter rose and fell slightly ahead of the 
price of milk. 

95. MOFFITT, E. L. The cost of producing milk. 
Penn State Farmer 2: 70, 82. Dec. r936. 276.8 F38 

The importance of feed as a cost factor in relation to 
constant costs. 

96. MORTENSEN, M. Standardization of butter and the 
value of graphic chart. Wash. State Col. Inst. Dairying. 
Proc. 9: 26-35. Mar. 1936. 44.9 W27 

Analyses by the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station of 
samples of butter from 88 creameries. 

97. MORTENSON, W. P. Distribution of milk under 
public utility regulation. Amer. Econ. Rev. 26: 23-40. 
Mar. 1936. 280.8 Am32 

A study of distributors' margins, the effect of a reduc- 
tion of distributors' margins on prices paid farmers, 
profits and salaries, developments leading to present in- 
efficiencies, experiences in public control, and legal and 
economic features of public control. 

98. MUNN, M. D. Increasing the use of dairy products. 
Hoard's Dairyman 81: 236. May 10, 1936. 44.8 H65 

Present daily milk consumption is 1 1/2 qts per family 
of five. For an optimum diet it should be 4 qts. and some 
of the total should be taken in the form of milk products. 
Increases in yearly production of dairy products needed to 
meet this nutritional goal are shown. 

99. NATIONAL DAIRY COUNCIL. What is "quality" 
milk? Hoard's Dairyman 81: 343. July 10, 1936. 
44.8 H65 

To summarize: 1, Certified milk is so designated by 
medical milk commissions which establish optional stand- 
ards for care of cows, for handling the milk, and for the 
bacterial content of milk; 2, The American Association of 
Medical Commissions has agreed to permit producers of 
certified milk to pasteurize their milk under certain con- 
ditions; 3, I asteurization does not affect unfavorably the 
nutritive constituents present in milk. 

100. NEVOT, A. La loi du 2 juillet 1935 sur l'assainis- 
sement des marches du lait. Lait 16: 383-389. Apr. 
1936. 44.8 L143 

Discusses the application of this French law to the sani- 
tary control of milk production, processing, and distribu- 
tion. 

101. NEW RAIL-TRUCK containers permit rapid trans- 
fer, save handling costs. Food Indus. 8: 113-114. Mar. 
1936. 389.8 F737 

Savings. in operations such as cleaning the tanks, pump- 
ing, and actual transfer of milk are realized. 

102. NOVA SCOTIA ECONOMIC COUNCIL. Marketing 
of fluid milk in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Econ. Council. 
Rpt 1: 14-16. 1936. 280.9 N85 

Recommends the establishment by the Provincial Gov- 
ernment of a board of control for the provincial milk 
trade. "This Board would have two functions: 1. Close 
inspection by full time inspectors. 2. Regulation of the 
price structure to adjust prices and qualities, and to re- 
move uneconomic and unfair practices as they affect 
farmers, distributors and consumers. The legislation 
towards this end would incorporate that in the Health Act 
and in the Milk and Cream P roducers Protective Act, and 
would establish the machinery to make the control effec- 
tive." 



103. NOYES, H. V. Report on milk marketing. Hol- 
stein-Friesian World 33: 509, 520, 522. June 13, 1936. 
43.8 H742 

This report, on work of the Holstein-Friesian Associa- 
tion of America, notes the need for uniformity in state 
dairy legislation. Also notes that since butterfat content 
is generally recognized as the measure of value when 
milk is sold by the farmer, some way should be found to 
apply the same measure when it is sold at retail. "The 
ideal arrangement would be to have every bottle of milk 
labelled showing the fat content and the price graded ac- 
cording to such content." " 

104. ODELL, E. A. Swiss cheese industry. Monroe, 
Wis., 1936. 88 p. 44 Od2 

Discusses the origin and development of the industry in 
Green County, Wis., centering in Monroe, and gives in- 
formation on leading producers and interests. 

105. PALMER, J. T. Some effects of maintaining retail 
prices of whole milk at artificial levels. J. Farm Econ. 
18: 759-761. Nov. 1936. 280.8 J822 

Abstract of thesis (Fh.D)— University of Illinois. 

A study to determine the extent to which retail prices of 
whole milk in Boston, Chicago, New York City, Connecti- 
cut and the United States had been maintained at artificial 
levels from 1913 to 1935 and the effect of such control on 
the consumption of whole milk. High retail prices of 
whole milk in addition to causing increased consumption 
of canned milk and tending to reduce more milk sales, 
have encouraged new distributing agencies to enter a milk 
market. In the smaller markets, high retail prices have 
been accompanied by an increase in the number of pro- 
ducer-distributors. 

106. PARSONS, M. S. Changes in the seasonal variation 
of milk prices and milk production. N. Y. Agr. Col. 
Farm Econ. 98: 2398-2400. Dec. 1938. 280.8 C812 

A study of the causes of shifts in seasonality of New 
York State milk prices and production. From a short- 
time point of view, price changes have their greatest ef- 
fect on later production in from two to eight months, and 
explain as high as 50 percent of production changes. 

107. PETTIT, G. H. N. Food costs in milk production. 
Farmer & Stock-Breeder 50: 643. Mar. 16, 1936. 

10 F228 

Records collected by the Cambridge School of Agricul- 
ture from a group of English dairy farmers show feed 
costs to represent twice the cost of labor and four times 
the cost of herd depreciation. Indicates how these costs 
may be minimized without impairing cow nutrition and 
therefore milk yield. 

108. PETTIT, G. H. N. Labour costs in milk production. 
Farmer & Stock-Breeder 50: 1011. Apr. 27, 1936. 

10 F228 

Shows how labor costs in producing milk may be as high 
as 5 3/4 d. per gal. or as low as 1 3/4 d. 

109. FIERCE, C. W. Sharing of surplus milk among 
producers and dealers In the New York milk shed. N. Y. 
Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 97: 2380-2383. Nov. 1936. 

280.8 C812 

Differences in returns are due not only to variations in 
the proportions of fluid sales and surplus, but also to the 
methods of utilizing surplus milk. In general, the highest 
returns for surplus milk are realized for that used in the 
manufacture of evaporated milk; the lowest returns, for 
milk used in the manufacture of butter. On the basis of 
class prices established by the New York Division of Milk 
Control, the metropolitan distributors made the best use 
of surplus milk. 

110. POST, J. W. Standardization of "field" grade 
cream. Amer. Creamery 82: 44, 46, 48. May 13, 1936. 
286.85 N482 

"Field" grading on a true interpretation of State defini- 
tions of No. 1 and No. 2 cream; inconsistencies in grading 
according to these definitions; how correcting them can 
result in an economic saving. 



111. PRENTICE, E. P. Daily milk delivery. Hoard's 
Dairyman 81: 55, 74-75, 87, 97. Feb. 10-25, 1936. 
44.8 H65 

An historical account of the fluid milk trade is given, 
and the importance of the railroads in the development of 
the trade is pointed out. Concludes that there is no over- 
production and that the market for milk should be in- 
creased through a reduction in the retail price of milk. 

112. PRENTICE, E. P. Farming for famine. New 
York, Doubleday, Doran, 1936. 146 p. 281.12 P91 

Ch. n, "The milk industry, its history and present prob- 
lems," deals in part with prices and returns. 

113. PYLE, J. F. Marketing principles, organization 
and policies. Rev. ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1936. 
783 p. Ref. 280.3 P99 

Ch. 11, Marketing agricultural products— milk. 

114. RAEBURN, J. R. Economic studies of dairy farm- 
ing in New York. XII. 150 farms in the Tully-Homer area, 
crop year 1931. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 644, 
53 p. Mar. 1936. 100 N48C 

Includes study of costs and returns in milk production, 
and of factors affecting these costs and returns. 

115. RANDELL, H. H. Theory of cream grading. Agr. 
Gaz. N. S. Wales 47: 529-531. Sept. 1936. 23 N472 

Classification of cream into quality grades, based on 
flavor and aroma determinations, is the basis of the pres- 
ent cream grading systems. The grades and representa- 
tive scale of points used are designated. Absorbed and 
chemical flavors and flavors due to bacteria, yeasts or 
molds are off -flavors specifically discussed. 

116. RIDDELL, W. H. Are special milks justified? 
Hoard's Dairyman 81: 69. Feb. 10, 1936. 44.8 H65 

Objects to the marketing of special milks, such as vita- 
min D, soft curd, irradiated, etc. Such special milks give 
the consumer the impression that regular milk is lacking 
in important food properties. Milk is a near perfect food 
and should remain the normal product of healthy cows. 

117. RILEY, H. W. A economic comparison of different 
methods of milk cooling. N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy and 
Milk Insp. Proc. 14: 21. 1936. 44.9 N4833 

A discussion of the cooling of milk in 40 qt. cans by well 
water, ice, and mechanical refrigeration, with costs. 

118. RINEAR, E. H., and MOORE, H. C. Maintenance of 
grade A milk. N. H. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 291, 24 p. Mar. 
1936. 100 N45 

A survey of 82 grade A and 20 grade B producers ship- 
ping milk to Boston through the Pattee receiving station at 
West Canaan, N. H. In summer fewer grade A producers 
kept their bacteria counts under 10,000 than at any other 
time of year. Premium rates were the highest during 
that season. Premiums are compared for 1931-33. 

119. ROGERS, L. A. The dairy by-products problem. 
Wash. State Col. Inst. Dairying. Proc. 9: 47-53. Mar. 
1936. 44.9 W27 

A discussion of problems with respect to skim milk, 
juttermilk and whey. 

120. ROGERS, L. A. Problems of the fluid milk indus- 
try. Wash. State Col. Inst. Dairying. Proc. 9: 120-129. 
Mar. 1936. 44.9 W27 

Includes problems of distribution. 

121. ROSS, H. A. Marketing research needs of the dairy 
industry. J. Farm Econ. 18: 363-368. May 1936. 

280.8 J822 

Dairy marketing research studies are classified as 
those which make available, for the use of all, informa- 
tion that is already known to a part of the industry, and 
those which discover new facts and principles hitherto un- 
known. The second category is found more significant, 
and problems of production, milk prices, price forecast- 
ing, and consumption are suggested for investigation. 



122. SCHAARS, M. A. Secure data on retailers' mar- 

fins in handling cheese. Wis. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 435: 135- 
36. Mar. 1936. 100 W75 

Margins for the different kinds of cheese are very simi- 
lar, with little variation in different sections of the coun- 
try. For eight out of 11 kinds of cheese, the average re- 
tail margin was approximately 27 percent. A slightly 
higher margin (usually 1 to 2 percent greater) was 
charged by stores granting credit than by those operating 
on a cash basis. Specialty stores, such as delicatessens, 
usually charged higher margins than meat and grocery 
stores. Margins on processed cheese were about the 
same as those on the natural type. 

123. SCHOEN, A. Le marche agricole francais et les 
interventions de l'etat. Paris, 1936. 358 p." 280.3 Sch6 

These.— Paris. 

Sect. 5 deals in part with governmental regulation of 
milk and milk products, and with the results thereof. 

124. SCOTLAND. DEPT. OF HEALTH. Explanatory 
memorandum on the sale of milk under special designa- 
tions. Edinburgh, 1936. 8 p. 44 Sco33E 

Defines the following grades of milk: certified, tubercu- 
lin tested, standard, and pasteurized. 

1 25. SEXAUER, F. H. Presentation to meeting of farm 
organizations of four States. New York? 1936. 15 p. 
281.344 Se9 

Considers the form, administration and effectiveness of 
regulatory milk legislation in the New York milkshed. 
The problem is resolve.d into one affecting the intrastate 
market and production areas on the one hand and the inter- 
state market and production areas on the other. 

126. SILCOX, W. B. Some economic aspects of the 
cheese industry in Minnesota. Minn. U. Divs. Agr. Econ. 
and Agr. Ext. Farm Business Notes 165: 1-3. Sept. 20, 
1936. 275.29 M663 

A survey of the operations of 20 cheese factories located 
in Dodge, Goodhue, and Olmsted counties. Discusses busi- 
ness organization, marketing facilities, prices paid pro- 
ducers in comparison with creamery returns, and the 
volume of business. Points to the effect of the size of the 
plant on the cost of manufacturing cheese and on returns. 

127. SIMPLIFIED containers for dairy products. Food 
Indus. 8(4): 181-182. Apr. 1936. 389.8 F737 

Work of the Division of Simplified Practice, U. S. Bu- 
reau of Standards, in collaboration with food and con- 
tainers manufacturers and others interested in the pro- 
mulgation of simplified practice recommendations cover- 
ing details of specifications such as dimensions, capaci- 
ties, and similar basic factors in container design— a 
result of the passage of the United States Container Act 
in 1916. 

128. SORENSON, H., and CASSELS, J. M. English milk 
market. Quart. J. Econ. 50: 275-296. Feb. 1936. 

280.8 Q2 

Discusses the English Milk Marketing Scheme with re- 
gard to effects on producers, consumers, and distributors, 
gains of different producer groups, problems of produc- 
tion control, and consumption and marketing. Comparison 
is made with the A. A. A. dairy program. 

129. SOUTH DAKOTA. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION. Cost of delivering milk in small cities with 
different types of conveyances. S. D. Agr. Expt. Sta. 
Ann. Rpt. 1936: 20. 100 So82 

Indicates that delivery by truck is cheaper than by horse- 
drawn wagon where the route extends over five or more 
miles. 

130. SPENCER, L. The changing picture of fluid milk 
marketing. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 143, 15 p. Nov. 1936. 

281.9 C81 

Studies price relationships, consumption, methods of 
distribution, and public control of milk prices. 



10 



131. SPENCER, L. Research in costs of distributing 
milk. J. Farm Econ. 18: 338-351. May 1936. 

280.8 J822 

Discusses the plan and procedure for conducting studies 
of milk distribution costs and profits. Considers the 
scope of each project, selection of business units, access 
to data, physical units of product and cost, verification of 
records, problems projected when more than one corpora- 
tion is involved in a single business, debatable items, and 
allocations of costs. Gives data and illustrations of sev- 
eral items of cost and their treatment. 

132. SPENCER, L. Spread between farm and retail 
prices for milk. Hoard's Dairyman 81: 114, 134-135; 
176, 192-193. Mar. 10, Apr. 10, 1936. 44.8 H65 

Discusses the subject in relation to dealers' cost and 
profits. 

133. SPENCER, L. Use of paper milk bottles. Amer. 
Creamery 82: 252-253. June 25, 1936. 286.85 N482 

Tells of the use of paper bottles for milk since they 
were first used commercially in New York in 1929, and 
discusses the advantages and disadvantages of their use. 

134. STANLEY, L. Consumer acceptance of dry milk 
solids. Amer. Dry Milk Inst. Proc. Ann. Mtg. 11: 54-60. 
1936. 44.9 Am35 

Discusses consumer attitude toward dried skimmed 
milk, as revealed through relief distribution of the prod- 
uct and through regional surveys. 

135. STATE regulation of bottled, homogenized milk. 
Milk Dealer 25(8): 36-37. May 1936. 44.8 M595 

Of those surveyed, 15 States had no laws or regulations 
governing homogenized milk; in 18 States and the District 
of Columbia, its sale was or would be permitted upon 
proper labeling; no question of the legality of such sales 
had come up in two States; and in four States the homoge- 
nization of whole milk was not permitted. 

136. STEPHENS, F. B. The processing and marketing 
of dairy produce. In Institute of Pacific Relations. New 
Zealand Br. Agricultural organization in New Zealand, 
p. 648-689. Melbourne, Melbourne U. Press, 1936. 
818 p. 281.1993 B41 

Includes material on utilization of butterfat; prices and 
price trends of butter and cheese, 1922-1931; prices of 
butter and cheese, in relation to quality, season 1929-30 
and 1933-1934; and costs of butter and cheese manufac- 
ture, 1925-1934. 

137. STIRITZ, B. A. Responsibility of the station oper- 
ator in the grading of cream. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 
27: 8. Mar. 25, 1936. 286.85 B98Bu 

Also in Amer. Creamery 81: 840, 842. Apr. 8, 1936. 
286.85 N482 

The success of cream grading or improvement plans is 
linked up with the factors of production, procurement, 
transportation, and processing. The higher price paid the 
producer by the station operator for better cream deter- 
mines to what extent such a program can be economically 
justified. How the station operator can be influential in 
maintaining the quality of the cream after it leaves the 
producer is shown. 

138. STITTS, T. G. Truck route procurement of cream. 
Amer. Creamery and Poultry Prod. Rev. 83: 62-65. Nov. 
11, 1936. 286.85 N482 

Finds that better control of hauling by the creamery is 
essential to economical operation and quality maintenance 

139. TAYLOR, C. C. The British import control of 
milk products. Foreign Crops and Markets 32: 10-13. 
Jan. 6, 1936. 1.9 St2F 

Shows reduction in permitted imports of milk products 
(chiefly condensed and dried milk), June 1933-March 1936. 
The import limitations have been designed to raise the 
value of the domestic milk not sold as market milk, and 
to further develop the milk manufacturing industry in 
Great Britain. 

140. TAYLOR, C. C. British Milk Marketing Scheme.. 
Foreign Crops and Markets 33: 634-640. Nov. 23, 1936. 
1.9 St2F 

Description of the six marketing schemes set up under 
the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Acts of 1931 
and 1933 for various areas in the United Kingdom. 



141. TAYLOR, C. C. Trends in British agricultural 
policy. Foreign Crops, and Markets 33:459-465. Oct. 
19, 1936. 1.9 St2F 

Contains account of operation of Milk Marketing Scheme. 

142. TEN EYCK, P. G., and B1DDLE, F. The milk con- 
tainer controversy. Amer. Creamery 82: 254-257. June 
24, 1936. 286.85 N482 

The New York Supreme Court decided against the New 
York Milk Control Board in a case regarding the price of 
milk sold in paper containers in New York. Statements 
and brief presented to the Court are given. 

143. THOMSEN, F. L. Agricultural prices. New York, 
McGraw-Hill, 1936. 471 p. 284.3 T83 

Ch. 18, Prices of Dairy Products, discusses differences 
in product prices, butter and cheese prices, oleomarga- 
rine and butter, trends in prices of dairy products and in 
cattle numbers and milk production, and the dairy outlook 
on the bases of demand and the general price level, 
changes in milk production, and feed prices. 

144. TILSON, D. H. Marketing milk in Europe. Milk 
Dealer 25(12): 142, 144, 146, 148, 150. Sept. 1936. 
44.8 M595 

Information is given on the approximate number of 
operating dairies, milk sold by dairies rather than direct 
to consumer by farmers, and on milk bottles and seals in 
use for most of the countries in western Europe. 

145. TINLEY, J. M. Plant operating efficiency in the 
market milk industry. Berkeley, Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta.. 
1936. 13 p. 280.344 C122P 

Plant operating efficiency is considered in connection 
with delivery and industry efficiency. Increased advertis- 
ing and selling activities, quality and services, price 
cutting, and the merging of plants are methods discussed 
for the expansion of volume of output. A hypothetical ex- 
ample is given of relation between capacity, output, in- 
vestments, and return on capital. 

146. TINLEY, J. M. Price factors in the Los Angeles 
milk market. Giannini Found. Mimeo. Rpt. 48, 41 p. 
1936. 281.9 G34M 

i A supplement and extension to Spencer's study of the 
Los Angeles milk market (California Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 
513. 1931), which brings up to date some of the more sig- 
nificant tables and figures related to producer prices ap- 
pearing in the above bulletin and analyzes the economic 
effects of some of the recent developments in the Los 
Angeles milk market. 

147. TINLEY, J. M. Price factors in the San Diego milk 
market. Giannini Found. Mimeog. Rpt. 54, 25 p. 1936. 
281.9 G34M 

Includes material on milk prices and cost factors of pro- 
duction, 1929-1936. 

148. TINLEY, J. M. Supplementary report on the Los 
Angeles milk market. Giannini Found. Mimeog. Rpt. 51, 
3 p. Aug. 1946. 281.9 G34M 

Supplements the author's "Price Factors in the Los 
Angeles Milk Market." 

149. TOBEY, J. A. Legal aspects of milk control. 
Chicago, 111., Internatl. Assoc, of Milk Dealers, 1936. 
102 p. Ref. 44.5 T55 

A guide to the constitutional, administrative, public and 
private law in the United States as it applies to the produc- 
tion, handling, processing and distribution of milk and 
dairy products. A table of court cases, arranged by 
States, is given on p. 89-98. 

150. TRACY, P. H. Bottled concentrated whole milk. 
Amer. Creamery and Poultry Prod. Rev. 82: 258-259. 
June 24, 1936. 286.85 N482 

From an address, Dairy Manufacturers Conference, 
University of Illinois. 

Results of laboratory experiments on the bacterial qual- 
ities of concentrated milk, and of a study of consumer re- 
action to this milk. 



11 



151. TRACY, P. H. Certain problems related to the 
marketing of homogenized milk. Milk Dealer 25(4): 30- 
32; (5): 60, 62, 64, 66, 68. Jan. -Feb. 1936. 44.8 M595 

Paper read before the Indiana Manufacturers of Dairy 
Products, Indianapolis, November 22, 1935. 

Conclusions from a study carried on over a three -year 
period at the University of Illinois. Deals with many 
phases of the subject, including consumer preference for 
homogenized milk over regular milk, nutritive value of 
homogenized milk, methods of homogenization, and the 
homogenizer as a source of bacterial contamination. 

152. TROVATTEN, R. A. Benefits of the cream grading 
law. Natl. Assoc. Comnrs., Sees. & Dirs. Agr. Proc. 19: 
50-53. 1936. 4 N217 

Discusses the Minnesota Cream Grading and Testing 
Law passed in 1935, which provides for separate grades 
for sweet cream and for a price differential or premium 
to be paid to the farmer producing high quality cream. 

153. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. A 
survey of milk consumption in 59 cities of the United 
States. Consumers' Counsel Ser. Pub. 2, 33 p. 1936. 
1.4Ad422 

This survey of purchases of whole and evaporated milk 
by 28,966 families during a single week in 1934 shows 
weekly per capita consumption to be 2.44 quarts. A satis- . 
factory allowance, according to nutritionists, is between 
3 to 5 quarts a person each week. 

154. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. The 
effect of the trade agreements program on the United 
States dairy industry. Washington, 1936. 11 p. 

1.9 Ec753 

Shows reductions made by the United States in its im- 
port duties on dairy products and those obtained from 
foreign countries, and the benefits to the American dairy 
industry. 

155. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Milk and milk products used in the manufacture of milk 
chocolate, cocoa and chocolate coatings. Washington, 
1936. 1 p. 1.9 Ec724Mi 

•Amount of dairy products used during 1935 by the cocoa 
and chocolate products industry as reported by 59 firms. 
Comparative figures for 1934 and 1935 are given on the 
basis of reports from 37 firms. 

156. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. Legal stand- 
ards for dairy products. Washington, 1936. 51 p. 
(BDIM 583) 1.9 D145L 

State standards for milk, skim milk, cream, butter, con- 
densed and evaporated milk, ice cream, and cheese are 
given, for all States in the United States in effect in 1935. 

157. U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Report... 
on the distribution and sale of milk and milk products, 
Boston, Baltimore, Cincinnati, St. Louis. Letter trans- 
mitting the fourth report... entitled "Report of Federal 
Trade Commission on milk-market regulation and prac- 
tices of distributors in relation to margins, costs, and 
profits of distributors in Boston, Baltimore, Cincinnati, 
and Saint Louis." 74th Cong., 2d sess., House Doc. 501, 
243 p. 1936. 173 F32Mi 

Includes description of markets, cooperative associa- 
tions, and regulatory agencies. 

158. U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Report... 
on the sale and distribution of milk and milk products, 
Chicago sales area. Letter transmitting an interim re- 
port... with respect to the sale and distribution of milk 
products. 74th Cong., 2d sess., H. Doc. 451, 103 p. 
1936. 173 F32Mi 

Milk distribution, prices of milk and cheese, activities 
of distributors, and of farmers' cooperatives. 

159. U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Report- 
on the sale and distribution of milk and milk products. 
Letter transmitting an interim report. 74th Cong., 2d 
sess.,H. Doc. 387, 125 p. 1936. 173 F32Mi 

Discusses the determination of prices to milk producers, 
investments, costs, and net profits of milk distributors, 
effects of different methods of allocating expense on de- 
livery costs of products, and margins and costs per unit. 



160. U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Report... 
on the sale and distribution of milk and milk products, 
Twin City sales area. Letter from the Chairman... trans- 
mitting an interim report... with respect to the sale and 
distribution of milk and milk products in pursuance of H. 
Con. Res. 32, 73rd Cong., 2d sess., adopted June 15, 1934. 
74th Cong., 2d sess. H. Doc. 506, 71 p. 1936. 173 F32Mi 

Deals with milk distributors, health regulations, the 
Twin City Milk Producers Association, and milk prices in 
the area. 

161. VAN BUSKIRK, M. G. Illinois cheesemakers have 
unified quality drive. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 27(15): 
27-29. Aug. 10, 1936. 286.85 B98Bu 

Rules and regulations of the Illinois Cheese Manufactur- 
ers Association leading to the production of higher quality 
cheese. 

162. VARNEY, H. R. Transportation of milk and cream 
to the New York market. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. 
B. 655, 79 p. 1936. 100 N48C 

Discusses and compares the costs of transportation of 
milk by different methods. For distances greater than 
200 miles, railroads appear to offer more economical 
transportation than motor trucks. 

163. WAITE, W. C. Research in the consumption and 
demand for milk. J. Farm Econ. 18: 330-337. May 
1936. 280.8 J822 

Needed research in milk. 

164. WATSON, J. Fluid milk market stabilization for 
the Bay region. Calif. Dept. Agr. Monthly B. 25: 101-106. 
Mar. 1936. 2 C12M 

Discusses milk marketing conditions peculiar to this re- 
gion and shows what voluntary and State action has been 
taken in attempts to alleviate them. 

165. WEST VIRGINIA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Milk 
testing requirements. Charleston, 1936. 32 p. 44 W525 

The milk testing law, passed Mar. 6, 1931, was designed 
to regulate the weighing and testing, buying and selling of 
milk and cream, and to assure to producers correct 
weights and tests for deliveries. Procedures set up for 
carrying out provisions of the law are given. 

166. WHITE, E. D., and GREGG, V. L. Grading and 
marketing sour cream. Ark. Agr. Col. Ext. C. 314,. rev., 
7 p. June 1936. 275.29 Ar4 

Presents various methods of grading and marketing 
cream to serve as a guide in improving the average grade. 

167. WILSON, G. S. The grading of raw milk on the 
basis of bacterial cleanliness. Internatl. Assoc. Milk 
Dealers. Lab. Sect. Proc. 29: 11-20. 1936. 44.9 In8 

Recommends the use of the modified methylene blue re- 
duction test for this purpose. 

168. WILSON, G. S. Milk: but what milk? Spectator 
157: 782, 784. Oct. 30, 1936. 110 Sp3 

Discusses the different grades of milk sold in Great 
Britain. 
Discussion, p. 813-814, 922. Nov. 6, 20, 1936. 

169. WINKLER, W., GRIMMER, W., and WEIGMANN, H. 
Handbuch der milchwirtschaft. Wien, Springer, 1936. 

3 v. Ref. 44 W725H 

In Bd. 3, t. 2. is included information on the status of 
the industry, organization, quality improvement and con- 
trol, regulation, public relations, standards, prices, and 
commerce and trade, for the principal countries of the 
world. 

170. WRIGHT, K. T., and BALTZER, A. C. Dairy costs 
and returns in Michigan. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Q. B. 19 
(2): 75-81. Nov. 1936. 100 M58S 

Dairy costs and returns, 1932-1936; dairy costs and re- 
turns per unit of product, relation of production per cow 
to costs and returns, influence of feeding efficiency on 
dairy costs, and costs of operating milking machines, 
1935-1936; seasonal variations in dairy costs and returns. 

171. WRIGHT, K. T., and BALTZER, A. C. Dairy costs 
and returns 1935-36. Mich. State Col. Agr. Ext. F. M., 
177, 18 p. Aug. 1936. 275.29 M581 

Dairy cost records were kept on 148 Michigan herds 
in cooperation with the Dairy and Farm Management 
Departments during the 1935/36 testing year. 



12 



172. WRIGHT, N. C. An inquiry into the drinking habits 
of children of school age, with special reference to milk 
drinking. Glasgow U. Hannah Dairy Res. Inst. B. 7, 50 p. 
1936. 44.9 H19B 

This inquiry covers nearly 14,000 school children in 
Glasgow and the rural and urban districts of Ayrshire. 
Results show that more than half of the children did not 
drink milk at all, while of the remainder about two-thirds 
took it only once a day. The effect of the milk-schools 
scheme has been practically to double the frequency of 
milk drinking among school children. 



173. YALE, M. W., and BREED, R. S. Comparative 
fairness of single can and weigh vat samples of milk for 
bacterial counts as a basis of premium payments to 
Grade A dairymen. N. Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 673, 
22 p. July 1936. 100 N48 

A study of the methods and the results obtained. Eleven 
hundred samples were collected from 178 dairies at 
three grade A plants at Cortland and Homer, N. Y., in 
Dec. 1934. In a second study in Apr. 1935, 197 samples 
were taken from 49 dairies at one of these plants. 



1937 



174. ABELE, C. A. Milk control in small communities 
on a mandatory versus a voluntary basis. Internatl. As- 
soc. Milk Sanit. Ann. Rpt. 1936: 382-390. 1937. 

44.9 In89 

Advantages of a policy of encouraging voluntary pro- 
duction of grade A milk over mandatory compliance with 
milk regulations are: (1) Competition forces more produc- 
er-distributors to produce grade A milk; (2) appeal to the 
courts and pressure upon municipal authorities are not 
necessary; (3) the health officer is in a more tenable posi- 
tion with respect to the control of commercial and neigh- 
borhood milk. 
Discussion, p. 390-391. 

175. AKTIEBOLAGET ALKA. Die Alkamaschinen. In- 
ternatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 374-375. 
44.9 In8211 

Discusses the advantages of the Alka milk bottle sealing 
machines made in Sweden. 

176. AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN 
FRANCE, INC. [A booklet about cheeses]. Paris? 
1937? 16 p. 44 Am332 

Contains outline of French cheese regulations and de- 
scribes various cheeses produced. 

177. AMERICAN MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION. Milk con- 
trol. Government regulation of the dairy industry in the 
United States. Pub. Admin. Serv. P. 57A, 49 p. 1937. 
280.9 P96 

Summary and conclusions in Milk Plant Monthly 27: 52- 
54. Jan. 1938. 44.3 C864 

Outlines steps taken by various governmental agencies 
to control milk production and distribution. The success 
of these efforts is measured by the increased consump- 
tion of milk and the comparative safety of the milk supply, 
although outbreaks of milkborne diseases are still fre- 
quent. 

178. ANDERSON, H. B. How to process surplus milk 
profitably in the small dairy plant. Milk Plant Monthly 
26(9): 46, 48. Sept. 1937. 44.8 C864 

Disposing of surplus milk in the form of butter, cottage 
cheese, and buttermilk is the method recommended, al- 
though it requires an added investment for equipment. 

179. ANDES, J. Problems in the basic -surplus plan in 
the Philadelphia milk shed. Philadelphia, 1937. 166 p. 
Ref. 281.344 An2 

Thesis (Ph.D) - University of Pennsylvania. 

Factors that determine the price of milk under unre- 
stricted competition are analyzed and the need and reasons 
for artificial control over production are shown. The 
basic -surplus, or base-rating, plan is stated to be one 
which distributes to producers the proceeds from the sale 
of milk at various prices according to the market value of 
the milk contributed by each dairyman. Development and 
operation of the plan in Philadelphia are treated in detail 
and objections to the plan are noted. 

180. ASHBY, A. W., and PHILLIPS, J. R. E. The 
Southern region under the Milk Marketing Scheme, 1933- 
36. Berkshire Farmers' Ybk. 1937: 51-52, 54, 56-59. 
1937. 10 B45 

If this region could be controlled as a self-contained 
market under the powers of the Milk Marketing Board it 
would have considerable advantages: it has a relatively 
high proportion of total yearly sales in the winter months 
and of liquid sales, and its manufacturing milk has a rela- 
tively high value. 



181. BABBITT, M. Reid's centermould package tells a 
sales story. Ice Cream Rev. 20(11): 28-30. June 1937. 
389.8 Ic22 

The first container in the ice cream field to make use of 
the open window carton is described. 

182. BACCHETTI, S. Les differentes systemes d' or- 
ganisation de l'industrie laitiere. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 86-91. 44.9 In8211 

Presents data on the production of milk and cheese in 
Italy. Three-fourths of the dairies are small private en- 
terprises and one -fourth cooperative. 

183. BACON, L. B., andCASSELS, J. M. The milk supply 
of Paris, Rome and Berlin. Q. J. Econ. 51: 626-648. 
Aug. 1937. 280.8 Q2 

A study of price and sanitation regulation of milk in the 
markets of these three cities. The Rome and Paris mar- 
kets were visited personally for the purpose of the col- 
lection of data. 

184. BARTLETT, R. W. Distribution of milk through 
stores and depots. 111. Farm Econ. 24/25: 116-119. 
May /June 1937. 275.28 IL15 

Includes data on costs of such distribution in Boston, 
Mass., and Danville, HI. 

185. BARTLETT, R. W., and CASKEY, W. F. Milk 
transportation problems in the Si. Louis milkshed, with 
suggested solutions. TJ.1. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 430: 423-470. 
1937. 100 IL6S 

This analysis, "indicates that substantial savings to 
producers, better pay to haulers, and more efficient serv- 
ice to distributor and to consumer can be developed in 
this area by certain changes in present practices." Three 
major adjustments are suggested: 1, Rearrangement of 
hauling routes, so as to reduce milage and increase vol- 
ume per load; 2, Marketing more milk through country 
plants; and 3, Narrowing the seasonal variations in milk 
production. 

186. BARTLETT, R. W. The relation oi international 
trade agreements to incomes of dairy producers. 111. 
Farm Econ. 20/21: 93-97. Jan./Feb. 1937. 275.28 IL5 

Includes not only the direct effects of increased impor- 
tation of dairy products, but also indirect effects which 
result from an increase in foreign trade. 

187. BAUER, H. Die bestimmungen iiber die milch- 
pasteurisierung in Deutschland und deren uberwachung. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 307-310. 
44.9 In8211 

Reviews regulations pertaining to the use of pasteuriza- 
tion methods and equipment, and to licensing and supervi- 
sory aspects. 

188. BELL, E. W. Three years under Federal milk con- 
trol. Mass. U. Agr. Ext. Farm Facts 10(5): 1-2. May- 
June 1937. 275.29 M381Fa 

Price regulation under the milk license signed March 
1934 by the Secretary of Agriculture establishing Federal 
milk licenses in New Bedford and Fall River, Mass. 

189. BELLI R. W. Extent of production of casein of dif- 
ferent types and of casein whey in the United States. 

U. S. Bur. Dairy Indus. B.D.I.M. 747, 3 p. Mar. 1937. 
1.9 D14Ex 

Estimated quantities of skim milk used and whey pro- 
duced in the manufacture of casein during the calendar 
year 1934, are noted. 



13 



190. BENDDCEN, H. C, and others. The milk problem- 
a critical study of its nutritional, hygienic, economic and 
social aspects. League of Nations Health Organ. B. 6: 
371-504. June 1937. Ref. 449.8 L47 

G. J. Blink, J. C. Drummond, A. M. Leroy, and G. S. 
Wilson, joint authors. 

Considers dairy herd management in relation to the nu- 
tritive value and production of milk; milk quality and sani- 
tation, including their regulation; and production costs. 
Consumption and distribution of milk and measures adopt- 
ed in different countries to counteract the effects of the 
economic depression on the dairy industry are discussed. 

191. BERLIN. INSTITUT FUR KONJUNKTURFOR- 
SCHUNG. Problems of milk utilization. Berlin. Inst. f. 
Konjunkturforsch. Weekly Rpt. Sup., 4 p. Aug. 25, 1937. 
280.9 B45We 

"Without basic changes in the German nourishment it is 
impossible to prevent fully the use of separated milk as 
fodder and maintain it solely for human nourishment. 
However, a limited expansion, even a trebling of the pres- 
ent human consumption of separated milk is possible, 
without causing disadvantages in the supply of pork and 
lard, especially since milk production is to be increased. 
In this increased consumption of separated milk (in the 
form of fresh milk, or mixed milk drinks --adding fruit or 
fruit juices — dry milk, cottage cheese or protein cheese) 
the consumer would receive a. cheap and highly nutritive 
protein. This would make possible, especially in the 
poorer classes, a favorable distribution of the protein 
necessary for the maintenance of the public health." 

192. BERTRAND, R. Le corporatisme agricole et 

1' organisation des marches en Allemagne. Paris, Li- 
brairie GGn6rale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, 1937. 
349 p. 280.3 B462 

Ch. 4 includes a subsection, "Le marche du lait," 
p. 255-269, which discusses the organization of the Ger- 
man milk trade and price plans in operation there. 

193. BITZAN, R. Der einfluss wirtschaftseigener fut- 
terung auf die rentabilit'at der milcherzeugung in ge- 
birgslagen. . Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11 
(1): 94-101. 44.9 In8211 

A survey on the general conditions of production in the 
tiairy district of the Styrian Enns Valley, based entirely 
on home-grown feeds. Shows that it is always possible to 
change the extensive system of dairy farming into a more 
intensive one. Prices are of particular importance in 
this respect, since the costs of production must be cov- 
ered and a profit secured to the farmer. 

194. BLANrORD, C. J. Competition among dealers in 
the delivery of milk in New York City. N. Y. Agr. Col. 
Farm Econ. 99: 2427-2428. Feb. 1937. 280.8 C812 

Measures the amount of duplication in the delivery of 
milk to families in apartment houses and to stores and 
other wholesale customers. 

195. BLANFORD, C. J. Factors affecting size of loads 
on retail milk delivery routes in New York City. N. Y. 
Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 101: 2484-2486. May 1937. 
280.8 C812 

Material from a study of ccsts of selling and delivering 
milk in New York City, based on data collected in 1933 
under the supervision of Dr. Leland Spencer for the Divi- 
sion of Milk Control, New York Department of Agricul- 
ture and Markets. The amount of milk and other products 
taken per customer, the number of customers per mile of 
route, and the number of flights of stairs climbed in serv- 
ing a given number of customers are among the subjects 
studied. 

196. BOND, G. E., and HITCHCOCK, J. A. Studies in 
Vermont dairy farming; feed as a cost of milk production. 
Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 421, 38 p. May 1937. 100 V59 

Feed and labor, respectively, were the two largest items 
of cost in milk production in the Lake Champlain Valley in 
western Vermont, according to a survey of 452 dairy 
farms for the year ending March 31, 1933. Variations in 
the cost of feeding the dairy herds are studied in relation 
to the cost of milk production. Data are included on feed- 
ing practices as they bear on milk production itself. 



197 BRABANT, VAN. Le controle des beurres beiges. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 310-314. 
44.9 In8211 , j „_ 

Describes the system of butter quality control under the 
Union Nationale des Laiteries Beiges. 

198. BREED, R. S. Conference on sanitation of paper 
milk containers. Milk Sanit. 6(9): 11-13. Sept. 1937. 
44.8 M5929 

Report of conference held at the New York Agricultural 
Experiment Station on July 12, 1937. A statement of the 
principles of sanitation to be observed in the manufacture 
and use of paper containers, as revised at the conference, 
is given. 

199. BREMER, K. Die sozialen leistungen und aufgaben 
der milchwirtschaftlichen marktordnung. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 19-23. 44.9 In8211 

Measures benefits accruing from the program to the 
producer, distributor, and consumer. 

200. BRONSON, W. H. Problems of milk marketing 
regulation. Internatl. Conf. Agr. Econ. Proc. (1936): 297- 
307. 1937. 281.9 In82 

Shows the need for regulation, and discusses Federal 
and State control and price systems, with specific refer- 
ence to the Boston market. 

Discussion, p. 307-321. 

201. BROWN, A. J. Premiums for high-quality cream 
and butter. 111. Farm Econ. 24/25: 115-116. May /June 
1937. 275.28 IL5 

Deals with premium -payment for high quality cream and 
butter in Minnesota and surrounding states; with the es- 
tablishment in Oregon and California of a system of con- 
sumer's grades under state inspection; and with the price 
spread of butter on the Chicago and San Francisco mar- 
kets with reference to butter score. 

202. BUNDESEN, H. N. Chicago's milk supply -what 
does it mean? Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. J. 90: 419-424. 
Mar. 1937. 41.8 Am3 

- Steps essential to a well-developed milk control program 
are discussed. The legal basis for such a program in 
Chicago is the Mayor Kelly Milk Ordinance, patterned 
after the Standard Milk Ordinance and Code of the U. S. 
Public Health Service, and passed in 1935. Some of the 
questions that have been raised in connection with the 
adoption and enforcement of the Code are considered. 

203. BUNDESEN, H. N. Inaugurating grade A pasteur- 
i7ed milk in the city of Chicago. Amer. J. Pub. Health 
27: 680-684. July 1937. 449.9 Am3J 

Read before the Public Health Engineering Section of the 
American Public Health Association, New Orleans, 
Oct. 22, 1936. 

The U. S. Public Health Service ordinance was adopted. 
Methods of enforcing it are brought out. 

204. BURLINGAME, B. B„, and FLEMING, W. C. Dairy 
management study. 4th annual report, San Joaquin County. 
Berkeley, Calif. U., Agr. Ext. Serv., 1937. 12 p. 
275.29 C12En 

In cooperation with the Dairy Department, San Joaquin 
County Farm Bureau. 

Management records of 16 dairy farms for the year 
ending September 30, 1936, are summarized. Eight of 
these produced milk which was sold as creamery milk. 
Milk produced by the other eight was sold as market milk. 
Gross returns, average total income and expense per cow, 
average investment oer cow, and average net cost of pro- 
ducing a pound of butterfat are discussed and shown in 
tables. 

205. CALIFORNIA. UNIVERSITY. COLLEGE OF AGRI- 
CULTURE. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE. A 
comparison of spring and fall freshening of dairy cows, by 
W. Sullivan. Berkeley, 1937. 13 p. 275.2 C12Cs 

U. S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. 
Difference in cash income from the sale of dairy prod- 
ucts from these cows. 



14 



200. CANADA. DOMINION BUR. OF STATISTICS. AGRI- 
CULTURAL BR. The dairy situation in Canada, Dec- 
May, 1936-1937. Canada. Bur. Statis. Agr. Br. (ser. 4) 
Rpt. 1, 30 p. 1937. 281.3449 C163 

Reviews weather and pasture conditions, milk cow num- 
bers and milk production by provinces, as well as agen- 
eral analysis of the butter and cheese position, the 6ro- 
duction and stocks of concentrated milk, and the prices of 
dairy products. 

207. CAPSTICK, E. Utilization of buttermilk and whey 
in England. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wis. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 
261-265. 44.9In8211 

Discusses the disposal of buttermilk and whey on the 
farm and by creameries. Attempts are being made to de- 
velop markets for the dried products. Specialized whey 
foods are appearing, and a considerable quantity is going 
into balanced cattle feed. 

208. CASSELS, J. M. A study of fluid milk prices. 
Harvard Econ. Studies 54, 303 p. 1937. Ref. 
284.344 C27 

Deals with factors affecting supply and demand; price 
plans and bargaining methods; consumption of milk and 
milk products; dealers margins and chain-store differen- 
tials; transportation rates and services; production re- 
sponses; market areas and product zones; and a case 
study of Boston-New York price relations. 

209. CHAIN store tax and Wisconsin's dairy industry. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(12): 32. June 25, 1937. 
286.85 B98Bu 

The proposed bill would impose a graduated tax, based 
not upon the number of stores in the State, but upon the 
number operated elsewhere in the United States. Passage 
of the chain-store tax bill is opposed, as it would force 
many stores in Wisconsin to close and cause chain organi- 
zations to turn to other dairy States for their supplies of 
dairy products. 

210. CHIPLETS present new idea in butter packaging. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 23(22): 14. Nov. 25, 1937. 
286.85 B98Bu 

"Chiplets" are butter ready-cut in neat convenient 
squares and packed in two layers in an attractive carton. 
Use of "chiplets" eliminates waste and results in savings 
to the housewife of as much as 15 percent on butter bills. 

211. CLAUSEN, P. Die verwertung iiberschussiger 
milch unter berucksichtigung der herstellung von milch- 
dauerwaren. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wis. Ber. (1937) 
11(2): 233-237. 44.9 In8211 

The question of disposal of surplus milk partly resolves 
itself into one of the utilization of protein. The German 
evaporated milk industry is potentially in a position to 
absorb this surplus. Efforts are being made to introduce 
into households greater quantities of milk products with 
high protein content. 

212. CLAUSS, W. Einfiihrung milchwirtschaftlicher 
markenerzeugnisse in Deutschland. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wis. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 330-335. 44.9 In8211 

In 1934 designations of quality butter were combined 
into the "Deutsche Markenbutter" and the right of using 
and conferring it was granted to the German dairy asso- 
ciations. Discusses the German milk law of the same 
year and its applications. 

213. CLAUSS, W. Entwicklung der Reichspriifung fur 
milch und milcherzeugnisse in Deutschland. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wis. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 324-330. 44.9 In8211 

Shows progress toward standardization. 

214. CLEMENT, C. E. Country milk-receiving and 
cooling stations. U. S. D. A. C. 432, 59 p. June 1937, 
1 Ag84C 

Compares use of country stations with direct shipment; 
describes factors affecting the choice of location of a 
station; discusses quantities of milk handled, seasonal 
variations, time consumed in transporting milk to city 
markets, relation of volume handled to investment, and 
factors affecting operating costs. 



215. CLEMENT, F. M. How the Natural Products Mar- 
keting Act operates in British Columbia. Internatl. Conf. 
Agr. Econ. Proc. (1936) 4: 342-355. 1937. 281.9 In82 

Discusses in part the Milk Marketing Scheme of the 
Lower Mainland. 

216. CLERKIN, P., and HOUSTON, J. The laboratory 
control of Northern Ireland's milk supply. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wis. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 335-338. 44.9 In8211 

Deals in part with the Milk and Milk Products Act of 
1934 and includes information on grades and grading. 

217. COFFEE cream in sealed bottles; restaurant chain 
finds system cuts spilling loss, aids control. Milk Dealer 
27(2): 41. Nov. 1937. 44.8 M595 

Also in Milk Plant Monthly 28: 27. Nov. 1937. 
44.8 C864 

Individual sealed containers capped with an aluminum 
hood which entirely covers the pouring edge and thus pro- 
tects it against dirt, dust and handling contamination. 

218. COMMISSIONER Ten Eyck's suggestions. Amer. 
Creamery 83(20): 733. Mar. 17, 1937. 286.85 N482 

Twenty-three specific recommendations made by the 
Commissioner of Agriculture, New York State, to the 
Joint Legislative Committee for the Study of Milk Control. 
Emphasis is placed upon greater cooperation between pro- 
ducers as a class and dealers as a class in the marketing 
of milk, and upon some means of placing the regulation of 
interstate shipments of milk upon the same basis as a 
regulation of intrastate shipments into the New York-New 
Jersey marketing area. 

219. CONNECTICUT MILK MARKETING PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE. Plans for marketing fluid milk; recom- 
mendations. Hoard's Dairyman 82: 3, 23. Jan. 10, 1937. 

44.8 H65 

Recommendations include establishing quotas for each 
producer, informing parties affected of the quotas so al- 
lotted, and having distributors inform their customers that 
the milk they distribute is purchased from Connecticut 
producers. 

220. CONNECTICUT MILK MARKETING PROGRAM 
COMMITTEE. Principles in milk marketing. Report. 
Hoard's Dairyman 82: 35, 59. Jan. 25, 1937. 44.8 H65 

Concludes that a more equitable distribution of the bur- 
den of the surplus must be made; that production of milk 
sold in Classes 3 and 4 is now carried on at prices far 
below the cost of production and must be discouraged; 
that the price of fluid milk must be adjusted from time to 
time; and that the price per point for butter-fat content 
must be raised to fair production costs. 

221. CORBETT, R. B. Milk inspection in New England. 
Boston, New England Res. Council on Mktg, and Food 
Supply, 1937. 26 p. 280,344 C814 

Covers for 1935 the relationships between the milk in- 
spection work of State departments and that of towns and 
cities with 1,000 or more persons, according to the 1930 
census, and describes the work of each as separate 
groups. 

222. CORBETT, R, 3. Milk insepction in the health dis- 
tricts of Massachusetts. Boston, New England Res. 
Council on Mktg. and Food Supply, 1937. 15 p. 

280.344 C814M 

Considers the organization and administration of the 
program and finds that it has improved milk standards in 
the area. 

223. CRAIG, G. H., I ROSKIE, J., and WOOD, V. A. The 
production of fluid milk in the Edmonton and Calgary milk 
sheds. Sci. Agr. 17: 401-419. Mar. 1937. 7 Sci2 

Reviews the physical features and population of the two 
regions, examines the economic factors of production in 
their farm management relationships. Points out various 
cost, price and profit considerations. 

224. CRAZANNES, C. DE. Les differentes organisa- 
tions laitieres; entreprises privees— societes coopera-. 
tives- leurs avantages— leurs inconvenients. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 102-110. 

44.9 In8211 

Includes data on the utilization of milk and milk products, 
and discusses existing forms of dairy enterprise in 
France. 



15 



225. CRIPPS, J. The cost of milk rounds in relation to 
their density and the type of area served* Farm Econ. 
2(6): 103-107. Apr. 1937. 281.8 F223 

A survey of an English midland town (population 
75,000-100,000) indicates that considerable reductions in 
the cost of milk rounds would be possible with the elimi- 
nation of overlapping and the unification of the distribut- 
ing agencies. 

226. CULVER, D. C. An analysis of state milk control 
laws. Calif. U. Bur. Pub. Admin. Leg. Prob. 1, 25 p. 
Jan. 4, 1937. 280 C1222 

A study of the composition of administering boards, the 
powers of boards, prices, license fees, records, funds, 
appeals and penalties, and the protection of producers. 

Emergency measures authorizing the establishment of 
control boards for the milk industry were enacted by 21 
states between 1933 and 1936. Most of these laws were 
designed to insure a stable supply of milk at prices fair to 
consumer and producer. The U. S. Supreme Court and the 
highest courts of several States have upheld the constitu- 
tionality of milk control laws. 

227. CUMBER, W. J. T. T. milk handicap. Farmer & 
Stock-Breeder 51: 2688. Nov. 9, 1937. 10 F228 

To increase the production of tuberculin-tested milk, 
an order has been issued by the British Ministry of Agri- 
culture which provides for a payment of 4 d. per gallon 
for this milk above the price for other milk. 

228. CUNNINGHAM, L. C. Milk marketing. N. Y. Agr. 
Col. A. E. 151, 16 p. Jan. 1937. 281.9 C81 

Lists advantages and disadvantages of the classified 
price plan, and gives strong and weak points of state milk 
control. 

229. DAHLE, C. D., and JOSEPHSON, D. V. Improving 
the keeping quality of butter with treated parchment. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(14): 6-7. Ref. July 25, 
1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

Results of experiments on butter wrapped in untreated 
and oat-flour (Avenex) treated parchment and stored at 
different temperatures. From the study it is apparent 
that Avenex-treated parchment has a beneficial effect in 
retarding flavor defects. 

230. DALLA TORRE, G. Amelioration de la qualite du 
lait et des produits laitiers. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(2): 452-456. 44.9 In8211 

Includes reference to Government regulations and organi- 
zational efforts for milk control in Italy. 

231. DIETRICH, F. J. M. Die schmelzkaserei und ihre 
bedeutung in der modernen milchindustrie. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 4-7. 44.9 In8211 

Finds that the surplus milk problem could be alleviated 
with the production of more processed cheese. 

232. DISCUSS standardizing acidity of ice cream mixes. 
Ice Cream Rev. 20(3): 123. Mar. 1937. 389.8 Ic22 

Brief report of the Dairy Manufacturing Short Course 
held at Oklahoma A. and M. College, February 15, 1937. 
Comments of W. V. Maddox on standardizing acidity of 
ice cream mixes and of Dr. R. C. Ross on ice cream- 
ordinances for cities, are included. 

233. DLXEY, R. N. Tuberculin-tested milk; a study of 
re-organization for its production. Oxford, Agr. Econ. 
Res. Inst., 1937. Ill p. 44 D64 

Includes components of the total costs of a clean herd. 

234. DOWNS, P. A. Judging quality in dairy products. 
Nebr. Agr. Expt. Sta. C. 54, 44 p. Feb. 1937. 100 N27 

Procedures, involving the use of score cards, for judging 
milk, cream, butter, cheese and ice cream. 

235. DRINKER, G. Virginia dairying progresses. 
Commonwealth 4(11): 7-9. Nov. 1937. 280.8 C732 

Shows expansion of the industry in the state, with im- 
provements in production, processing and distribution. 



236. DRUMMOND, W. M. The marketing of whole milk. 
Canad. J. Econ. and Polit. Sci. 3: 394-405. Aug. 1937. 
230.8 C162 

Presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Political 
Science Association, May 1937. 

Although Canadian dairy producers are aware of the need 
for keeping the prices of all dairy products in line with 
one another, they feel that the general dairy price struc- 
ture must be one in which equilibrium is established by 
bringing "other" dairy prices in line with the present 
whole milk prices rather than reducing the whole milk 
prices to the existing competitive level of the "other" 
product prices. The general nature of the price making 
arrangements, the sharing of the producer's market, and 
the possibilities of narrowing the spread between farm 
and retail prices is discussed. 

237. DUGAN, MRS. F. C. Kentucky's milk supply. 
Milk Dealer 27(1): 108, 110. Cct. 1937. 44.8 M595 

The results of the adoption in 1925 by the State Board of 
Health of the U. S. Public Health Service specifications 
for milk sanitary control. 

238. DURYEE, W. H. How can public good will be safe- 
guarded for the dairy industry? Milk Plant Monthly 26: 
30-32, 34, 36. Feb. 1937. 44.8 C864 

Methods for maintaining consumer confidence as affects 
the dairy industry include improved producer relations, 
public regulation, coordination of the efforts of milk pro- 
motion agencies, and market stabilization. 

239. EASTLACK, J. O.. and SHERWOOD, E. J. Some ob- 
servations on grade "A ' milk.' N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm 
Econ. 99: 2419-2426. Feb. 1937. 280.8 C812 

On January 4, 1912, an amendment to the Health Code 
made by the New York City Board of Health provided offi- 
cial recognition of three grades of pasteurized milk. As a 
result of numerous conferences held with producers, a 
schedule of premium payments was devised, effective 
January 1, 1931, which substituted for flat payments a 
sliding scale premium based on butterfat content. 
Throughout the period reviewed, practically two-thirds of 
all grade A milk delivered at grade A plants contained 
10,000 or fewer colonies of bacteria per cc, thereby 
qualifying for first premium. In every year almost 90 
percent of all milk contained less than 25,000 colonies of 
bacteria per cc. 

240. EDEL, H. New method in figuring standardization 
of cream and milk. Milk Dealer 26(8): 40-41. May 1937. 

44.8 M595 

Places emphasis on standardization of the fat content in 
milk and cream. "Standardization chart for a product of 
a definite fat test regardless of the final total gaUonage" 
and "Standardization chart for a definite gallonage of a 
product with a definite fat test" are given. 

241. EFKES, U. Die forderung der qualitat bei kase- 
erzeugnissen. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(2): 340-346. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses in part the system of compulsory cheese tests, 
grading and standardization, and price scales in Germany. 

242. EHRLICH, C. Die durchfuhrung der tierarztlic'hen 
milchuberwachung in trinkmilchbestanden. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 346-354. 

44.9 In8211 

Describes raw milk control practices in some parts of 
Germany. 

243. EHRSTROM, W., and OSTERHOLM, B. Die hygie- 
nische iiberwachung der konsummilch in Helsingfors. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 354-364. 
44.9 In8211 

Describes the farm inspection system. 

244. ELEVATING brick cheese by attractive packaging. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(19): 6-7. Oct. 25, 1937. 
286.85 B98Bu 

The package is described and illustrated. It was devel- 
oped by the Winnebago Cheese Company, Fond du Lac, 
Wis. 



16 



245. ERTEL, H. 1st die hebung des verbrauches an 
milch wegen ihrer bedeutung fiir die volksernahrung er- 
forderlich? Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11 
(3): 204-208. 44.9 In8211 

Effective publicity methods should be utilized to promote 
increased milk consumption in view of its nutritive value. 

246. ESCHE, E. Festsetzung und kontrolle von milch- 
handelsspannen. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(3): 28-32. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses the possibilities of ascertaining within the 
scope of the marketing regulations the profits obtained 
and of checking the equitableness of the price limits. Con- 
siders that the fixed trade margins for milk must vary 
from one market to another because the general condi- 
tions of the milk trade are not identical. 

247. ETLING, J. L'incidence des tarifs de transport 
sur le prix de vente des produits agricoles en France. 
Paris, Librairie Technique et Economique, 1937. 106 p. 
Ref. 284.3 Et4 

Includes data for milk, batter, and cheese. 
Bibliography, p. 97-104. 

248. FABIAN, F. W. Ice cream; regulations and stand- 
ards, manufacturing methods. Amer. Pub. Health Assoc. 
Ybk. (1936/37) 7: 53-59. 1937. 449.9 Am3Y 

Report of the Committee on Milk and Dairy Products. 
Discusses regulations and standards with reference to the 
use of raw products in ice cream mixes; pasteurizing the 
ice cream mix; and grading ice cream. 

Discussion by W. B. Palmer, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee, p. 59-62. 

249. FAIRER, J. A. The administration of the accredit- 
ed milk scheme in Leicestershire. Roy. Sanit. Inst. J. 
57: 547-555. Feb. 1937. 449.9 R812 

Steps required in issuing a license to an applicant for 
accreditation and check-ups practiced are described. 
Several large distributors who would not contract for any 
milk unless it came from an accredited producer have 
materially aided the program. A large increase in the 
number of such producers is reported. 

Discussion, p. 555-560. 

250. FERRARI, A. L'utilisation des excedents de lait 
pour la fabrication des produits fromagers tels que le 
lait condense, la poudre de lait, etc. [le lait sterilise et le 
lait evaporel. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) • 
11(2): 238-241. 44.9 In8211 

Includes reference to the use of these products them- 
selves. 

251. FERRARI, A. Utilisation du lait ecreme et du 
babeurre. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 
266-269. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses the utilization of skim milk in bread and 
cheese, and as a source of milk powder and casein; the 
various uses of the latter and of buttermilk, whey, and 
lactose. 

252. FFNNERAN, E. J. From cow to kitchen. Nation's 
Business 25: 24-26, 169-172. June 1937. 286.8 N212 

The milk business from the producer to the consumer is 
discussed and the handling of milk by a division of the 
National Dairy Products Corporation is briefly described. 
Establishment and work of the Sealtest System Labora- 
tories, Inc., are mentioned. 

253. FISHER, R. C. Changing times-a challenge to the 
milk industry. Milk Dealer 26: 50-52. Mar. 1937. 
44.8 M595 

Also in Milk Plant Monthly 26: 40-42. Apr. 1937. 
44.8 C864 and Hoard's Dairyman 82: 210-211. Apr. 10, 
1937. 44.8 H65 

To keep up with the progress in other industrial fields, 
the industry must reach out in several directions. It must 
acquaint the public with the true facts about the fluid milk 
industry; work toward continued better relationships be- 
tween itself and producers; through more active merchan- 
dising create and stimulate a public appreciation and de- 
mand for milk and milk products; and develop industry 
consciousness and cooperation, intelligently to meet 
changing times. 



254 FLETCHER, C. W. Municipal milk control. 
Hoard's Dairyman 82: 594. Nov. 10, 1937. 44.8 H65 

Comments on a proposal, known as an enabling act, 
which was presented to the Wisconsin legislature in 1935 
and 1937. The act, which failed to pass, would allow any 
municipality of the State, upon approval of the common 
council or governing body, to take over the distribution of 
all fluid milk within its corporate limits, manufacture 
dairy products, and regulate the price to the consumers of 
the fluid product. 

255. FOSTER, A. H. $40,337 saved in sales cost. Food 
Indus. 9: 18-19, 43. Jan. 1937. 389.8 F737 

Explains how milk distribution economies may be ef- 
fected by rearranging deliveries and consolidating routes. 
The use of these methods by two milk companies is cited. 

253. FOUR hundred million quarts of vitamin D milk are 
now sold. Milk Plant Monthly 26(1): 34. Jan. 1937. 
44.8 C864 

In 1936 about 3 percent of the fluid milk sold in the 
United States was vitamin D milk. Excerpts from state- 
ments of doctors and other authorities approving and dis- 
approving the use of this milk are quoted. 

257. FREDERICK, J. H. Agricultural markets. New 
York, Prentice-Hall, 1937. 289 p. 280.3 F87A 

Ch. 14, The milk market, discusses surplus milk, prices, 
agencies concerned in marketing fluid milk, marketing 
plans, and alternative markets for fluid milk. 

258. FR1BLEY, MRS. W. E. How distributor and con- 
sumer can get together for great mutual benefit. Milk 
Plant Monthly 26: 32, 34, 36. Mar. 1937. 44.8 C864 

Nine types of service are named which are requested of 
the distributor by buying housewives. Some of the opin- 
ions of consumers regarding the dairy industry and its 
products are discussed. 

259. FRIETEMA, H. J. Productie en prijsvorming op de 
engelsche markt van Nederland.sche, Deensche en kolo- 
niale boter. (Production and price forming on the English 
market of Dutch, Danish and colonial butter.) Nederland. 
Econ. Inst. P. 22, 230 p. Ref. 1937. 280.9 N28 

Examines the economic circumstances under which but- 
ter is produced in the Netherlands, Denmark,. New Zea- 
land, and Australia. Discusses the demand for butter and 
butter prices in general, and the demand for and prices of 
the three kinds of butter in Great Britain. 

Bibliography, p. 228-230. _ . 

260. GARRAD, G. H. The accredited milk scheme in 
Kent. Roy. Sanit. Inst. J. 57: 602-612. Mar. 1937. 
449.9 R812 

Steps taken to promote sanitary milk production in Kent 
County, England, and those leading up to the adoption of 
the Accredited Milk Scheme are described. Discusses the 
operation of the scheme in the county, where 18 months 
after its inception there are 402 licensed producers of 
tuberculin-tested (45) or accredited (357) milk, represent- 
ing more than a fifth of the total. 

261. GAUMNITZ, E. W. Price maintenance of manu- 
factured dairy products by Government purchases. 
Washington, U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin., 1937. 6 p. 
1.94 D14Ac 

The difference between a price maintenance program 
and a program for the removal of temporary surpluses is 
discussed. Methods used by the Government in the latter 
program and advantages and disadvantages of a price 
maintenance program are pointed out. 

262. GAUMNITZ, E. W., and REED, O. M. Some prob- 
lems involved in establishing milk prices. U. S. Agr. 
Adjust. Admin. Div. of Mktg. and Mktg. Agreements. 
Mktg. Inform. Ser. DM-2, 227 p. Sept. 1937. 1.4 Ad47D 

Deals with trends in production, farm utilization, pro- 
duction of manufactured dairy products, and farm prices 
of dairy products; aspects of fluid milk markets, includ- 
ing descriptive material relative to the demand for and 
supply of milk; the development of the general theory of 
milk prices (simple markets and more complex phases of 
milk markets); problems in pricing milk, and those en- 
countered in prorating among producers the proceeds of 
sales to distributors; and public policy and the milk trade. 



17 



263. GAUNTT, E. A. The New Jersey market milk 
problem. N. J. Agr. 19(3): 3. May-June 1937. 
275.28 N46 

The threat of cheaper milk from outside the State, over 
which the State Milk Control Board has no jurisdiction, is 
discussed. 

264. GAWLKOWSKI, I. T. Propaganda des milchver- 
brauchs unter mitwirkung aller volksschichten. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 212-217. 
44.9 In8211 

Suggests public relations policy to increase milk con- 
sumption. 

265. GENIN, G. La production mondiale de caseine. 
Lait 17: 605-608. June 1937. 44.8 L143 

Uses of casein for plastics, adhesives, paper, textiles, 
and in foods, medicines, and insecticides are indicated, 
with the extent of casein production and trade. 

266. GERMANY. REICHSMINISTERIUM FUR ERNAH- 
RUNG UND LANDWIRTSCHAFT. The present state of 
the German dairy industry... Compiled by G. Reichart... 
Hans Merkel...O. Vopelius. Kempten i. Allgau, Deutsche 
Molkerei-Zeitung, 1931? 281.344 G31 

Issued also in German with title: Die Deutsche milch- 
wirtschaft in der gegenwart. 281.344 G31D 
Abstract in Lait 18: 260-262. Mar. 1938. 44.8 L143 
Prepared for the use of dairy experts who took part in 
the 11th World's Dairy Congress. Presents a compre- 
hensive survey of conditions in the German dairy industry. 
Chapters and sections discuss production, treatment, dis- 
tribution of milk and dairy products, organization and 
duties of marketing associations, and the economic im- 
portance of the dairy industry. 

267. GERMANY'S milk control. Farmer and Stock- 
Breeder 51: 2276. Sept. 21, 1937. 10 F228 

Milk marketing in Germany is under complete state con- 
trol. Under the scheme the whole country is divided into 
18 regions and producers are required to send their milk 
to the nearest creamery. Prices to producers are fixed 
and workers on dairy farms are paid according to the 
output per animal per day. Transportation problems are 
few and costs are low because of state ownership of the 
railways. 

268. GHEZZI, E. L 'organisation du service de distri- 
bution du lait. Internath Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(3): 384-388. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses the Italian law of 1929 regulating the distri- 
bution of milk, distribution procedures and costs, and 
milk containers. Norms were established by governmen- 
tal decree in 1933 for the packing and selling of butter. 

269. GIBSON, L. A. Century of dairying in Canada. 
Amer. Creamery 83(21): 768-769. Mar. 24, 1937. 
286.85 N482 

An account by the Dairy Commissioner, Department of 
Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba, of the grading of cheese, 
butter and cream. 

270. GILLETT, R. L., and FOSTER, D. H. Range of 
milk prices in northern and southeastern New York, 1935. 
N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 102: 2502-2503. June 1937. 
280.8 C812 

Table I gives quantity of milk received from producers, 
arranged by average price at plant, northern and south- 
eastern counties and the State, June and November 1935. 
"In June, nearly all the milk in the southeastern group 
brought a price to producers higher than any but the top 
prices for very small quantities in the northern group. 
In November, somewhat similar relationships prevailed, 
though the contrasts are less marked." 

271. GIROUX, I. Amelioration de la qualite du lait et 
des produits lactes. Internath Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(2): 364-371. 44.9 In8211 

Includes information on French milk control regulations. 

272. GOCKEL, A. Die verpackung der deutschen milch- 
wirtschaftlichen erzeugnisse. Internath Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 388-404. 44.9 In8211 

Shows packing methods and quantities for milk, concen- 
trated milk, cream, dried milk, casein, butter, and cheese. 



273. GOLDING, N. S. Latest developments in the pack- 
aging of cheese. Wash. State Col. Inst. Dairying Proc. 
10: 1-5. Mar. 1937. 44.9 W27 

Classifies types of cheeses, outlines some cheese de- 
fects, and discusses the use of a valve when packing 
cheese in cans. 

274. GOLTE, W. Die versorgung des rheinisch-west- 
falischen industriegebietes mit trinkmilch unter beson- 
derer berucksichtigung des rohmilchproblems. Inter- 
nath Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 36-40. 

44.9 In8211 

Deals with the milk supply of this area and marketing 
control. Considers milk production costs in relation to 
prices. 

275. GOOD management doubles volume of Elmwood 
creamery in three years. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28 
(17): 12-13. Sept. 10, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

Rapid growth of the business is attributed to the devel- 
opment of a good and dependable market for 92 and 93 
score print butter. The creamery formerly manufactured 
only tub butter. « 

276. GOSNEY, G. F. Marketing of milk products in 
England, Wales and Scotland. Internath Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 40-42. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses marketing facilities in the first three decades 
o£ the century and the various schemes under the Agri- 
cultural Marketing Acts of 1931 and 1933. Shows the need 
for building up a manufacturing industry in dairy pro- 
ducts in Great Britain. 

277. GRADING of ice cream becomes reality in Memphis 
where Health Department expects to attain goal of grading 
in 5 years. Ice Cream Rev. 21(3): 58, 97, 98. Oct. 1937. 
389.8 Ic22 

Provisions and operation of the Frozen Dessert Ordi- 
nance whose sanitary regulations went into effect Julv 1, 
1937. 

278. GT. BRIT. FOOD COUNCIL. Report... to the 
President of the Board of Trade on costs and profits of 
retail milk distribution in Great Britain. London, H. M. 
Stationery Off., 36 p. 1937. 280.344 G795 

This study, made because of the tendency of retail milk 
prices to rise since inception of the Milk Marketing 
Schemes, shows that, in general, distributors profits are 
not large. Freeing retail prices from any controls is 
suggested as a possible method of effecting some reduc- 
tion in distributive margins. 

279. GT. BRIT. MILK MARKETING BOARD. Milk 
Marketing Scheme, 1933, as amended 1936 and 1937. 
London, 1937. 35 p. 280.344 G794M 

Scheme under the Agricultural Marketing Act, 1931, reg- 
ulating the marketing of milk. 
Milk price control, England and Wales. 

280. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Milk acts, 1934 and 1936. Arrangements 
for increasing the demand for milk within the area of the 
Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales by publicity 
and propaganda (Third scheme). London, H. M. Station- 
ery Off., 1937. 4 p. 280.344 G792Ar 

The campaign is estimated to cost L60,000 and is to be 
carried out by newspaper advertising, special publicity, 
and the use of posters. 

281. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Milk policy. Presented by command of his 
Majesty, July, 1937. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1937. 
8 p. (Parliament. Papers by command Cmd. 5533) 
281.344 G79 

Notes the beneficial effects of control exercised by the 
Milk Marketing Boards. Because of the improved price 
situation, greater stress is placed on measures designed 
to promote the increased consumption of liquid milk and 
the provision of a purer milk supply. These are outlined, 
with an indication of the facilities required for their oper- 
ation. 



18 



282. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Milk; report of Reorganisation Commission 
for Great Britain. Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. Econ. Ser. 44, 
362 p. 1936. 280.9 G792 

Also in Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. J. 43: 840-845. Dec. 1936. 
10 G79J; Soc. Serv. Rev. 18: 10-12. Jan. 1937. 
280.8 Sol 

As a means to the development and control of a national 
milk policy based upon the expansion of the liquid milk 
market, the establishment of a permanent Milk Commis- 
sion is recommended. Modifications in the operation of 
the Milk Marketing Schemes are proposed, with contin- 
uance of the producers' Boards. 

Suggestions are made regarding the fixing of milk prices, 
financial assistance by the British Government, and 
transport and distribution practices. Improvements in 
milk production, uniformity in grades and grading, effi- 
ciency of manufacture, and stimulation of consumption are 
further objectives considered. 

283. GT. BRIT. SCOTTISH OFFICE. Arrangements for 
increasing the demand for milk by the supply of milk at 
reduced rates in schools within the area of the Scottish 
Milk Marketing Scheme, H933. Edinburgh, H. M. 
Stationery Off., 1937. 3 p. 280.344 Sco32 

This modification of the scheme applies only to milk 
actually consumed in schools. 

284. GRIMES, M. Legislation and proposed bacterial 
standards for milk and ice cream. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 372-374. 44.9 In8211 

Such standards should be based on methods that will 
give the maximum bacterial count in relation to the total 
bacterial count obtained. Shows the necessity for control 
legislation in the Irish Free State. 

285. HAMMERBERG, D. O., and SULLIVAN, W. G. An 
economic analysis of the charges for transporting milk to 
Connecticut markets. A preliminary report on the project: 
"Supply and transportation of milk in Connecticut." 
Storrs, Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1937. 26 p. 280.344 C763 

This report is based upon records on 237 routes supply- 
ing milk dealers in the important milk-consuming areas 
In Connecticut. Results show that rates charged by dis- 
tributors were higher than those of independent truckers 
and that a revision of routes is needed. 

Establishment of prices for milk at farms rather than at 
markets would not solve the rate problem. Control of 
transportation and transportation rates by associations of 
milk producers is suggested as a solution to the problems 
involved. 

286. HANSON, F. E. Texas, once famed for longhorn 
steers, now making longhorn cheese. Natl. Butter and 
Cheese J. 28(19): 10-11. Oct. 10, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

TeUs briefly of the development of the cheese industry 
in Texas and discusses production problems. A table 
showing cheese production, 1928-1935, is included. 

287. HARVEY, W. C, and HILL, H. Milk products. 
London, Lewis, 1937. 388 p. 44 H26M 

Separate chapters describe the processes of manufac- . 
ture, with desirable methods of control, for ice cream, 
cream, butter and margarine, cheese, condensed milk, 
evaporated milk, and dried milk. These subjects are 
considered primarily according to their public health 
significance, so that hygienic factors are given some 
prominence in the general treatment. Subsidiary milk 
products, such as fermented milks, lactalbumin, lactose, 
whey foods and casein, are discussed in the final chapter, 
together with some new uses for milk. 

288. HAUCK, E. L'importance economique et l'organ- 
isation de l'industrie laitiere allemande. Lait 17: 789- 
793. July /Aug. 1937. 44.8 L143 

Describes efforts made to stabilize the dairy industry 
in Germany, especially as regards milk and butter prices, 
and developments in the use of milk and skim milk for 
manufacturing byproducts. 



289. HEEBINK, G., and HENDERSON, H. O. Feeding 
for profit in milk production. W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. C. 
74, 28 p. Sept. 1937. 100 W52 

Feed cost is shown to be the most important single item 
in the cost of producing milk on West Virginia dairy 
farms. 

290. HENDERSON, R., and HAYES, G. G. Milk produc- 
tion costs and profitability on twenty Devon and Cornwall 
farms. Newton Abbot, Devonshire, Eng., Seale-Hayne 
Agr. Col. Dept. Econ., 1937. 40 p. 281.344 Sel 

The period covered by this survey is from 1934-35 to 
1936-37. In the first part are shown constitutional aspects 
of the farms, investments, production and disposal of 
milk, distribution of calvings, and average costs per cow 
and per gallon of milk. In the second part profits of 19 
of the farms are tabulated and discussed. 

291. HENRY, A. La politique du beurre et des oeufs en 
Belgique. Brussels, Comite Central Industriel de Bel- 
gique, 1937. 69 p. 281.172 H39P 

An account of the marketing of butter and eggs and the 
Government's policy with respect to them. Concludes 
that there is not an overproduction of butter and that con- 
sumption could be increased by a reduction in price. 
Claims that margarine does not enter into competition 
with butter and that the quality of butter could be improved 
by production in factories rather than on the farm. 

292. HERRMANN, L. F. Milk distribution costs in 
West Virginia: HI. A study of the costs incurred by 67 
producer-distributors in the Charleston, Huntington and 
Parkersburg markets for a twelve-month period during 
1935-1936. W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 282, 26 p. June 
1937. 100 W52 

Results of the study show the average cost to be $1.94 
per cwt. Labor and truck expense were the most impor- 
tant items of cost, amounting to 93 c. and 45 c. respec- 
tively. The tendency toward higher costs among plants 
than among producer-distributors was due to higher 
wages, additional costs of pasteurization, greater adminis- 
trative costs, and a larger investment in real estate and 
equipment. 

293. HERRMANN, L. F., and BOWLING, G. A. Milk 
production costs in West Virginia: H. A study of the costs 
incurred by 36 farms in the Huntington and Charleston 
markets in 1935-1936. West Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 281, 
27 p. Morgantown, 1937. 100 W52 

In the Huntington herds total costs were $2.20 per cwt. 
and in the Charleston herds, $2.26. High costs were due 
to less than average production per cow, too heavy feed- 
ing of grain that was too high in protein in relation to 
roughage fed, and high costs for use of buildings and 
other items besides feed and labor. "Producing ability of 
the cows kept, together with their management for high 
production, had so strong an influence on costs of produce 
tion as to obscure the effect of size of herd." 

294. HERZ, H. KUnstliche eingriffe in dem milchmarkt 
und die preisgestaltung. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(3): 42-47. 44.9 In8211 

Considers objectives and effects of milk marketing con- 
trol. 

295. HIBBEN, R. C. Decade of progress in the American 
ice cream industry. Refrig. Engin. 34(1): 18-20, 28, 39, 
54, 56, 58, 64. July 1937. 295.9 Am32J 

Considers the utilization of milk for ice cream and 
sanitary requirements in the manufacture of ice cream. 

296. KTNDE, W. Improvement program for quality 
milk. Hoard's Dairyman 82: 53. Jan. 25, 1937. 
44.8 H65 

A program for the "Quad-City" market, which includes 
Moline, niinois. It provides for the grading of milk and 
penalizes the farmer whose score is less than 170 points 
(300 possible). 

297. HOCHLEITNER, A. Planwirtschaftliche massnah- 
men auf dem gebiete der Osterreichischen milchwirt- 
schaft. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 
47-50. 44.9 In8211 

Outlines postwar conditions in Austria leading to milk 
marketing control. 



19 



298. HOMEN, A., and HOLMSTEN, E. Ein rtickblick 
auf die resultate der exportbutterpriifung in Filmland 
1913-1935. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(2): 374-379. 44.9 In8211 

Export butter has been tested for keeping quality since 
1896, and since 1913 a standardized control system has 
been in effect. 

299. HORAK, K. Die befbrderung von rohmilch in tanks. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 334-335. 
44.9 In8211 

Greater volumes can be handled in tanks which are 
easily cleaned. The quality of tank-hauled milk is supe- 
rior as evidenced by bacterial counts. Savings in freight 
charges and the low cost of truck maintenance are addi- 
tional advantages. 

300. HOWELL, J. P., EVANS, H. E., and GRIFFITHS, 

J. D. Recent costs of milk production in Wales. Welsh 
J. Agr. 13: 41-68. Jan. 1937. 10 W46 

For 23 months ending September 1936, shows feed, 
labor, depreciation, and miscellaneous costs of milk pro- 
duction. 

301. INDIANA. Laws, statutes, etc. Milk control law. 
Milk production and marketing declaration of policy. An 
act concerning the production and distribution of milk, 
creating a Milk Control Board and defining its powers and 
duties. Indianapolis, 1937. 34 p. 280.344 In2 

Duties of the Board include supervision and regulation of 
the industry in the State, establishment of reasonable 
trade practices, and the setting up of schedules of prices 
to be paid to producers. 

302. TNNIS, H. A., ED. The dairy industry in Canada. 
Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1937. 299 p. Ref. 
281.344 R83 

Partial contents: Pt. 2, The development of the dairy in- 
dustry in Canada, by J. A. Ruddick; Pt. 3, Problems of 
the Canadian dairy industry, by W. M. Drummond; It. 4, 
Problems of a specialized area - the Fraser Valley, by 
R. E. English; Pt. 5, American tariff policy and the 
Canadian dairy industry, by J. E. Lattimer and H. A. 
Innis. 

Includes developments and costs of the milk, butter, and 
cheese industries, marketing, market outlets, and 
attempts at artificial price-raising. 

303. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MILK SANI- 
TARIANS. COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF IMPROVING 
MILK SUPPLIES IN SMALL COMMUNITIES. Report. 
Internatl. Assoc. Milk Sanit. Ann. Rpt. 1936: 347-381. 
1937. 44.9 In89 

L. C. Frank, Chairman of Committee. 

A survey of the present status of milk control of Ameri- 
can municipalities of 1,000 to 10,000 population for the 
year 1935. Gives information on organization, adminis- 
tration, and operation of the programs. 

304. *INTERNATIONAL UNION OF LOCAL AUTHOR- 
ITIES. Conference internationale, Paris, July 5-11, 1937. 
H. Regulation and control of milk, 1937. 180 p. 

305. JACKSON, H. C. The problem of paying for milk 
in whole milk creameries. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28 
(8): 34-35. Apr. 25, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

Payment for milk, on a straight fat basis, after allow- 
ances on returns, is discussed. When the skim milk is 
to be dried, equitable payment involves three factors: the 
yield of powder in relation to the test of milk received, 
the added expenses involved in handling low testing milk, 
and the price received for powder. 

306. JACOB, A. W. Some economic aspects of the 
price paid to producers for butterfat in Oklahoma, 1926 to 
1935, inclusive. Okla. Agr. Expt. Current Farm Econ. 
10(4): 68-71. Aug. 1937. 100 Ok4 

A study of the spread between the butterfat price re- 
ceived by producers in Oklahoma and in the United States, 
including factors responsible for the improved price re- 
ceived by Oklahoma producers as compared to other pro- 
ducers over the United States. 



*Not examined 



307. JARVK, M. (Jber die fOrderung der qualitat von 
milch und butter in Estland. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(2): 379-383. 44.9 In8211 

Contains information on milk and butter control. The 
payment of premiums for first class products has made 
for quality improvement. 

308. JENSEN, J. Die qualitatskontrolle der exportfir- 
men mit danischer exportbutter. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 384-387. 44.9 In8211 

The exporting firms cooperate with the State in this pro- 
gram. 

309. JOHNSON, O. M. Trends in ice cream costs. Ice 
Cream Rev. 20(6): 73. Jan. 1937. 389.8 Ic22 

From Internatl. Assoc. Ice Cream Mfrs. Spec. B. 53, 
"Trends in Ice Cream Costs." 

A much larger portion of the expense dollar of the ice 
cream manufacturer was required for product cost in 
1935 than in several previous years. Two factors which 
have contributed to this are: (1) increase in product cost, 
and (2) increase in volume of production. Charts showing 
product cost, distribution cost and total cost exclusive of 
product cost are included. 

310. JOHNSON, S. M. Elasticity of supply of milk from 
Vermont plants. II. Factors affecting deliveries in Cabot 
and Marshfield, Vt., 1920-1935. Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 
429, 40 p. Dec. 1937. 100 V59 

Milk production in these two towns in the Boston milk- 
shed was positively correlated with milk and feed prices, 
expressed as milk -feed price ratios, for about three pre- 
ceding years. 

311. JOHNSON, T. D., and MCCORD, J. E. Dairy farm 
organization and management in southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 350, 82 p. May 1937. 
100 P381 

A survey of Chester County farms covering the period 
1930-31, similar to studies made in 1912 and 1922. Shows 
effects of different types of organization on incomes and 
relation of management and feeding of the dairy herd to 
profits, and includes data on costs and milk marketing and 
prices. 

312. JUDKINS, H. F. Problems yet to be solved in the 
dairy industry. Foo'd Indus. 9: 710, 737. Dec. 1937. 
389.8 F737 

An overall picture of the dairying situation, with specif- 
ic regard to milk and cream, evaporated milk, ice cream, 
and cheese. Production and quality angles are stressed. 
Economic aspects of the industry, such as milk-buying 
plans and bottling costs, are touched upon. 

313. KIEFERLE, F., and SEUSS, A. Einfluss der luft- 
durchl'assigkeit der einwickelmaterialien auf die qualitat 
der kase. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11 
(2): 398-401. 44.9 In8211 

Wrapping soft cheese with papers of high air permeabilW 
ty had a favorable effect on quality. 

314. KIEFERLE, F., and SEUSS, A. Der einfluss des 
butterfarbbles und der einwickelpapiere auf das autoxyda- 
tive verderben der butter. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(2): 129-133. 44.9 In8211 

Exposure to light and the use of vegetable butter-color- 
ing hasten oxidative changes at the surface of butter. 
Parchment paper (treated), cell-glass, and metal foils 
gave good protection against light. 

315. KJAERGAARD- JENSEN, N. Verschiedene milch- 
hygienische massnahmen in Danemark. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 387-393. 44.9 In8211 

Includes milk tests, with price deductions for poorer 
quality milk, sanitary controls, and the application of 
regulatory laws and decrees. 

316. KLANG, J. Der anteil der energiekosten an den 
gesamtbetriebskosten in frischmilch- und verarbeitungs- 
betrieben, buttereien und kasereien Osterreichs. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss..Ber. (1937) 11(3): 430-435. 

44.9 In8211 

Presents data on power and fuel costs in Austrian dai- 
ries. 



20 



317. KOESTLER, G. Das verbandswesen und sein ein- 
fluss auf die hebung der gute von milch und milcherzeug- 
nissen. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 
401-405. 44.9 In8211 

Cites the Swiss Emmental cheese factories as an exam- 
ple of the benefits deriving from organization for quality 
improvement. 

318. KOLLMORGEN, W. The milk industry of Nebraska. 
Nebr. Conserv. B. 15, 92 p. Dec. 1937. 279.9 N272B 

An attempt is made to evaluate Nebraska's position in 
the national dairy picture and dairy conditions in the 
state. Price considerations are included in a discussion 
on fluid milk, as well as those of its quality and uses. 
Milk cow improvement and care, management of pastures, 
bovine tuberculosis eradication, and tariffs as regards 
dairy products are other topics dealt with. 

319. KROG, A. J., and DOUGHERTY, D. S. Scoops as a 
source of contamination of ice cream in retail stores. 
Amer. J. Pub. Health 27: 1007-1009. Oct. 1937. 

449.9 Am3J 

Recommends that ice cream scoops and other dispensing 
utensils be kept on a dry rack protected from flies, dust, 
and other sources of contamination, instead of in water, 
and rinsed with either hot or cold tap water after and be- 
fore each use. 

320. KUGLER, A. Entwicklung und organisation der 
milchwirtschaft im Burgenland. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 56-59. 44.9 In8211 

Includes information on milk production and marketing 
in this Austrian province. 

321. KURMANN, O. Erfahrungen mit offener und ge- 
schlossener milchfbrderung und milchlagerung. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 338-341. 
44.9 In8211 

Closed transport and storage of milk are factors for 
quality maintenance and better dairy management. 

322. LAMPRECHT, F. Die verwendung von magermilch, 
insbesondere milcheiweiss, in der menschlichen ern'ah- 
rung. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 270- 
273. 44.9 In8211 

The use of milk protein in bread and various dough prod- 
ucts, sausages, crackers, soups, breakfast foods, and 
cocoa is discussed. 

323. LASNET DE LANTY, J. Le paiement du lait a la 
matiere grasse. Agr. Prat. 67: 1528-1529. Oct. 30, 
1937. 14 J82 

Methods of payment according to three grades of milk- 
rich, medium, and poor— are discussed, with proposed 
modifications to promote better quality milk production. 

324. LAUTERBACH, A. H. Milk market regulation. 
New Brunswick, 1937. 6 p. 275.2 N46L 

Discusses price fixing and regulatory policies from the 
standpoints of practicality and constitutionality. 

325. LAYSON, S. V. Regulation and control of milk 
supplies. Milk Dealer 26(5): 36-39, 102-104. Feb. 1937. 
44.8 M595 

An account of the regulation of sanitation in the milk in- 
dustry in Illinois, past and present. The Milk Pasteuriza- 
tion Plant Law of 1925 empowered the Department of 
Public Health to adopt and enforce minimum require- 
ments for the construction, equipment and operation 
of milk pasteurization plants. Enforcement of this Act 
was placed in the Division of Sanitary Engineering. 

326. LINTNGER, F. F. A glimpse of the dairy industry 
abroad today. Perm State Farmer (n. s.) 2(4): 113, 119, 
128, 130-132. Jan. 1937. 276.8 P38 

Report of observations on a trip to Europe in the sum- 
mer of 1936 including material on milk price control un- 
der British marketing schemes. 

327. LININGER, F. F., and COWDEN, T. K. Marketing 
milk. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 352, 23 p. Oct. 1937. 

100 P381 

Shows the percentages of pasteurized milk in the Phila- 
delphia and Pittsburgh milksheds and the Pennsylvania 
area of the New York City milkshed sold as fluid milk, 
and the maximum range in milk prices within a county. 



328. LIZEE, D. L'utilisation des exc6dents de lait pour 
la fabrication de produits laitiers tels que laits condenses, 
poudre de lait, etc. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(2): 248-249. 44.9 In8211 

States that in France there is (as of December 1936) no 
chance for further utilization of surplus milk for the man- 
ufacture of condensed milk or rich milk powder. 

329. LIZEE, D. Utilisation du babeurre, du lait ecreme 
et du petit -lait. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(2): 273-274. 44.9 In8211 

Considers the utilization of buttermilk and skim milk in 
powder form, of the latter as a source of casein, and of 
whey products. Points out their extensive use as feed in 
France. 

330. LOHR, L. Der einfluss der wirtschaftseigenen 
fiitterung auf die rentabilit'at der milcherzeugung. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(1): 134-142. 

44.9 In8211 

Shows the relation of positive net returns to the use of 
home-produced feeds on 18 farms in lower Austria. 

331. LOHSE, T. Die kontrolle der zum export be- 
stimmten d'anischen molkereierzeugnisse. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 410-413. 44.9 In82L 

Discusses state standards and regulatory procedures 
applying mainly to export butter. 

332. LONZA-WERKE ELEKTROCHEMISCHE FABRIKEN 
G. m. b. H. Lochscheibe und trinkhalm als werbefak- 
toren fur den milchverbrauch. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 228-229. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses consumer preference in regard to milk in 
bottles with perforated caps, and advances in the manu- 
facture of "straws" used with them. 

333. LOOMIS, A. M. The stability of the dairy industry. 
Amer. Cream and Poultry Prod. Rev. 84: 628-631. 

Sept. 8, 1937. 286.85 N482 

Includes consumption data and reference to stability as 
affected by price mechanism. 

334. LOVELAND, E. H. The interest of the dairy indus- 
try in efficient production. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. 
Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. Abs. of Material presented 
at Ann. Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. 16: 77-90. Nov. 4-5, 
1937. 44.9 V593A 

Milk production costs can be lowered by keeping records 
of the production and feed cost of individual cows, using 
this information as a basis for culling low-producing 
cows, feeding the good cows more efficiently with both 
roughage and grain, and breeding for high-producing cows. 

335. LUCAS, I. E. L'importance des conditions hygieni- 
ques de l'Stable en tenant compte des limites imposees 
par la rentabilite. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(1): 222-223. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses costs of producing milk in relation to costs 
for improvements. Finds that a price differential for the 
milk produced, and also some State subsidy, would be 
necessary to meet the extra expenses entailed. 

336 MCBRIDE, C. G., and others. Milk marketing 
problems. J. Farm Econ. 19: 494-507. May 1937. 
280.8 J822 

Abstracts of papers read before a Round Table Session 
at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Farm Econom- 
ic Association, Chicago, 111., Dec. 29, 1936, and prepared 
by Leland Spencer. 

Contents: Possibilities and limitations of public control 
in milk marketing, by C. G. McBride, p. 494-496; Plant 
operating efficiency in the market milk industry, by J. M. 
Tinley p. 496-500; The supply and utilization of milk in 
Pennsylvania, by T. K. Cowden, p. 501-505; Competitive 
market forces and their effect upon fluid milk consump- 
tion, by W. P. Mortenson, p. 505-507. 

337. MCDOWALL, F. H. Milk supplies to cheese facto- 
ries. New Zeal. J. Sci. and Technol. 19: 145-164. Ref. 
Aug. 1937. 514 N48 

Considers the problem of providing an equitable distri- 
bution of the net proceeds of the sale of cheese among the 
individual suppliers; the relationship between butter and 
cheese factories, and the difference in the guaranteed 
price per pound of butterfat as between butter and cheese 
factories; and the effect of prices on the general practices 
of breeding cows to supply milk to cheese factories. 



21 



338. MCDOWALL, F. H. Payment for milk for cheese- 
making. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 
413-414. 44.9 In8211 

Suggests payment on the cheese yielding capacity of the 
milk based on estimation of fat and casein. Termed the 
"Costed" cheese system, it allows for variations in the 
cost of manufacturing cheese from milks of different com- 
position. 

339. MACGILLIVRAY, J. C. Dairy products situation 
in Germany. Canada. Dept. Trade & Com. Com. Intel. J. 
57: 631-635. Oct. 9, 1937. 286.8 C16 

An account is given of the organization of the dairy in- 
dustry, production and consumption of dairy products, 
prices, and foreign trade. A table showing Germany's 
relative position in 1936 among the principal world pro- 
ducers and consumers of dairy products, is included. 

340. MCGRATH, A. E. Responsibility of the field su- 
perintendent to the cream quality program. Natl. Butter 
and Cheese J. 28(5): 31-32. Mar. 10, 1937. 

286.85 B98Bu 

"Read before Educational Conference of the Creamery 
Industry of Missouri and all Midwestern States, Universi- 
ty Missouri, February 1937." 

Discusses the subject from the standpoint of the field 
superintendent who is in charge of a territory largely 
made up of cream-buying stations, and states that it is 
the duty of the superintendent to solve the quality problem 
by lining up his stations on a grading program. 

341. MACLEOD, A. The milksheds of New Hampshire; 
a study of their characteristics and relationships. N. H. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 295, 11 p. Apr. 1937. 100 N45 

Gives the location of producers and their markets; esti- 
mates of sales by type of distributors for the markets 
operating under the State Milk Control Board; and the 
relationship of local and out-of-state markets to one 
another. 

342. MAJER, G. Die verwertung der molke als pferde- 
trank. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 
274-275. 44.9 In8211 

Whey may be used to advantage as a drink for horses 
and is willingly taken by them after they have become ac- 
customed to it. Feeding tests on a large scale have shown 
that, on an average, 34 liters of whey are equal to one 
kilogram of oats per day. 

343. MALITZ, H. Einrichtungen in milchwirtschaft- 
lichen betrieben zur herstellung von verkauf sf ertigen 
packungen fur milch und milcherzeugnisse. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 406-409. 

44.9 In8211 

Discusses the paraffined "Perga-package" as a con- 
tainer for milk, cream, and cottage cheese, and paper con- 
tainers in general. 

344. MANRART, V. C. Some economic aspects of a 
milk quality program. Milk Dealer 26(9): 70. June 1937. 
44.8 M595 

The Dairy Department of Purdue University recom- 
mended a milk quality control program for general use in 
Indiana, the provisions being that all milk be graded at 
the plant by taste and smell; that milk objectionable in 
flavor or of high acid content should be rejected or paid 
for at a lower price; and that milk satisfactory on the 
basis of flavor should be subjected to the methylene blue 
and sediment tests at least twice a month, with flavor 
being determined daily. Results of this plan -are given. 

345. MANN, A. I., and others. Profitable dairy farming. 
Conn. Agr. Col. Ext. B. 247, 28 p. 1937. 275.29 C76B 

A. R. Merrill, J. S. Owens, and P. L. Putnam, joint 
authors. 

Principal causes of high costs in producing milk are 
high feed costs, disease, labor inefficiency, low producing 
cows and too small a farm business. Solutions to these 
problems are discussed. 



346. MARCHI, A. La vente du lait et des autres pro- 
duits laitiers et l'etablissement d'un prix acceptable pour 
le producteur, le detaillant et le consommateur. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 59-62. 

44.9 In8211 

Discusses the effects of marketing control of dairy 
products in Italy. 

347. MARQUARDT, J. C. Observations on European 
cheese production. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(3): 25- 
26, 28. Feb. 10, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

Tells briefly of conditions in Germany, England, and 
Ireland and of the manufacture of Hollander and Tilsiter 
cheese in Germany. Quality is not the main item in stim- 
ulating the importation of cheeses into the United States. 
Leading factors governing cheese imports are low manu- 
facturing costs in foreign countries and lack of manufac- 
turing knowledge of certain varieties. 

348. MASS. MILK CONTROL BOARD. Report... relative 
to the sale of "surplus milk," so called, and other mat- 
ters relating to the production and sale of milk, Nov. 30, 
1936. 39 p. Boston, 1937. 280.344 M383R 

The report recommends: 1. The Milk Control Board 
should be provided with authority to enforce regulations 
with respect to inspection, labeling, and grading of milk. 
2. The Milk Control Law should be amended to clarify its 
language. 3. Adequate provision should be made for more 
frequent checks on testing and weighing of milk. 4. An 
adequate protective statute, providing for the inspection 
of cream, should be enacted. 5. An appropriation for 
state-wide advertising of milk, to expand consumption and 
to educate consumers, would be helpful to the dairy indus- 
try and to the inhabitants of the Commonwealth. 

349. MATTHEWS, T. A. Regulating the sale of milk, 
m. Munic. Rev. 16(3): 51-55, 58. Mar. 1937. Lib. Cong. 

Deals in part with certain enactments of the Illinois 
Legislature, and court decisions. 

350. MENKE, H. H. Die restmilchfrage in der deutschen 
marktregelung. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. B^r. (1937) 
11(2): 278-282. 44.9 In8211 

Resolves the problem into one of effective utilization of 
skimmed milk. In addition to commonly accepted uses of 
this product and whey, the Germans are introducing case- 
in more extensively in the human diet. When precipitated 
by pectic substances the casein may be used as an egg- 
albumen substitute in the baking industry. As sodium ca- 
seinate it is used in various foods, especially breakfast 
foods. 

351. MERCHANT, I. A. Needs of national and state 
unity in the sanitary control of dairy products. Amer. 
Vet. Med. Assoc. J. 90: 398-402. Mar. 1937. 41.8 Am3 

Shows the forces operating for and against uniformity 
in this field, particularly in the application of regulations 
and methods. 

352. METZGER, M. J. Buying plans— ratio between 
cream fat and whole milk prices. Internatl. Assoc. Milk 
Dealers Prod. Sect. Proc. 30: 34-39. 1937. 44.9 In8 

Deals principally with the buying plan in the Chicago 
market. 

353. MIDLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. DEPT. OF 
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. Investigation into the 
economics of milk production; a comparison of milk pro- 
duction during the two winters of 1935-36 and 1936-37. 
Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, England, Aug. 1937. 

26 p. 281.344 M585 

The winter 1936-37 was not so advantageous to milk pro- 
duction as the winter 1935-36 on 48 English farms for 
which data were obtained. Weather conditions plus poor 
quality hay resulted in a lower average yield per cow and, 
in spite of an increase in the average herd size, a lower 
total output. 

The price of purchased feeding stuffs increased and the 
value of home-grown feeds was increased in proportion. 
The average delivered cost per gal. was 12.14d. in the 
winter 1935-36 and 13.35d. in the following one. The pool 
price per gal. was 0.42d. higher in the latter. 



22 



354. MILK distribution proposals. Planning, 106, 15 p. 
Sept. 21, 1937. 280.8 P693 

Deals with the British Government's long-term policy 
with regard to insuring a safe milk supply, lowering dis- 
tribution costs, and increasing consumption. 

355. MILK regulation in New York. Yale Law J. 46: 
1359-1370. June 1937. L9 Y2 

Discusses the New York Milk Control Law, 1933, re- 
vised in 1934, as a basis of depression milk regulation. 
Finds that the inability of the State to control out-of-state 
milk severely limited the effectiveness of the price-fixing 
provisions. Suggests ways and means of improving the 
milk market structure in the State. 

356. THE MILK (Special Designations) Order, 1936, with 
respect to accredited milk. Royal Sanit. Inst. J. 57: 624- 
670. Apr. 1937. 449.9 R812 

Papers by W. G. Savage, F. W. Medlock, H. F. Long, 
and W. T. Price, p. 625-657, and discussion, p. 658-670. 

These papers, read at a conference held in London on 
Jan. 28, 1937, discuss the manner of administration of the 
Order with the object of securing greater uniformity. 

357. MILLER, S. L. Farmers' and consumers' cross- 
fire hurts earning power of dairy industry. Annalist 50: 
780, 812. Nov. 12, 1937. 284.8 N48 

Includes data relating to farm income from milk com- 
pared with that for other commodities, 1929-34, per 
capita consumption of dairy products, 1925-35, production 
of dairy products, 1927-36, and consumer incomes and 
prices of dairy products, 1927-37. Dairy company reve- 
nues and cash farm income are charted. 

358. MOFFETT, W. K. Milk control in Pennsylvania. 
Intl. Assoc. Milk Sanit. Rpt. 1936: 165-170, 172-175. 
1937. 44.9 In89 

Discusses the application of the Act of 1935 regulating 
milk in the State. 
Discussion, p. 175-180. 

359. MORK, R. Die milchwirtschaftliche marktordnung 
Norwegens. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) if 
(3): 62-65. 44.9 In8211 

Shows status of milk, cheese, and butter marketing con- 
trol in Norway. 

360. MORTENSEN, M., and others. Standardization of 
Iowa butter. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 358: 377-405. May 
1937. 100 Io9 

D. F. Breazeale, C. H. Meyer, and M. B. Michaelian, 
joint authors. 

Project 109 of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station 
to determine the extent of variation in the chemical com- 
position of butter manufactured in the various creameries, 
and to assist the creameries to' manufacture butter of a 
more uniform chemical composition. 

361. MURRAY, K. A. H. Milk consumption. Oxford, 
Agr. Econ. Res. Inst., 1937, 64 p. 281.344 M96 

The first section of this study summarizes the existing 
analyses of the factors affecting milk consumption. The 
1 second and third sections deal with a survey of the con- 
sumption of milk and milk products carried out in Oxford 
during the summer of 1936, the results of which suggest 
that not income alone, but indifference, habit, and lack of 
appreciation influence consumption. 

362. NATIONAL MILK PUBLICITY COUNCIL, INC., 
I LONDON. Publicity for milk in England. Internatl. 

Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 231-235. 44.9 In8211 
Covers the work of the Council and contains reference 
[ to milk-in-schools and milk-in-industry schemes, general 
and special organization, press advertising and poster 
displays, films, exhibitions, agricultural shows and milk 
bars, and editorial publicity. 

363. NETHERLANDS. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Gov. Meas- 
ures Affecting Agr. Prices 3(10): 48-58. 1937. 

281.8 In8 
Legislation on dairy products. 



364. N. Y. (STATE) LEGISLATURE. COMMITTEE TO 
INVESTIGATE THE MILK CONTROL LAW. Report, 
March 22, 1937. Albany, J. B. Lyon, 1937. 31 p. 
280.344 N485 

Report based on testimony given at twelve public hear- 
ings, 1937. Prices, loss of fluid milk market by New York 
State producers, and breakdown of enforcement of the law 
in the metropolitan area are among subjects discussed. 

365. NICHITA, G. Mise en valeur de la surproduction 
laitiere— la poudre de lait. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(3): 235-244. 44.9 In8211 

Includes sections on the-utilization of milk powder for 
human and animal nutrition, and in the manufacture of 
food. 

366. NOBLE, K. F. Market for condensed milk in Brit- 
ish Malaya. Canada. Dept. Trade & Com. Com. Intel. J. 
57: 464-466. Sept. 11, 1937. 286.8 C16 

Shows sweetened and unsweetened condensed milk im- 
ports into British Malaya, of British and western Euro- 
pean origin, during 1935-May 1937; prices, packing, 
terms, and duties. The per capita consumption for the 
population of 4,500,000 is one tin of 14 ounces per month. 

367. 100 PER CENT paper container operation featured 
by Risdon in re-entering Detroit milk market. Milk 
Dealer 26(8): 42-43. May 1937. 44.8 M595 

A wholesale plant operating 100 percent on paper con- 
tainers made by one fully-automatic machine in the plant 
in quart, pint and half-pint sizes for use, as required, for 
milk, chocolate milk, sour cream, butter, cottage cheese, 
and ice cream. The dairy cites nine advantages in the 
use of its containers. 

368. OREGON. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. New law. 
Oreg. Dept. Agr. B. 63, 3 p. 1937. 2 Or3 

Comments briefly on and notes provisions of the new 
Oregon law which provides for the compulsory grading of 
dairy products. 

369. OREGON MILK CONTROL BOARD. Summary of 
present legal opinions of milk control legislation, by S. B. 
Weinstein. Portland, 1937. 10 p. 280.344 Or33 

As a result of the decisions of the United States Supreme 
Court and the courts of last resort of many of the States, 
the following legal principles may be adduced: 1, A state 
may require licenses or permits for the sanitary produc- 
tion and distribution of milk and milk products; 2, A state 
may adopt standards for milk and milk products in the 
interests of public health; and 3, A state may adopt legis- 
lation providing for reasonable regulation of the produc- 
tion, manufacture, sale and distribution of fluid milk and 
in such legislation provide for the fixing of minimum 
wholesale and retail prices. 

370. ORR, T. Milk control; an abridgement of the Brit- 
ish report to the Conference of the International Union of 
Local Authorities at Paris in July, 1937. Local Govt. 
Admin. 3(2): 78-84. June 1937. U. S. Dept. Labor Libr. 

General review of the control of milk production and 
marketing in Great Britain, with emphasis on health and 
sanitary aspects. 

371. PABST, W. R., JR. Butter and oleomargarine: an 
analysis of competing commodities. New York, Colum- 
bia U. Press, 1937. 112 p. 281.344 Pll 

Discusses the development of the industries, restraint 
of competition between butter and oleomargarine, the re- 
lationship of these commodities in the light of recent 
theoretical work and through the application of modern 
statistical technique, and the question of further taxation 
of oleomargarine. 

372. PACKARD, A. Selling milk under Federal license. 
Nation's Agr. 12(11): 1-2, 11-12. Oct. 1937. 280.82 B89 

Advantages and disadvantages of the Federal Milk Mar- 
keting Agreement and License in the Boston market. 

373. PARKER, C. V. Butter manufacturing costs in 
country and city plants. Econ. Annal. 7(4): 52-55. Aug. 
1937. 281.8 Ec72 

Relative costs of butter manufacture in Canadian cities, 
towns and viUages; includes costs of gathering cream. 



23 



374 PHELPS, C. S. Dairying in the St Lawrence Val- 
ley. Rur. New Yorker 96: 137. Feb. 13, 1937. 6 R88 

Beginning about 1850, when cheese factories were being 
introduced, until about the turn of the century, factory 
cheese-making was the leading branch of dairying in this 
area. At present, milk production for New York and Bos- 
ton markets predominates. 

375. PHILPOTT, H. G. A history of the New Zealand 
dairy industry, 1840-1935. Wellington, Govt. Printer, 
1937. 413 p. Ref. 281.344 P54 

Grading and branding of dairy products, legislation deal- 
ing with the industry, including the dairy industry acts, 
dairy produce regulations and the Primary Products Mar- 
keting Act, and packing of dairy produce are dealt with in 
separate chapters. A section on statistics relating to the 
industry is included. 

376. PITTSBURGH Health Department shuts off pro- 
ducers of high count milk. Milk Dealer 26(12): 82. Sept. 
1937. 44.8 M595 P 

In an enforcement of a city ordinance of 1910 which pro- 
vides that milk at receiving stations must not exceed a 
bacteria count of 500,000 per c.c, 2,000 dairy farms were 
recently excluded; 1,800 of these, however, have been re- 
instated because of reduced bacteria count in their milk. 
The 10,000 dairy farms under the direct supervision of 
the Pittsburgh Department of Public Health, located within 
a radius of 125 miles of the city, are visited twice yearly, 
or oftener if necessary, by a corps of 30 approved in- 
spectors in the employ of the milk companies. 

377. POLLARD, J. Milk and dairies legislation. Roy. 
Sanit. Inst. J. 57: 716-720. May 1937. 449.9 R812 

Discusses the British Milk and Dairies Order, 1926, the 
Milk Act, 1934, and the Milk (Special Designations) Order, 
1936, and what effect they have had in improving the milk 
supply. 

Discussion, p. 720-723. 

378. POST, J. W. Standardization of cream has im- 
proved quality in Midwestern States. Amer. Creamery 
84: 502-503, 512. Aug. 11, 1937. 286.85 N482 

Facts and figures are presented showing degrees of im- 
provement in cream quality as a result of standardization 
of "field" grading. 

379. POTTS, R. C. A champion of Gov't butter grading. 
Amer. Prod. Rev. 85(2): 52-54. Nov. 10, 1937. 

286.85 N482 

Address, Convention of Minnesota Creamery Operators 
and Managers Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Octo- 
ber 13, 1937. 

Describes briefly improvements of the proposed U. S. 
Standards and tells of the value of government butter 
grading service to the producer and consumer. 

380. POTTS, R. C. Government butter grading. Washing- 
ton, U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ., 1937, 6 p. 1.9 Ec724G 

Excerpts from addresses at Fond du Lac, Wis., Oct. 7, 
1936 and at La Crosse, Wis., Nov. 11, 1936. 

Tells briefly of the scope of the government grading 
service, how the butter grading service is used and shows 
how government grading aids in quality improvement. 

381. POTTS, R. C. Objectives of government butter 
grading. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Agr. Situation 21(4): 16- 
17. Apr. 1, 1937. 1 Ec7Ag 

382. PRESCOTT, M. S. Milk control in New York. 
Holstein-Freisian World 34: 10, 13, 20. Jan. 9, 1937. 

43.8 H742 

Statement presented to recent Four State Conference 
m New York City. 

Producers have been materially benefited by milk price 
control. Suggests changes in present legislation, includ- 
ing establishment in each retail market of three classes 
of milk. More control over inter -State milk is needed 
and prices for surplus should be based on what the milk 
is actually worth for manufacturing purposes. 

383. PRINGLE, C. Milk prices in England and Wales. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 65-70. 

44.9 In8211 

Considers, producers' and retail prices in relation to 
the operation of the Milk Marketing Scheme, and the ex- 
tent of Government assistance under it. 



384. QUINTUS, P. E. A system for quantity discounts 
on milk and cream. J. Farm Econ. 19: 636-639. May 
1937. 280.8 T822 

A retail and wholesale price plan, suggested by Edwin 
S. Elwell of the Northland Milk and Ice Cream Company, 
is described. Under this plan milk would be sold at a 
fixed price per quart regardless of the number of units 
taken, plus a service charge which decreases on a per 
unit basis as the size of the sale increases. The plan, if 
put into effect, would lower consumer prices without re- 
ducing producer prices or the net returns to dealers. 

385. REDUCING milk bottle losses. Amer. Creamery 
84: 294-297. June 30, 1937. 286.85 N482 

The use of premiums on collection of bottles, community 
educational programs, milk bottle exchanges, the univer- 
sal bottle and paper container, are ways and means sug- 
gested to minimize milk bottle losses. 

386. REINART, A. Organisationsformen der molkereien 
in Estland, deren vor- und nachteile. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 120-124. 44.9 In8211 

Private and cooperative dairies. 

387. REPORT of the milk program committee. Hol- 
stein-Friesian World 34: 1274-1275, 1284, 1286, 1297- 
1299. Dec. 25, 1937. 43.8 H742 

Report of a special committee of the Holstein-Friesian 
Association of America, appointed to make a study of the 
difficulties attending the marketing of Holstein milk and 
to develop a program designed to eliminate such difficul- 
ties with particular reference to enlisting members in a 
drive to legalize standardization of milk by dealers. Rec- 
ommends use of a trade-mark for Holstein milk, develop- 
ment of uniform State milk standards that will fit all 
natural milk from all dairy breeds, and that milk sold at 
retail should be labeled as to fat content in three classifi- 
cations, with at least 1 c. per qt. spread between classifi- 
cations. 

388. RIDDELL, W. H. Milk standard and solids-not- 
fat problem. Hoard's Dairyman 82: 103, 122-123. Feb. 
25, 1937. 44.8 H65 

There is a growing controversy as to the fairness of 
many State and municipal standards concerning the fat 
and solids -not -fat content of milk. Present standards, in 
many cases, were put in effect when too little was known 
of the behavior of the solids -not -fat content of milk and 
therefore a greater degree of tolerance is essential in en- 
forcing these standards today. 

389. RIEDEL, P. Verwertung von magermilch, butter- 
milch und molken. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937): 11(2): 285-289. 44.9 In8211 

Skim milk is used for human food in Germany chiefly 
in the form of cottage cheese, cottage cheese with cream 
(20 to 40 percent fat solids), and as sour milk curd for 
manufacturing other cheese. 

390. RIEDEL, W. Ober verpackung von butter. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 152-156. 

44.9 In8211 

Deals with the causes for the changes in stored butter, 
various wrapping materials and their standardization in 
Germany and the effect of light on butter. Recently pro- 
duced types of parchment paper which are made imper- 
vious to ultraviolet rays by addition of special substances 
proved superior to other foils. 

391. ROBERTS, J. B., and PRICE, H. B. Milk market- 
ing in Lexington. Ky. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 377: 263-301. 
Dec. 1937. 100 K41 

Gives information on organization and development of 
the market, sources of market milk, price mechanism, 
milk consumption and its variations, surplus and shortage, 
market competition, and dealers' price spreads. Analyzes 
the use of milk by pasteurizing plants, which sell only 
about one -half of the bottled milk of the city and distribute 
a relatively large proportion of manufactured products, 
besides handling most of the surplus milk. 



24 



392. RpBINEAU, M. La vente du lait et des produits 
derives et l'etablissement d'un prix acceptable pour les 
producteurs, les detaillants et les consommateurs. In- 
ternatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 70-74. 
44.9 In8211 

Hauser, Barus, and Baudoin, joint authors. 
Shows need for improved milk marketing regulation in 
France. 

393. RODGERS, J. B., and others. Distribution and 
costs of steam, electrical power, and labor in representa 7 
tive Idaho creameries. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 

12, 35 p. Ref. 1936. 100 Idl 

D. R. Theophilus, H. Beresford and J. L. Barnhart, 
joint authors. 

Summary in Amer. Creamery 83: 864. Apr. 14, 1937. 

This bulletin lists in detail the equipment used in two 
creameries, records results of boiler tests, and charts 
use of steam generated in both plants and what it was 
used for. Tables show power consumption of each piece 
of equipment, per hour, per day, and per month, and the 
cost of steam, electricity, and labor per unit of product 
manufactured. 

394. ROLLE, M. Die frischmilchkontrolle in den stadt- 
en Lettlands. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(2): 421-424. 44.9 In8211 

Sets forth requisites for an effective milk control pro- 
gram in the country. Licenses for the sale of milk are 
issued only upon inspection of the dairy farms supplying 
it. 

395. RUDDICK, J. A. The story of dairying in Canada. 
Canad. Geog. J. 15: 40-55. July 1937. 470 C162 

Outlines the origin and development of the industry and 
gives production and trade data. 

396. SADDINGTON, C. W. The dairy industry in Canada; 
butter, cheese. Canad. Chartered Accountant 29: 441- 
449; 31: 204-211. Dec. 1936, Sept. 1937. Libr. Cong. 

Shows that an increased output for individual factories 
and a greater yield of butterfat per cow are needed to 
lower the costs of butter production and make possible 
larger exports. Calls for more intensive cheese produc- 
tion to reduce costs, equalization of exchange rates to 
offset the advantage of other countries because of depre- 
ciated currencies, and reduction of transportation costs 
as regards long railway hauls. 

397. SAITNER, M. Die in Deutschland seit der macht- 
tibernahme durch den nationalsozialismus getroffenen 
organisatorischen massnahmen zur qualitatsverbesserung 
der butter. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11 
(2): 428-436. 44.9 In8211 

Discusses butter controls and standards based on offi- 
cial regulations. 

398. SAITNER, M. Massnahmen, die in Deutschland 
seit der machtflbernahme durch den nationalsozialismus 
zur qualitatsverbesserung der kase getroffen wurden und 
solehe, die in vorbereitung sind. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 436-444. 44.9 In8211 

Considers the effects of operations of the milk market- 
ing associations, the introduction of quality controls, and 
the payment for milk according to quality on the program, 
and the utilization of such means as consultant and infor- 
mation services, tests, and special training procedures to 
further it. 

399. SANDO, G. Propaganda -arbeit fiir gesteigerte ver- 
wendung von molkereierzeugnissen in DJtnemark. Inter- 
natl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 247-251. 

44.9 In8211 

Describes the organization of an intensive public rela- 
tions program in Denmark the results of which are pre- 
sented on the basis of retail milk sales. 

400. SAUER, H. Erfahrungen Uber die herstellune von 
frischem und getrocknetem molkeneiweiss. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 289-291. 

44.9 In8211 

Suggests methods of reducing costs of manufacturing 
whey protein, which have proved a drawback in its utiliza- 
tion. 



401. SAVXNI, E. De la fabrication, du commerce et de 
1 uniformisation des procedes d'analyse de la poudre de 
lait. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3)- 14- 
15. 44.9 In8211 

Deals in part with the designation of the product, fat 
content, moisture content, weight, and adulteration. 

402. SAVINI, E." La fabrication, le commerce et l'uni- 
formisation des methodes d'analyse des fromages fondus. 
Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 7-«. 

44.9 In8211 

Deals in part with the designation of the fat content, 
salt content, and weight. 

403. SCHILLING, K. Einrlchtungen in milchwirtschaft- 
lichen betrieben zur herstellung verkauf sf ertiger flaschen- 
milcli. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 
409-415.'. 44.9 In8211 

Considers the glass bottle with aluminum cap the best 
type of milk container. The paper container and card- 
board bottle cap have only limited uses in Germany. 

404. SCHNEIDER, G. Verwertung von entrahmter 
milch zu frischkSse. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(2): 291-295. 44.9 In8211 

Consumers can buy nutritive value in cottage cheese for 
about one fourth as much as the equivalent value would 
cost in eggs. Discusses packaging and marketing of the 
product. States that increasing consumption to 500 grams 
per household per week would take care of the surplus of 
skimmed milk and bring a better price for milk to the 
producer. 

405. SCHO. Germany's milk industrv. Hamburgisches 
Weltwirtschaft Arch. B. 3: 278-281. July 15, 1937. 
280.8 H17 

Amendments to the Milk Law, enacted on July 20, 1933, 
have paved the way for the organization of the German 
dairy industry in its present-day form. This is de- 
scribed, with information on production, consumption, 
marketing, and trade. Improvements and expansion are 
contemplated through the operation of the Four Year 
Plan. Increased utilization of skimmed milk powder and 
casein is noted. 

406. SCHULTHEISS, F. Fluid milk market stabilization 
in Wisconsin. Milk Dealer 26(7): 44, 80-84. Apr. 1937. 
44.8 M595 

Price regulation under the law due to expire July 1, 
1937. 

407. SCHULTHEISS, F. Is a State grading system for 
cheese profitable? Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(4): 41. 
Feb. 25, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

A system for grading cheese exclusively by State em- 
ployed graders is advocated. Such a system would curb 
unfair methods and practices in the grading and market- 
ing of cheese and would do away with the production of 
poor quality of cheese. 

408. SCOTT, J. M. Dairy industry in Florida. Milk 
Dealer 27(1): 50, 108. Oct. 1937. 44.8 M595 

Dairying in Florida differs from that of many other 
States in that about 90 percent of the milk produced is 
bottled and sold as fluid milk. Prior to 1932 large quanti- 
ties of milk were shipped into Florida from other States. 
However, since 1932 very little milk has been brought in- 
to the State. Florida dairymen are now supplying the en- 
tire demand for fluid milk. This development is de- 
scribed, with statistical data. A good start in the produc- 
tion of milk products is reported, too. 

409. SCOTTISH MILK MARKETING BOARD. Scottish 
milk marketing scheme, 1933. Incorporating amendments 
made in the scheme up to and including the 30th August 
1937. Edinburgh, H.'M. Stationery Off., 1937. 32 p. 
280.344 Sco34 

This is the text of the scheme providing for the regula- 
tion of milk marketing in Scotland. 

410. SMITH, B. L., and WHITBY, H. Milk marketing 
before and after organization: a study in central Somer- 
set. Oxford U. Agr. Econ. Res. Inst. 1937. 56 p. 
280 344 Ox2 

Reports the results of two surveys, 1931-32 and 1934-35, 
and shows that the effect of the Milk Scheme on producers 
has been favorable. 



25 



411. SPENCER, L. The milk situation in New York, 
January 1937. N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. B. 365, 19 p. Jan. 
1937. 275.29 N48E 

A study to show how the prices received by New York 
farmers for milk compare with other prices, and to show 
the trends in the general price level and in the supply and 
demand for milk. 

412. SPENCER, L. Prices of basic commodities and 
milk. N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. Farm Econ. 99: 2411, 2418. 
Feb. 1937. 280.8 C812 

Because fluid milk prices and other prices fixed by 
committees change more slowly than prices which are 
determined by competitive trading over a broad field, 
prices paid farmers for market milk usually lag when 
competitive prices rise or fall. In 1933, however, milk 
prices rose as promptly as basic commodity prices be- 
cause milk prices were arbitrarily lifted through price 
fixing by the Milk Control Boards of New York and New 
Jersey. 

413. SPENCER, L. A question of milk premiums. 
Amer. Prod. Rev. 85: 254-255. Dec. 29, 1937. 
286.85 N482 

Discusses the relation of surplus to price premiums for 
market milk over the manufacturing value of milk in New 
York. 

414. * SPENCER, L. References on milk marketing and 
public control of the milk industry. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 
191, 7 p. 1937. 281.9 C81 

415. SPENCER, L. Safeguarding your bottle of milk. 
Amer. Prod. Rev. 85: 100-104. Nov. 24, 1937. 
286.85 N482 

Review of wnat has been done to promote fair prices 
and a safe, high quality product, especially from a regula- 
tory standpoint. 

416. STEEN, H. The dairyman's market. Successful 
Farming 35: 59-62. Feb. 1937. 6 Sul2 

Consumption of dairy products has kept step with produc- 
tion in this country because of the efforts of the producer 
and distributor. Consumer education and research are 
also responsible for expansion of the dairyman's market. 

417. STOCKER, W. Die bezahlung der milch nach fett- 
gehalt und qualitat. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(2): 448-450. 44.9 In8211 

In Germany, milk payments are based upon a fat content 
of 3.50 to 3.70 percent. For, one-tenth percent fat above 
or below these values a sum of 0.2 Pfg. is added or de- 
ducted. Maximum limits for fat content have been fixed: 
4.20 percent for round cheese milk and 4.50 percent for 
milk for industrial purposes, beyond which the surplus of 
fat is not paid for. A standard fat content of 3.40 percent 
is considered the basis for fresh milk; a similar pro- 
cedure regarding payment prevails in case of higher or 
lower fat content. Milk for cheesemaking is priced ac- 
cording to results of fermentation tests. A premium is 
paid for milk in the excellent grade, and a price deduction 
is made for poorer milk. 

418. STUURMAN, S. Die bedeutung der stallhygiene 
fur die qualitat der milch unter beriicksichtigung der 
rentabilitSt. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(1): 235-240. 44.9 In8211 

Payment for milk should be based upon its sanitary 
quality; and this is dependent upon stable conditions, but 
even more upon methods used by the farmer. 

419. SVADSTROM, K. F. Zyklische veranderungen der 
milchproduktion und ihre ursachen. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 74-79. 44.9 In8211 

Shows the scope of marketing regulation in Sweden. 
Notes cyclical changes in milk production, consumption, 
and profits, and in the number of cattle. 

420. SWEDEN. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Govt. Measures Af- 
fecting Agr. Prices 3(10): 61-66. 1937. 281.8 In8 

Contains section on Milk Marketing Scheme. 

421. SWITZERLAND. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Govt. Meas- 
ures Affecting Agr. Prices 3(10): 66-68. 1937. 

281.8 In8 
Milk, cheese and butter prices. 
♦Not examined. 



422. SZANYI, I. Ein weg zur erzielung des mehrver- 
brauches von milch und seine wirkung. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 253-257. 44.9 In8211 

Cites the economic advantages of increased milk con- 
sumption and outlines a public relations program to this 
end. 

423. TAFFOUREAU, M. La technique de la manipulation 
et le transport du lait. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(3): 363-368. 44.9 In8211 

Contains information on the types, use, and costs of 
milk containers. 

424. TEMPLETON, H. L., and SOMMER, H. H. Wrap- 
pers for processed cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 20: 231-238. 
Ref. May 1937. 44.8 J822 

Reports results of investigations on the use of metal 
foil as a wrapper for Cheddar cheese. Metal foils are 
stated to be superior to other types of foils. For general 
use with all kinds of cheese, tin foil is probably more 
satisfactory than aluminum foil. 

425. TEN CENT package of butter introduced at Bridge- 
port, Connecticut. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 28(11): 28. 
June 10, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

The "Butterstick, " a new sales package designed to 
meet the demands of the small apartment dweller, is 
described. The retail price of this item remains con- 
stant at 10 c, while the quantity varies with the market 
price of butter. 

426. THOMSEN, L. C. Methods of paying for milk in 
the whole milk plant powdering skim. Natl. Butter and 
Cheese J. 28(20): 14-16. Oct. 25, 1937. 286.85 B98Bu 

One problem is the equalizing of payments to producers 
who possess high testing herds and those having herds 
with low tests. Another is what it costs to produce pow- 
dered skim milk, and whether the cost is less if higher 
grade milk is used. 

427. *TINLFY, J. M. Economic considerations in fixing 
resale prices of milk. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Giannini 
Found. Mimeog. Rpt. 57, 9 d. Apr. 1937. 

281.9 G34M 

428. TINLEY, J. M. Economic considerations in milk- 
stabilization plans. Giannini Found. Mimeog. Rpt. 62, 

9 p. 1937. 281.9 G34M 

Reviews California milk control legislation, discusses 
the dangers of price fixing and says some form of public 
control over milk marketing appears to be necessary in 
the interest of producers and consumers. 

429. TOBEY, J. A. Federal and State control of milk 
prices. Chicago, Internatl. Assoc. Milk Dealers. 1937. 
42 p. 284.344 T55 

Discusses the constitutional status of milk marketing 
laws in the light of court decisions. 

430. TOBEY, J. A. Recent court decisions on milk con- 
trol (1934-1937). U. S. Pub. Health Serv. Rpts. 52: 1038- 
1044. July 30, 1937. 151.65 P96 

These relate to pasteurization, control of bovine tuber- 
culosis and brucellosis, limiting the inspection area, in- 
spection fees, denial of a license, milk containers, price- 
fixing of milk, chocolate milk standards, and filled milk 
laws. 

431. TOMA, R. Le controle du lait dans les zones de 
montagne d'ltalie. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(2): 451-452. 44.9 In8211 

Distance between farms, feed conditions, and availability 
of funds are factors limiting the application of the pro- 
gram. 

432. TRIMBLE, C. S. The problem of regulating butter. 
Amer. Creamery and Poultry Prod. Rev. 83: 382, 384- 
388. Jan. 13, 1937. 286.85 N482 

Problems relating to the manufacture and uses of butter 
are considered in the light of Federal and State regula- 
tion. Control policies bearing on the use of raw materials, 
such as sour cream, are similarly dealt with. 

433. UMBRECHT, J. Zur uberwachung der milch auf 
fSlschungen durch fremdwasserzusatz. Internatl. Dairy 
Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 460-464. 44.9 In8211 

Suggests organization of the methods of control on uni- 
form lines and collaboration between food chemist, dairy 
expert, and veterinarian. 



26 



434. UMBRECHT. J. Zusammenarbeit zwischen lebens- 
mittelpolizei und milchwirtschaft. Internatl. Dairy Cong. 
Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(2): 456-460. 44.9 In8211 

The possibility of improved relations in this regard is 
indicated by the operation of milk and butter quality con- 
trols. 

435. UNITED Kingdom. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Govt. 
Measures Affecting Agr. Prices 3(10): 58-61. 1937. 
281.8 In8 

Includes section on Milk Marketing Scheme with opera- 
ting statistics. 

436. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Federal milk control and its administration, by O. H. Hoff- 
man, Jr. Washington, 1937. 5 p. 1.94 D14Fed 

A talk made before the National Association of Milk 
Control Boards which discusses the Agricultural Market- 
ing Agreement Act of 1937 and the administration of its 
provisions relating to milk. 

437. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. A 
survey of milk marketing in Milwaukee. U. S. Agr. Ad- 
justment Admin. DM-1 (Mktg. Inform. Ser.), 119 p. 1937. 
1.4 Ad47D 

The major purpose of this study was to determine the 
feasibility of centralizing milk distribution in Milwaukee. 
Plans for a unified system of processing and delivery 
large enough to serve the needs of the community are 
described in detail. The proposed system would be non- 
competitive and would be operated as a municipal enter- 
prise. 

437-A. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Charts & tables. Production and consumption of manufac- 
tured dairy products, changes in seasonal variation of 
butter production, cost of manufacture and distribution of 
butter and cheese, prepared by E. E. Vial. Washington, 
1937. 16 p. 1.9 Ec752Pc 

438. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Charts. Relation of butter production and purchasing 
power of consumers to the price of butter,- prepared by 
E. E. Vial. Washington, 1937. 9 p. 1.9 Ec752Rb 

439. U. S. CONGRESS. SENATE. COMMITTEE ON AGRI- 
CULTURE AND FORESTRY. Purchase and sale of farm 
products. Hearings, Cong., 1st sess. on S. 848, March 2, 3, 
10, and April 6, 1937. Washington, 1937. 141 p. 

280.3 Un37Pur 
Includes discussion on dairy products. 

440. U. S. DEPT. OF LABOR. Analysis of condition, 
quality, and size requirements of United States and State 
standards for fresh fruits and vegetables and legal stand- 
ards for dairy products. Washington, 1937. 18 p. 
158.241 Anl 

Prepared by J. C. Jackson, H. A. Mereness, E. D. 
Riley and T. E. Wilson. 

State and federal standards for milk, skim milk, cream, 
butter, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk, 
plain ice cream, fruit or nut ice cream, whole -milk 
cheese, and skim-milk cheese, are presented in graphic 
form in chart X (facing p. 18) 

441. U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Report... 
on the sale and distribution of milk and milk products, 
N. Y. milk sales area. Letter ... transmitting a report 
... with respect to the sale and distribution of milk and 
milk products in the New York sales area and the oper- 
ations of nationwide processors and distributors of milk 
and milk products with headquarters in New York City. 
75th Cong, 1st sess. H. Doc. 95. 138 p. 173 F32Mi 

Reviews milk regulations and shows duplication of 
farm inspection in the N.Y. milkshed. 

442 . U. S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. Summary 
report on conditions with respect to the sale and dis- 
tribution of milk and dairy products, in response to H. 
Con. Res. 32, 73d. Congress, 2d sess. approved June 

15, 1934. 75th Cong., 1st Sess., H. Doc. 94. 37 p. 
1937. 173F32Mi 

Deals in part with price practices, health regulations 
and inspection rules, milk settlements, gross spreads 
or margins per quart, and unit delivery costs and their 
allocation. 



443. VARNEY, H. R. This milk Droblem. Vt. Agr. 
Col. Ext. C. 95, 89 p. 1937. 275.29 V59c 

Contains material on costs ol milk nancuing, on factors 
affecting the price of milk, and on flat -price buying. 

444. VERGE, J., and THIEULIN, G. L'utilisation des 
laits tuberculeux. Le Lait 17(164): 348-354. Apr. 1937 
44.8 L143 

Also in Rev. Gen. de M?d. Ve't. 45: 713-721. Dec. 15, 

1936. 41.8 R323. 

A discussion of the Decree of January 24, 1934 on this 
subject. 

445. VERMONT. SPECIAL MILK INVESTIGATIONAL 
COMMITTEE. Vermont milk report. Montpelier, 

1937. 29 p. 281.344 V59 

Facts are reported regarding the production of milk 
in Vermont over the previous ten years, how it was dis- 
posed of, and what was received for it. Conditions in the 
markets, competitive conditions, and what has been ac- 
complished by organization in the state are set forth. 

446. VIAL, E. E. Changes in the seasonal variation of 
butter prices and market receipts of butter. N. Y. Agr. 
Col. Ext. Farm Econ. 100: 2456-2463. Mar. 1937. 
280.8 C812 

Although butter prices tend to be low in the summer 
when the seasonal peak in production occurs, and high in 
the fall and winter when production is low, the seasonal 
variation in prices has declined during the last 55 years. 
The author studies the factors underlying this circum- 
stance, and discusses the relationship of butterfat prices 
to the prices of feed grains and meat animals. 

447. VIRGINIA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Protec- 
tion of the milk supply in the state of Virginia. Va. Dept. 
Agr. and Immigr. B. 350: 23-24. July 1937, 2 V81B 

The principal requirements of the State Milk Law are 
briefly stated, and methods pursued in its enforcement 
are discussed. 

448. VIRTANEN, A. I. Die wirtschaftseigene milch- 
produktion. Internat. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 
11(1): 180-187. 44.9 In8211 

Deals with the possibility of a self-sufficient milk 
production based on home-produced feeds, and cites the 
economic efficiency of this method and experiences in 
Finland in the course of eight years. Discusses the 
quality of the milk and milk products in that country. 

449. WAGNER, R. Die vorteile des einheits- 
milchflaschenkastens. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. 
Ber. (1937) 11(3): 368-369. 44.9 In8211 

Standardized as to size and construction the new zinc- 
coated milk bottle cases are convenient and economical 
to use. 

450. WEST, G. A., and SPENCER, L. The supply and 
sales of milk and cream in Rochester, N. Y., 1930-1936. 
N.Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 101: 2480-2484. May 1937. 
280.8 C812 

A study of this milk market area including tables giving 
number of farms under Rochester inspection, the average ■ 
daily supply of milk and cream, the average daily sales 
of milk and cream by Rochester milk dealers, the number 
of dealers selling and quantity of special milk products 
sold all in November of each year. The number of dealers 
selling each grade of milk and cream, and the daily con- 
sumption of milk and cream per capita in Rochester are 
given also. 

451. WHEELER, L. A. British agricultural policy- 
some selected lessons. J. Farm Econ. 19: 264-271. 
Feb. 1937. 280.8 J822 

Deals in part with the Milk Marketing Scheme. 



27 



452. WHEELER, L. A. The dairy industry and the 
trade agreements program. Washington, U. S. Bur. 
Agr. Econ.,.1937. 7 p. 1.9 Ec753D 

The dairy industry of the United States is on a small 
import basis and is thus ordinarily in a position to be 
protected against the influence of the foreign dairy situ- 
ation through moderate import duties. The best prospect* 
of keeping the industry on this basis are to be found in 
an increase in consumption resulting from higher pur- 
chasing power, particularly in the urban centers, and, 
secondly, in minimizing the competition from increased 
production of dairy products in the sections of the country 
that have been producing the major export crops. It is 
toward these objectives that the trade agreements pro- 
gram is directed. 

453. WIEDEMANN, U. Marktordnung und Allgauer 
milchwirtschaft. Internatl. Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. 
(1937) 11(3): 79-81. 44.9 In8211 

Shows how the dairy industry in this district has been 
benefited by milk marketing control. 

454. WINNING, H. J. Consumer preference of batch 
vs. continuous frozen ice cream. Ohio State U. CoL 
Agr. and Domestic Sci. Dairv Technol. Conf. Mater. 
Presented 1937: 55-56. 44.9 Oh35M 

Ice cream frozen in the Vogt continuous freezer was 
preferred by 107 out of 158 consumers mainly because 
it was found smoother, richer, and more filling. 



455. WINSAUER, K. Internationale regelung der 
herstellung und des handels von schmelzkase. Internatl. 
Dairy Cong. Wiss. Ber. (1937) 11(3): 8-13. 44.9 In8211 

Considers the characterization of the product and its 
origin, the indication of fat content and net weight, maxi- 
mum water content, additions to the cheese, and the prob- 
lem of brands. 

456. WRIGHT, K. T., and TAYLOR, H. B. 1936 dairy 
costs. Mich. State Col. Agr. Ext. F. M. 205, 17 p. Aug. 
1937. 275.29 M581 

A project whose purpose was to determine the physical 
and financial requirements of producing milk and butter - 
fat, and to study the relation of practices to costs and re- 
turns. Cost records were kept on 123 Michigan herds 
averaging 12.9 cows. 

457. WYNNE, S. W. Analysis of milk control in New 
York State. Milk Dealer 26(6): 62. Mar. 1937. 

44.8 M595 

An account of milk price fixing under the Milk Control 
Law, and operations of the Milk Control Board. 

458. YARNELL, R. Country delivery routes. Ice 
Cream Rev. 20(6): 54. Feb. 1937. 389.8 Ic22 

Reports costs of delivering ice cream over country 
routes of the Yarnell Ice Cream Co., Searcy, Ark. 

Includes a table showing truck costs per mile for the 
period 1929-1936. 

459. YOUNG, J. L. The New Jersey official grades for 
milk. N. J. Dept. Agr. C. 284, 8 p. 1937. 2 N46C 

Outlines the provisions of the regulations covering the 
production and distribution of milk under the New Jersey 
official grades. 



1938 



460. ALLRED, C. E., and SANT, P. E. Regional differ- 
ences in the farm price of milk cows [and] dairy products, 
Tennessee and United States. Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rur. 
Res. Ser. Monog. 68, 41 p. Jan. 20, 1938. 173.2 W89Co 

Data used in this study are district prices in Tennessee 
computed as arithmetic averages from statistics in the 
U. S. D. A. Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates in 
Tennessee, and prices for individual states computed 
similarly from U. S. D. A. Yearbooks and mimeographed 
supplements. Factors influencing price variations are 
discussed. 

461. AMERICAN Dairy Science Association approves 
standardization; report of committee on a standardization 
of market milk. Holstein-Friesian World 35: 779-780, 
902. Aug. 6, 20, 1938. 43.8 H742 

The Association approves and recommends in principle:- 
1, Legalization of the alteration of the fat content of mar- 
ket milk by mechanical standardization, provided that fat 
content be stated on the label directly or by grade desig- 
nations based on fat content; 2, Legalization of the mini- 
mum for the solids-not-fat of milk at 8.15 percent. R 
considers legalization of the mechanical standardization 
of the solids-not-fat content of market milk by the addition 
of dried or condensed milk inadvisable at this time. 

462. ANDERSEN, L. F. Dairy industry in Britain and 
Denmark. Queensland Agr. J. 49: 346-362. Apr. 1938. 
23Q33 

Notes the influence of special British schemes on the 
cleanliness and quality of the milk; the standardization of 
butter and efforts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis in Den- 
mark. 

463. ARNOLD, L. A glass milk bottle with narrow 
pouring lip and minimum drip. J. Milk Technol. 1(6): 5- 
14. Sept. 1938. 44.8 J824 

Describes a standard pouring machine for milk bottles, 
and a standard technique for determining the behavior of 
milk poured from glass bottles. Measures the degrees of 
bacterial contamination obtained from bottles of different 
finishes. Reports experiments with a new type of finish 
involving recessed angles to interrupt the adhesive force 
of the glass surface. The pouring lip was reduced to 7/16 
inch from the top of the bottle so that there was a mini- 
mum of milk drip during the pouring. 



464. BACKMAN, J. Enforcement of government price 
fixing. Harvard Business Rev. 16: 154-167. 1938. 
280.8 H262 

Refers to the Paterson Butter control in Australia 
(1926-34) as an illustration of voluntary cooperation and 
includes a summary of butter control measures in the 
Netherlands. 

465. BACKMAN, J. Government price-fixing. New 
York, Pitman, 1938. 304 p. Ref. 284.3 B12G 

Refers briefly to butter and milk price-fixing experi- 
ments in several foreign countries and in the United 
States by the U. S. Agricultural Adjustment Administra- 
tion. 

466. BAKER, O. E. Population prospects and agricul- 
tural implications. Amer. Butter Inst. Proc. 30(1): 1-8. 
Ref. 1938. 44.9 Am33P 

Includes discussion of the per capita consumption of 
dairy products. 

467. BAKKEN, H. H. The cost of manufacturing and 
marketing evaporated milk. Rio, Wis., Rio J., 1938. 
23 p. 281.344 B17 

Costs cover maintenance, depreciation, taxes, rent, in- 
terest, insurance, transportation, labor, power, canning 
materials, and supplies. A large volume of milk de- 
livered from as many as 400 to 800 farms in Wisconsin 
must be brought into one plant to keep down overhead 
costs and maintain maximum efficiency. The value added 
by manufacture as measured by the difference between the 
unit cost of raw material and the price of the finished pro- 
duct is greater than it is for either butter or cheese. 
Where plants are located in seasonal milk production 
areas, considerable operating capital is required to 
carry accumulated inventory stocks. 



28 



468. BARTLETT, R. W. High market milk prices re- 
duce milk consumption. 111. Farm Econ. 34/35: 161-163. 
Mar./Apr. 1938. 275.28 IL5 

Studies of changes in retail milk prices (corrected for 
changes in consumers' income) in 51 cities and changes 
in the estimated per capita consumption of milk in the 
United States from 1930 to 1936 indicate that an increase 
in the price of milk is followed in about a year by a de- 
crease in consumption, and after a year's interval milk 
consumption increases as milk prices decline. Studies of 
the effect of high market milk prices on canned milk con- 
sumption are also reported. 

469. BARTLETT, R. W. Increasing the efficiency of 
milk distribution. Hoard's Dairyman 83: 6S, 90. 
Feb. 10, 1938. 44.8 H65 

Also in Amer. Prod. Rev. 85: 380-382. Jan. 26, 1938. 
286.85 N482 

From this study it is concluded that there is a marked 
upward trend in milk distribution costs' and an increased 
spread between the retail prices of market and evaporated 
milk; also that an increasing proportion of milk is sold 
in stores and that there is an increasing use of paper con- 
tainers. Increasing sales through stores is expected be- 
cause of distribution costs lower than those for retail de- 
liveries. 

Distribution costs are lowered through use of paper con- 
tainers. 

Letter to the editor from W. A. Wentworth, calling atten- 
tion to several errors in this article, appears in Hoard's 
Dairyman 83: 243. Apr. 25, 1938. 

470. BAXTER, T. Milk board policy disclosed; guaran- 
teed price to the producer. Farmer & Stock-Breeder 52: 
2690-2691. Nov. 15, 1938. 10 F228 

The author, who is chairman of the Milk Marketing 
Board of Great Britain, discusses operation of the Milk 
Scheme and suggests changes in policy. Principal pro- 
posal suggested is the payment of a guaranteed price to 
producers. If the proposal is adopted the Milk Board 
would then purchase all milk offered for sale and would be 
responsible for marketing it. 

471. BENDIXEN, H. A. Economic organization of the 
dairy industry in Germany. Milk Dealer 27(9): 42, 44, 
46, 48. Sept. 1938. 44.8 M595 

The complete reorganization of the dairy industry in 
Germany is described, necessitated by the serious state 
of its economy prior to 1933. From the production end 
to the distribution end, every phase of the industry has 
undergone revision by the Reichsnahrstand, the agency 
administering the program. Changes include the adoption 
of regulatory devices of great scope. 

472. BENDDCEN, H. A. Opportunities in the cheese in- 
dustry. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29: 34-39. Sept. 10, 
1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

By developing more varieties of fancy cheeses which 
would be regarded as delicacies by American consumers, 
returns in this industry might be materially increased. 
Some of these cheeses are described and their possibili- 
ties discussed. The same factor, and the small-sized 
package protecting the cheese against excessive spoilage, 
waste and drying, are said to have popularized process 
cheese, with the aid of large-scale advertising and dis- 
tribution opportunities. 

473. BLANFORD, C. J. An economic study of the costs 
of selling and delivering milk in the New York market:" 

N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 686, 60 p. Ithaca, 1938. 
100 N48C 

The expense of selling and delivering milk in New York 
City amounts to more than half the total cost of distribu- 
tion. Several possible ways for decreasing the cost per 
unit for retail deliveries are suggested, including discon- 
tinuance of doorstep delivery in certain sections of the 
city where most milk is distributed through stores, use 
of helpers on routes in large sales areas, and restriction 
of the number of dealers delivering milk in each section of 
the city. 



474. BLANFORD, C. J. The milk supply for the New 
York market. N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. B. 396, 23 p. Oct. 
1938. 275.29 N48E 

The supply and utilization of milk at dairy plants tribu- 
tary to the New York metropolitan market are described, 
with some indication of the total amount of milk produced 
for this market and the seasonal variation and differences 
in its production and utilization. An inventory of the 
facilities for handling milk in the New York milkshed is 
presented. 

475. BLANFORD, C. J. Route returns at eleven retail 
milk distribution branches in the New York market, 
October 1933. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 105: 2563- 
2565. Feb. 1938. 280.8 C812 

Route returns were greater for products whose sales 
were most variable. They were much higher at some of 
the distribution branches than at others. Sales branches 
in the suburban residential sections of the market had 
higher route returns than the branches located nearer the 
center of the city. 

476. BLANFORD, C. J. Sales of milk by retail stores 
in the New York market, June 1938. N. Y. Agr. Col. 
Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm Mangt. A. E. 237, 18 p. Dec. 
1938. 281.9 C81 

Based on data obtained from 4508 retail food stores 
June 6-18, 1938. Includes material on proportion of 
stores selling each grade of milk in relation to family in- 
come; quantities of milk sold per store by grade; factors 
affecting quantities sold; and prices of milk, with refer- 
ence to variation in prices, relation of prices to quanti- 
ties sold; and effect of price differentials upon relative- 
sales of fluid milk in glass bottles and paper containers 
and of evaporated milk. 

477. BRANDT, K. The German fat plan and its economic 
setting. Stanford Univ. Food Res. Inst. Fats and Oils 
Studies 6, 344 p. Sept. 1938. 307.9 L53 

Deals in part with German dairy markets before govern- 
ment regulation, stabilization of the butter market, and 
compulsory organization of the dairy industry and its 
markets. 

478. BRESSLER, R. G. , JR. Laws and regulations 
governing the production of grade B milk in New England. 
Boston, The New England Research Council on Marketing 
and Food Supply, June 1938. 145 p. 281.344 B75 

These laws and regulations pertain to the registration 
and inspection of producers, health and cleanliness of 
cattle, construction and condition of stables and milk 
rooms, methods used in handling milk, health of employ- 
ees, and quality of milk. Comparisons between the ordi- 
nances may provide some explanation of intermarket 
movements of milk and price differentials. 

479. BROWN, A. J. Some economic problems in mar- 
keting Hlinois cream. Amer. Prod. Rev. 85(15): 438, 
440-443. Feb. 9, 1938. 286.85 N482 _ 

Address, Dairy Manufacturers Conference, Department 
of Dairy Husbandry, University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

The problems: 1, A study of the relationship that has 
existed between butter prices and quality of butter; and 2, 
Economics of maintaining quality of cream, particularly 
while in transit from farms to creameries. Discusses the 
premium-payment systems for lugh quality butter in 
Minnesota, Oregon, and California, as well as the price 
situation in the Chicago and San Francisco markets with 
reference to butter score. 

Problem 1 appeared as "Relationship between prices 
and butter quality" in Creamery J. 49(2): 5, 28-29. Feb. 
1938. 44.8 C86 

480. BROWN, J. H. A critical discussion of some 
methods and standards for certified milk. Amer. J. Pub. 
Health 28: 1053-1058. Sept. 1938. 449.9 Am3J 

Discusses medical milk commission control, bacterio- 
logical methods and standards for, and pasteurization of 
certified milk. 



29 



481. BROWN, L. O. Consumer movement and how to 
meet it. Ice Cream Rev. 22(4): 34. Nov. 1938. 
389.8 lc22 

Reports on a study made at Northwestern University 
which involved questioning 1000 housewives for their 
opinions on commercial ice cream. Results show that 
consumers know very little about the product. Presenting 
facts about ice cream in advertising is suggested to give 
the public a better knowledge of the product. 

482. BUECHEL, F. A., and JOHNSON, E. H. Manufac- 
ture of dairy products in Texas; preliminary report. 
Austin, Tex. U. Bur. Business Res., 1938. 95 p. 
281.344 B86M 

Economic factors pertaining to the dairy industry in 
Texas are emphasized in the first part of this report. The 
distribution of dairy plants in the state is shown. The 
second part consists of statistics covering the following 
topics: (1) trend in production of dairy products, (2) dif- 
ferences in the trend of production of butter, cheese, 
evaporated milk, and ice cream, (3) seasonal variation in 
production, (4) percentage produced in the national total, 
(5) consumption of dairy products in the state, and (6) 
farm cash income from dairy products. 

483. BULMER, J., and VINTER, P. Milk from cow to 
consumer. New Fabian Res. Bur. Pam. 41. 48 p. 
1938. 280.344 B87 

Only about half the milk required by the minimum 
standards of the Ministry of Health Advisory Committee 
on Nutrition is consumed in liquid form in Great Britain. 
The policy of the Milk Marketing Board has guaranteed a 
reasonable return to producers by the pooling system but 
has raised the retail price of milk by allowing the expan- 
sion of the unprofitable manufacturing market. The con- 
sumption of liquid milk can only be increased by a policy 
of reducing retail prices and subsidizing it at cheap rates 
to special classes. Suggestions for the organization of a 
program to meet these desiderata are offered. 
Milk production, distribution and subsidization as elements 
of this program are emphasized. 

484. BULMER, L. C. The problem of recontamination 
of pasteurized milk and its products. Milk Dealer 27(6): 
76, 78-82. Mar. 1938. 44.8 M595 

Also in South. Dairy Prod. J. 24(1): 9-11. July 1938. 
44.8 So83 

Based on a study of conditions in 41 major cities of the 
United States, with particular reference to Birmingham, 
Ala. Considers the rehandling of pasteurized milk and 
cream in bulk form after processing and of ice cream 
mix in soda fountains. Recommends the use of a hooded 
cap in bottling milk as protection against recontamination. 

485. BURGESS, L. A. Butter standardization. Queens- 
land Agr. J. 50: 10-12. July 1938. 23 Q33 

In this short article the author cites advantages of 
standardization, states that the standardization of butter 
should be performed in the butter factory and discusses 
moisture tests, salting, unsalted butter and laboratory 
control. 

486. BURGESS, L. A. The determination of water in 
butter. Queensland Agr. J. 50: 13-29. July 1, 1938. 
23 Q33 

The method, commonly known as the moisture test, is 
summarized as follows: "A known weight of butter in a 
weighed metal dish is heated until all water is expelled 
as steam. The dish and its contents are then cooled to 
atmospheric temperature and again weighed. The loss in 
weight is the water in the particular weight of butter 
taken and the percentage may be calculated by simple 
proportion." 



487. CADWALLADER, R. C. Government and its re- 
lationship to price standards in the milk industry. Minn. 
Law Rev. 22: 789-835. May, 1938. Libr. Cong. 

Reprint. 281.344 Cll 

With the coming of the depression, the milk industry 
found itself burdened with heavy surpluses, and unfair 
trade practices which brought about a breakdown in the 
incomes of those dependent on milk. The resultant 
strikes and public seethings brought prompt legislative 
action by Federal and State governments to place the in- 
dustry under economic regulation. Evaluates the effects 
of this regulation, and discusses in general the legal and 
economic problems involved. 

488. CALIFORNIA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Report 
to Senate interim committee... relative to administration 
of fluid milk marketing legislation. Cal. Dept. Agr. B. 
27: 375-383. July-Sept. 1938. 2 C12M 

Outlines the actions taken in carrying out the provisions 
of the two fluid milk marketing laws set up in Ch. 10, 
Div. 4 of the Agricultural Code, and the principal facts 
serving as the basis for these actions. Pt. 1 relates to 
producer stabilization and marketing plans authorized by 
that portion of the Code commonly designated as the 
Young Act. Pt. 2 relates to resale price fixing required 
by the Desmond Act in the Code. 

489. CASSELS, J. M. The future of milk control. J. 
Farm. Econ. 20: 188-195. Feb. 1938. 280.8 J822 

A discussion of the general trend toward more conscious 
social control over all economic activities; the special 
case that can be made for control over the milk industry; 
the long-run objectives of milk control; and the practical 
problems of actual administration in this field. 

490. CLAUSS, W. Mesures d'organisation pour l'uni- 
fication et l'amelioration des produits laitiers. Lait 18: 
982-999. Nov. 1938. 44.8 L143 

The status of quality control and standardization of milk, 
butter and cheese in various countries is considered, to- 
gether with factors influencing such control. 

491. CLEMENT, C. E. Milk-bottle losses and ways to 
reduce them. U. S. D. A. C. 469, 38 p. Mar. 1938. 

1 Ag84C 

Summary and conclusions in Milk Plant Monthly 27: 35- 
37. July 1938., 44.8 C864 

Gives information on the life of bottles; the various 
plans or systems used by dealers to get bottles returned 
from the routes; the organization, management, equip- 
ment, and operation of milk-bottle exchanges for collect- 
ing, cleaning, and returning lost bottles; and methods for 
preventing the misuse of milk bottles, cans, and crates. 

492. COHEN, R. The variation in retail milk prices 
between different areas. Scot. J. Agr. 20: 273-282. 
July 1937. 10 Sco82So 

Reprinted in Oxford U. Agr. Econ. Res. Inst, Misc. 
Papers in Agr. Econ. v. 8, 1935-1938. 1938. 
281.9 Ox2 

Under the provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Acts, 
organized agricultural producers are enabled to control 
prices in so far as control of the home supply makes this 
possible. 

Under the Milk Marketing Scheme in England and Wales, 
and in the main area of Scotland, the Boards have estab- 
lished the wholesale prices of liquid milk at a uniform 
level throughout their respective areas. Retail prices 
have likewise been prescribed. 

The author appraises the effect of the Milk Marketing 
Schemes in England, Wales and Scotland by comparing 
prices in 1935-36 with those in 1928-29. 

493. CONFORTI, E. How to encourage use of cheese in 
hotels and restaurants. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29: 
16-17. Dec. 25, 1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

Poor sales of cheese in hotels and restaurants are attri- 
buted to lack of knowledge on the proper use and sale of 
cheese, poor distribution, lack of knowledge on how to 
keep cheese, and lack of proper advertising. Each of 
these factors is discussed. 



30 



494. CONKLIN, C. T. One-crop farming in the North- 
east. Country Gent. 108: 14-15, 77. Dec. 1938. 
6C833 

So completely does the production of fluid milk dominate 
the farming practices in New England and certain sections 
of other North Atlantic States that these farms have grad- 
ually drifted into the one-crop class. Although this situa- 
tion has developed because of the definite and steady re- 
turns received for the milk, the system is not conducive 
to diversified farming, or even to a balanced program of 
dairy farming. A solution of the problem faced by the 
farmers, which are discussed, is the possibility of pas- 
tures bearing a larger percentage of the cost of herd 
maintenance and of permitting farms to economically 
carry more stock, plus the movement to ensile grasses 
and legumes for better and more economical winter feed- 
ing. 

495. COOLS, L. J. Reactions reciproques des marches 
du beurre, de la margarine et du saindoux en Belgique de 
1920 a 1937. Inst, de Rech. Econ. B. 9: 321-348. Aug. 
1938. 280.9 L92 

Butter consumption has not increased in the same pro- 
portion as that of margarine, and has even decreased 
toward the end of the period. Shows the relationship be- 
tween prices and consumption of these products. 

496. THE COST of milk production in the South of Scot- 
land, 1934-37. Scot. J. Agr. 21: 233-239. July 1938. 
10 Sco82So 

A definite increase in cost of production occurred be- 
tween the beginning and end of this period. Because of 
climatic differences, the East of Scotland Is a higher cost 
area than the West. The influence of weather on produc- 
tion costs is emphasized by the figures for 1934-35 and 
1935-36. The absolute difference between summer and 
winter costs in the East varied between 4d. and 5d. per 
gallon and in the West between 5d. and 6d. At the rela- 
tive price levels during 1934-37, the cost of all feed 
stuffs amounted to about 60 percent of the total cost of 
production. 

497. COST of milk production on certain farms in Scot- 
land in 1934-5 and 1935-6. Scot. J. Agr. 21: 27-32. Jan. 
1938. 10 Sco82So 

Three-fifths of the cost was for feed, and another fifth 
for labor; herd maintenance and other costs made up the 
remainder. 

498. CRIPPS, J. The distribution of milk; a study of 
town delivery costs. Oxford, Oxford U. Agr. Econ. Res. 
Inst., 1938. 96 p. 280.344 Ox2D 

The* author concludes that "there is no means of measur- 
ing accurately the possible reductions in costs to be 
achieved by the reorganization of milk distribution. It is 
clear from these investigations, however, that large dis- 
tributors are able to operate at costs well below the mini- 
mum margins allowed by the Milk Marketing Board. If no 
more than one delivery were made in all districts and onl" 
one distributor were permitted to operate in each, retail 
prices might be reduced by about 4 d. per gallon, or 1 d. 
per quart, over the year. 

499. CRIPPS/ J. Fixing of retail milk prices. Farm 
Econ. 2: 177-179. Jan, 1938. 281.8 F223 

Costs of milk rounds in a town with a population of about 
70,000 in the south of England are considered in relation 
to physical differences of the districts covered and the 
number of deliveries. The practice of fixing minimum re- 
tail milk prices partly on this basis is discussed. 

500. CRIPPS, J. The problem of milk distribution. Ox- 
ford U. Agr. Econ. Res. Inst. Misc. Papers Agr. Econ. 8: 
2-12. 1938. 281.9 0x2 

Reprinted from Med. Press and C. 195(5143). Dec. 1, 
1937. 

Discusses present methods of distribution in England and 
the results of uncontrolled competition. States that in the 
interests of a pure supply and cheap distribution, existing 
methods should be abandoned and distribution should be 
treated as a public service. 



501. CRIPPS, J. The retail distribution of milk in eight 
towns in England and Wales. Farm Econ. 2(11): 211-215. 
July 1938. 281.8 F223 

Survey undertaken during May and June, 1938, showed 
great variations in the amount of bottling and the number 
of daily deliveries. The number of dairymen was unneces- 
sarily large in each town. 

502. CUNNINGHAM, L. C. Costs in dairy farming in 
New York. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 229, 40 p. Sept. 1938. 
281.9 C81 

Abridgment under title "Costs in dairy farming" in N. Y 
Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 109: 2651-2656. Oct. 1938. 
280.8 C812 

A study of fluctuations in the price of milk, and of costs 
of dairy rations, farm wages, machinery, gasoline, oil and 
supplies, taxes, building materials, fire insurance, ferti- 
lizer, and seeds. 

503. CURRIE, J. R. Extra costs of producing T. T. 
milk. Farmer & Stock-Breeder 52: 265. Feb. 1, 1938. 
10 F228 

Excerpts from a paper entitled, "The production of the 
higher grades of milk," read before the Farmers' Club. 

Adequately subsidizing tuberculin-tested milk prices is 
suggested as the best method of providing farmers an in- 
centive to undertake the risk, trouble and cost of cleaning 
up their herds. A table showing the extra costs of pro- 
ducing grade A tuberculin-tested milk over ordinary milk 
is given. 

504. DEAN, A. S., and HAENSZEL, W. M. Milk con- 
sumption in Buffalo. In Brown, E. F., comp. Milk 
Papers 3(43), 11 p. 1938. 281.344 B81 

Reprint from Buffalo U. Bur. Business & Social Res. 
Statis. Survey Sup. 13(7A), 11 p. Mar. 1938. 

Covers 26,845 families representing 102,641 individuals. 
The daily milk consumption rate per person was .40 quart 
(.33 quart for fluid milk and .07 quart for canned milk). 
Milk consumption varied directly with total family income 
and inversely with size of family. Families using fluid 
milk only used the same amount as those which used a 
combination of fluid milk and canned milk. This was true 
at all income levels. 

505. DINSDALE, D. H., and WINTER, T. Winter costs 
of milk production in^the northern counties 1935/36, 
1936/37, 1937/38. Newcastle-on-Tyne, King's Col,Dept. 
of Agr., n. d. 18 p. 281.3449 K61 

Shows feed, labor, and miscellaneous costs for the farms 
studied. 

506. DISTRIBUTION economy and brand acceptance ad- 
vanced by new method of curing and packaging cheese. 
Food Indus. 10: 279-280, 310. May 1938. 389.8 F737 

Discusses the use of the valve-vented can which per- 
mits aging in larger sizes than 8-12 oz., eliminates evap- 
oration losses and the formation of rind, cuts the cost of 
packaging, and makes possible marketing of the product in 
4, 8 and 12-oz. prints, wrapped and trade branded. 

507. DUCK, R. W. High and low test. Rural New 
Yorker 97: 198. Mar. 12, 1938. 6 R88 

This study of the costs and returns from the production 
of milk of both high and low fat content, shows that produc- 
tion of high-test milk is more profitable. 

508. ELLENBERGER, H. B., and STEARNS, J. T. Con- 
sumption of dairy products in Burlington. Vt. Agr. Expt. 
Sta. B. 433, 39 p. May 1938. 100 V59 

Consumer preferences in the use of fresh milk, includ- 
ing the various grades thereof, canned milk, cream, but- 
ter, and cheese. Based on a house-to-house survey in 
1935-36. 

509. ELLENBERGER, H. B. Some producer-dealer re- 
lationships. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and 
Dairy Husb. Papern Presented at Short Course Conf. for 
Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 17: 49-56. 1938. 
44.9 V593 „. . .. 

Suggests the use of approved modern and efficient metn- 
ods on dairy farms and a smaller increment of costs in 
the distribution of milk. 



31 



510. ELLENBERGER, H. B„, and STEARNS, J. T. What 
is the influence of taste, income, nationality, and size of 
family on consumption of milk of average city? Milk 
Plant Monthly 27(10): 86, 88-89, 92-94. Oct. 1938. 

44.8 C864 

Report of a survey in Burlington, Vt., covering 3,616 
families and 15,258 persons, or about three-fifths of the 
city's population. Shows per family and per capita con- 
sumption of fluid milk and of other dairy products, and the 
variations in rates of consumption by different families 
according to constitutional and other factors. It discloses 
the more important reasons for restricted usage as well 
as consumer reaction to such factors as quality and price. 

511. EVANS, D. M. The renting of dairies in Dorset. 
Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. and Fisheries. J. 45: 764-766. Nov. 
1938. 10 G79J 

Under this practice, a farmer lets a herd of cows to a 
dairyman at a fixed rate per cow per annum and according 
to various conditions of the contract. Discusses other 
livestock kept on farms, labor, rentals, feed, and farm 
management. The system is much reduced since many of 
the dairy farms are operated on a milk- selling basis. 

512. FABIAN, F. W. Milk and dairy products. Amer. 
Pub. Health Assoc. Ybk. (1937/38) 8: 66-74. 1938. 
449.9 Am3Y 

Report of the Committee on Milk and Dairy Products. 

Considers the public health aspects of milk, butter, 
cheese, ice cream and frozen desserts, and suggests 
regulatory program to insure sanitation of these products. 

513. FARR, R. An economic description and analysis of 
the distribution of milk by producers in Connecticut mar- 
kets. Conn. Agr. Col. Ext. Econ. Digest Conn. Agr. 73: 
601-608. Dec. 1938. 275.28 Ec7 

Digest by I. F. Fellows of the author's thesis under title 
as given. Includes description and analysis of sample of 
186 producers distributing milk and milk products in five 
Connecticut markets, 1937, and material on costs of dis- 
tribution. 

514. FEDERAL-STATE program for the New York milk 
market. U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin. DM8, 16 p. Oct. 
1938. 1.4 Ad47D 

Explains the background and provisions of the Federal 
and State orders regulating the milk policy in the New 
York metropolitan marketing area. Designed to assure to 
all producers a uniform rate of payment, the plan estab- 
lishes minimum prices for milk according to the use made 
of it. At the same time, the producer must bear his 
equitable share of the market's surplus milk burden. An 
adequate supply of wholesome milk which can be sold at 
reasonable prices is assured to the consumer. 

515. FLEMING, W. C. Dairy industry of San Joaquin 
County grosses three million dollars a year. Pacific 
Rural Press 135: 622. May 28, 1938. 6 PI 12 

A dairy management study for the five-year period, 
1932-1937, completed by the San Joaquin County dairymen 
in cooperation with the California Agricultural Extension 
Service, is given. Cost of producing market milk accord- 
ing to the study, which was based on records of 37 dairy- 
men, was 52.8 cents per pound butterfat f.o.b. the ranch. 

516. FRIBLEY, MRS. W. E. What can be done to in- 
crease consumer acceptance of commercial ice cream. 
Ice Cream Rev. 21(12): 60, 62-67. July 1938. 

389.8 Ic22 

Presented at the Ice Cream Short Course, University of 
Illinois, Mar. 1-4, 1938. 

A survey of consumers in the income groups $0-1500, 
$1500-5000, and $5000-up, showed that the first group 
used about all the ice cream they could afford, the second . 
used it as a treat, and the last used only home-made ice 
cream. Consumers in Illinois are buying 33,830,000 
gallons a year. Factors affecting the purchase of ice 
cream are mentioned. 



517. FRIEDMAN, I. K. Suggests change to imperial 
quart for milk containers. Milk Dealer 27(12): 61. Sept. 
1938. 44.8 M595 

To promote milk consumption, recommends use of the 
following 2 sizes of containers only: a 38-ounce Imperial 
Quart to replace the regular 32-ounce quart, and a 12- 
ounce bottle in place of the present 8-ounce half-pint. 

518. FRISBIE, D. M. Promoting fluid milk consumption. 
New England Inst. Coop. Ann. Conf. 11: 68-70. June 21- 
23, 1938. 280.29 N44 

Explains how milk consumption gains were secured in 
New York State by means of an advertising campaign out 
of State funds. 

Discussion, p. 70-71. 

519. GENIN, G. Les problemes qui restent a resoudre 
dans 1 Industrie laitiere. Lait 18: 610-614. June 1938. 
44.8 L143 

Reviews questions regarding the production of better 
quality milk and cream, dairy equipment, milk transporta- 
tion and consumption, and the assurance of an equitable 
price. Condensed milk, ice cream, and cheese are con- 
sidered individually. Engineering problems, including the 
treatment of plant wastes, are also discussed. 

520. GEYER, K. E. Milk inspection for sanitation or 
economic protection? New England Inst. Coop. Ann. 
Conf. 11: 130-131. June 21-23, 1938. 280.29 N44 

Relates to trade barriers in the dairy industry, with 
particular reference to the situation in Connecticut. 
Discussion, p. 132-133. 

521. GIFFORD, C. G. Dairy farm methods. Pa. Assoc. 
Dairy Sanit. Ann. Rpt. 14: 87-92. 1938. 44.9 P38 

Includes information on milk quality and sanitary con- 
trol practices. 

522. THE GOVERNMENT'S milk policy. Scot. J. Agr. 
21: 382-384. Oct. 1938. 10 Sco82So 

Discusses developments in the operation of the British 
Milk Marketing Scheme affecting the payment of quality 
milk premiums. 

523. GRADING of cream; causes and remedial measures. 
Victoria Dept. Agr. J. 36: 389-3%. Aug. 1938. 23 V66J 

States that quality butter can be manufactured only from 
quality cream and notes the causes of taints or faults in 
cream. The meaning of grades shown on factory receipts, 
their probable cause and remedial measures are presen- 
ted in tabular form. 

524. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Milk acts, 1934 to 1937. Arrangements for 
increasing the demand for milk within the area of the 
Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales by publicity 
Propaganda (Fourth scheme). London, H. M. Stationery 
Off., 19_38. 4 p. 

The scheme, estimated to cost 160,000, will be carried 
out by special publicity, a poster campaign, and news- 
paper advertising. 

525. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. The Milk Marketing Scheme, 1933, as 
amended to 3rd August 1937. London, H. M. Stationery 
Off., 1938. 44 p. 

Gives provisions of the scheme for the regulation of 
milk marketing in England and Wales. 

526. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Report on agricultural marketing schemes 
for the year 1936. Presented to Parliament by the Min- 
ister of Agriculture and Fisheries and the Secretary of 
State for Scotland by Command of His Majesty, May 1938. 
London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1938. 122 p. 

Includes reports on the operation of the Scottish Milk 
Marketing Scheme, 1933; Milk Marketing Scheme, 1933; 
Aberdeen and District Milk Marketing Scheme, 1933; and 
North of Scotland Milk Marketing Scheme, 1934. 






32 



527. GT. BRIT. SCOTTISH OFFICE. Arrangements 
for increasing the demand for milk within the area of 
the Scottish Milk Marketing Scheme 1933 by publicity and 
propaganda (Fourth scheme). Edinburgh, H. M. Station- 
ery Off., 1938. 3 p. 280.344 Sco32Ar 

Outlines a program of publicity and propaganda to be 
carried out during the year ending September 30, 1938, 
to stimulate the consumption of milk. 

528. GRIFFITHS, M. J. Milk grading tests. Queens- 
land Agr. J. 50: 173-179, 328-329. Aug. -Sept. 1938. 
23Q33 

The methylene blue, fermentation, and sediment tests 
are described, and the applications and advantages of 
each indicated. 

529. GUIN, M. An economic study of dairy farming in 
Oktibbeha and Lowndes Counties, Mississippi, 1936-1937. 
Miss. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 324, 27 p., Oct. 1938. 100 M69 

Presents data on farm management practices; expenses 
and profits of dairy farms of different sizes operating 
under varying conditions; practices, services and cost 
of services used in marketing dairy products; and the 
quality and quantity of products sold. 

530. HARE, H. R. Dairy farm management and milk 
costs in Ontario. Farmer's Advocate 73: 635-637. 
Oct. 13, 1938. 7 F22 

Results of a study of records of about 1430 producers 
for the year 1936 are given. Tables show cost of pro- 
ducing milk and yearly average price received per hun- 
dredweight for 14 areas in Ontario. 

531. HILFER, I. Differential effect in the butter market. 
Econometrica 6: 270-284. July, 1938. 280.8 Ec78 

The sales of three different types of English import 
butter were more closely related to the wholesale price 
of Danish butter two months previously than to the cur- 
rent wholesale price; but the opposite was true for the 
price of New Zealand butter. Discusses statistical meth- 
ods used in arriving at these conclusions. 

532. HITCHCOCK, J. W., and PAQUETTE, L. N. 
Studies in Vermont dairy farming; labor as a cost of milk 
production. Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 442, 16 p. Nov. 1938. 
100 V59 

On the average, 137 hrs. of labor were used per head 
during the year in milking, feeding, and caring for cows 
on 452 Vermont dairy farms surveyed in 1933. With an 
average production of 5,300 lbs. per cow, this was equiv- 
alent to 2.6 hrs. for each 100 lbs. of milk. Milking used 
52, barn chores' 39, washing and caring for utensils 6, and 
miscellaneous items 3 percent of the total time spent on 
cows. 

More labor was used per cow in the care of high -pro - 
duging herds, than of low-producing herds, but the differ- 
ences in labor input were less than proportional to those 
in production, and the amount and cost of labor declined 

steadily with herd to herd increases in average milk 
yields. Labor was used more efficiently on large than on 
small farms, and a part of the lower labor input per cow 
on the large farms was the result of more common usage 
of milking machines. 

533. HOBSON, A., and SCHAARS, M. A. Consumers buy 
more cheese during and after sales campaigns. Wis. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 442: 8-12. Nov. 1938. 100 W75 

Bulletin 442 is Pt. I of the annual report of the Station. 

Results given for 29 stores in Louisville, Ky., cover 
sales of natural mild American cheese, domestic Swiss 
cheese, and processed American loaf. 

534. HOLMAN, C. W. How trade agreements affect the 
welfare of dairy farmers. Natl. Coop. Milk Prod. Fed. 
Sd. Ser. 12, 40 p. 1938. 281.3449 N21 

Criticizes the national tariff policy on the score of 
possible economic repercussions, through lowering of 
9rices. 



535. HOMOGENIZED milk-what dealers who distribute 
it think of it. Milk Dealer 27(8): 38-39, 69. May-June 
1938. 44.8 M595 

A symposium of consumer preference based on informa- 
tion from 15 homogenized milk distributors in the United 
States and Canada. The general conclusion is reached 
that once the product is introduced, it gains steadily in 
popularity. 

536. HOPPER, W. C, and BOUCHER, G. P. An eco- 
nomic study of the consumption of milk and cream in cer- 
tain urban and rural districts of Canada. Canada. Dept. 
Agr. Tech. Bui. 14, 42 p. " Mar. 1938. 7 C16T 

Cities, villages and farm areas were surveyed in the 
three provinces of Ontario, Quebec and Alberta. Included 
in the study is the consumption of evaporated and con- 
densed milk and buttermilk. The relation of locality, in- 
come, size of family, and nationality to consumption is 
shown. 

537. HOW TED FLINT of Joliet, 111., is increasing sales 
of bulk ice cream by offering consumer more flavors with 
a new type of container. Ice Cream Rev. 22(5): 22-24. 
Dec. 1938. 389.8 Ic22 

Increasing the capacity of cabinets, better utilization of 
hardening room space, and increasing the load per truck 
are cited as advantages in the use of a new square 2 -gal. 
container for bulk ice cream. 

538. IMPERIAL ECONOMIC COMMITTEE INTELLI- 
GENCE BR. Dairy produce: a summary of figures of 
production and trade relating to butter, preserved milk, 
eggs, cheese, casein, egg products. London, H. M. Sta- 
tionery Off., 1936-38. 3 v. 280.39 G794c 

Designed to present in convenient form summaries of 
the production and international trade in dairy products 
wtth special reference to the part played by the countries 
of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Tables show 
production, imports and exports, by country, for 1929-37. 
Import duties and regulations in the United Kingdom and 
import duties and quantitative restrictions in foreign 
countries are also shown. 

539. IMPERIAL ECONOMIC COMMITTEE INTELLI- 
GENCE BR. Dairy produce supplies, 1937. London, 
H. M. Stationery Off. 1938. 123 p. 286.85 G79 

Supplement to Weekly Dairy Produce Notes. 

Publication gives statistics dealing with exports, im- 
ports, and foreign trade in dairy products, 1932-1937, for 
leading countries with emphasis on the United Kingdom. 
Legislative measures and trade agreements affecting 
dairy products in the United Kingdom and other countries 
are given in the appendix, p. 103-123. 

540. INDIANA MILK CONTROL BOARD. Report of the 
activities of the Milk Control Board of Indiana. 16 p. 
1933. 280.3449 In2 

Events leading to the enactment of the milk law, en- 
forcement policies, results achieved, number of orders 
issued, marketing areas established, number of dealers 
and producers under regulation, and prices to producers. 

541. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, 
International chronicle of agriculture: Estonia. Inter- 
natl. Inst. Agr. Monthly B. Agr. Econ. and Sociol. 29: 
543E-547E. Nov. 1938. 280.29 In83 

Includes information on milk production, quality of Es- 
tonian butter, dairy exports, and " guaranteed" prices 
for first quality butter and cheese. 

542. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE. 
International chronicle of agriculture. Ireland. Internatl. 
Inst. Agr. Monthly B. Agr. Econ. and Sociol. 29: 441E- 
448E. Sept. 1938. 280.29 In83 

Regulations, effective January 1, 1939, made under the 
Milk and Dairies Act, 1935, have the object of improving 
the quality of milk by means of a system of grading, and 
provide an incentive for the elimination of tuberculosis 
from dairy herds. Discusses the Milk (Regulation of Sup- 
ply and Price) Act, 1936, and changes made under the 
Dairy Produce (Price Stabilisation) Act, 1935. 



33 



543. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE. 
International chronicle of agriculture: Switzerland; the 
milk market. Internatl. Inst. Monthly B. Agr. Econ. and 
Sociol. 29(2): 102E-103E. Feb. 1938. 280.29 In83 

Measures affecting prices in the milk market of Swit- 
zerland. 

544. IS THE milk business affected with a public inter- 
est? Milk Plant Monthly 27(9): 63-64. Sept. 1938. 
44.8 C864 

"From a report in the California Milk News of August 
19." 

Extracts from an opinion of Judge C. D. Ballard of Los 
Angeles, Calif., in a case in which dairymen and opera- 
tors of gallon milk stores sought an injunction against 
the administrator of the State marketing law. The Judge 
stated that the milk industry is of such public interest 
that it is subject to the police powers of the State 
and that the authority given to the administrator "to in- 
vestigate the business of the industry, inspect books, 
records, etc., is not a violation of the State constitution. 

545. JACKSON, H. C, RUPEL, I. W., and VERGERONT, 
G W Dairying; problems in production, marketing, and 
management. Chicago, Lippincott, 1938. 168 p. 44 J13 

Discusses the selecting and adapting farms for dairying, 
feeding dairy cows for efficient and economical milk pro- 
duction, producing good milk, and marketing dairy prod- 
ucts. 

546. JOHANSSON, I. Ekonomisk mjblkproduktion. 
Stockholm, 1938. 199 p. 281.344 J59 

Breeding and feeding of cattle with some reference to 
milk costs and prices. 

547. JOHNSON, O. M. Distribution costs in the ice 
cream industry. Natl. Assoc. Cost Accountants Ybk. 
1937. 203-222. 1938. 280.9 N214 

Factors influencing distribution methods and costs in 
the ice cream industry are considered. Delivery methods 
are also described, and the role of the deliveryman as 
salesman is shown. 

548. JOHNSON, O. M. Preliminary report on ice cream 
can survey. Internatl. Assoc. Ice Cream Mfrs. Rpt. of 
Proc. 3: 12-21. 1938. 389.9 In83 

This survey, covers 470 plants and shows the number of 
manufacturers using steel cans and paper cans. Includes 
charts which show cans in use by size and by classes of 
manufacturers, and sizes of paper cans used. 

54H. KOLLMORGEN, W. The butter industry of 
Nebraska. Nebr. Conserv. B. 16, 77 p. Mar. 1938. 
279.9 N272B 

History of the butter industry in Nebraska beginning 
with the first creameries built in the eighties. Includes 
information on production of butter and butterfat, number 
and character of milk plants, interstate shipment of but- 
ter, and value of by-products. There is some discussion 
of margarine as a competitive product. 

550. KOLLMORGEN, W. Cheese production in Nebras- 
ka. Nebr. Conserv. B. 17, 35 p. July 1938. 
279.9 N272B 

Practices employed in the production of cheese, par- 
i ticularly cheddar cheese, in Nebraska are discussed, and 
dairying activities in this state are compared with those 
of Wisconsin. Almost half of the milk producers for 
cheese plants in Nebraska live within one mile of such 
plants and more than three-fourths within two miles of the 
plants. The milk producer pays from 20 to 30 c. per cwt. 
of milk hauled to the cheese plants. In Wisconsin the pro- 
ducer hauls his milk to the cheese plant, thereby reducing 
the transportation cost which the Nebraska producer has 
to meet. 

551. KOLLMORGEN, Wt Ice cream production in Ne- 
braska. Nebr. Conserv. B. 18, 26 p. July 1938. 

279.9 N272B 
Gives information on the composition, manufacture and 

packing of ice cream; State statutory requirements of 

butter -fat content in ice cream; and the extent of the 

industry in the State. 



552. KRUEGER, P. F. Necessary changes in average 
milk plant to comply with United States Public Health 
Service Standard Ordinance and Code. Milk Plant Month- 
ly 27: 52, 54, 56-58. May, 1938. 44.8 C864 

Changes in milk plant construction, equipment and 
operation, made necessary when the Ordinance and Code 
was embodied in a new ordinance in Chicago, are de- 
scribed in detail. « 

553. LAYSON, S. V. Dairy sanitation legislation. Milk 
Plant Monthly 27(12): 32-35. Dec. 1938. 44.8 C864 

Shows how such regulation contributes to the production 
of safe, better quality milk, and how it has been a force 
in the increased consumption of milk and the improvement 
of public health. 

554. LAYSON, S. V. Diminish milk bottle problems. 
Milk Plant Monthly 27(7): 32-35. July 1938. 44.8 C864 

Milk bottle costs and losses are discussed and a means 
of minimizing them is outlined. 

555. LEVOWITZ, D. What about standardization? 
Holstein Friesian World 35: 433. Apr. 30, 1938. 
43.8 H742 

Notes that the interest of dairymen in the mechanics of 
standardization has been stimulated through purchases 
of milk on a butterfat content basis, and explains brief- 
ly the use of several mechanical devices for the standardi- 
zation of milk at the farm. 

556. LINTNGER, F. F., and PIERCE, C. W. Seasonal 
changes in market milk production in Pennsylvania. The 
relation of month -to -month fluctuations in milk sales to 
prices received by farmers. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 358, 
32 p. Ref. Agr. 1938. 100 P381 

Changes in the Pittsburgh, New York and Philadelphia 
milksheds are studied. It is concluded that the present 
price system favors uneven production and two plans for 
correcting this situation are suggested. 

557. LUCIA, F. B. What uniformity means in marketing 
milk powder. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29(17): 18-20. 
Sept. 10, 1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

Address, Dairy Manufacturers' Short Course, Universi- 
ty of Wisconsin, March 1938. 

Tells of the expansion of the industry and describes the 
process of manufacture and uses for the product. Poor 
quality and lack of uniformity has caused feed mills to use 
substitutes in place of dried milk for chick feeds and 
mash. 

558. MCCLELLAND, M. Relative efficiency of paper 
and steel containers for ice cream. 111. U. Dept. Dairy 
Husb. Mater. Presented at the Short Course in Ice Cream 
Manufacture. 1938: 60-62. 389.9 IL62 

Finds that paper containers are cheaper, provide a bet- 
ter means of preserving the quality of the product, and 
are more convenient to use. 

559. MACLEOD, A., and GERAGHTY, M. L. The 
transportation of New Hampshire milk. 1. Analysts of 
trucking charges. N. H. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 307, 32-p. 
June 1938. 100 N45 

The $300,000 a year being paid by New Hampshire farm- 
ers for the transportation of milk to country stations and 
city plants may be reduced by a reduction of charges on 
routes where they are above competitive levels, or by a 
reorganization of truck routes and milksheds. The first 
of these possibilities is considered. 

560. MALOTT, D. W. Problems in agricultural mar- 
keting. New York, McGraw-HiU, 1938. 410 p. Ref. 
280.3 M29 

Partial contents: H. P. Hood & Sons, Inc.: Buying prob- 
lems of a fluid milk distributor and processor p. 346-353; 
the milk industry and Federal control - fluid milk mar- 
keting agreements, licenses, and orders, p. 385-391. 

561. MASS. SPECIAL COMMISSION ON LAWS RELATING 
TO MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS: Mass. General Court, 
1937. Senate Doc. 410, 81 p. 281.344 M38 

Based largely on observations of conditions in nearby 
and western states, and on public hearings. Deals with 
dairy inspection, dealer bonding, marketing control, and 
frozen desserts. 



34 



5(52. MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE. EXTENSION 
SEFVICE. Report of the sub -committee on marketing 
milk in Massachusetts, prepared at the request of the 
Committee on Problems Affecting the Dairy Industry of 
Massachusetts. Amherst, 1938. 55 p. 275.2 M38Rm 

Arranged by Ellsworth W. Bell. Shaun Kelly, Chairman 
of the committee. 

A study of the regulations or organizations necessary to 
help the producer obtain a fair price for his milk, and the 
distributor a fair return on his capital, with emphasis on 
the following factors: Class II price for milk; the Federal 
license in the New Bedford and Fall River Markets; the 
Federal license with equalization in the Boston Market. 

Appendices:— 1, Facts on milk marketing in Massachu- 
setts; 2. Market situations which affect Massachusetts 
dairymen; 3. Three years under Federal milk control; 
4. Brief history of Federal milk control in Boston with 
special reference to its application to nearby Massachu- 
setts producers; 5. Description of actual operation of 
equalization pool; 6. The relationship of Class I and Class 
II prices in a fluid milk market, by D. B. MacCollom. 

Report of Committee on Milk Production Problems, p. 
36-55. 

503. MEHRENS, B. Die marktordnung des Reichs- 
.nahrstandes. Berlin, F. Vahlen, 1E38. 332 p. 284.3 N47 
(Schriften der Internationalen Konferenz fur Agrarwis- 
senschaft. (Internatl. Conf. Agr. Econ.)) 

Contains section, '.'Milch und milcherzeugnisse," 
p. 230-295, which discusses marketing control of these 
products in Germany. 

564. MIDLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. DEPT. OF 
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. Investigation into the 
economics of milk production, second interim report; a 
comparison of milk production during the two summers 
of 1936 and 1937. Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, 
England, Apr. 1938. 20 p. 281.344 M585 

Deals with the costs and returns from milk production 
on 45 farms in the East Midland Province. The price of 
purchased concentrates increased, and the average de- 
cline in yield was 12 gal. per cow, in summer 1937. The 
average delivered cost per gallon of wholesale milk was 
9.32 d. in both summers. The average pool price realized 
was 0.60 d. per gal. higher in summer 1937. 

565. MILK marketing. Jn British agriculture: the prin- 
ciples of future policy, p. 270-302. London, Longmans, 
Green, 1938. 281.171 B77 

History of milk marketing over the last fifty years, dis- 
cusses the milk marketing boards and their effects on 
prices, consumption and the industry in general. Trans- 
formation of the boards from bodies representative of 
farmers into public corporations is a much needed re- 
form. 

566. MILK RESEARCH COUNCIL, and NEWARK UNI- 
VERSITY. RESEARCH CENTRE. Dislike of milk among 
young people. In Brown, E. F., Milk Papers 4(69), 63 p. 
1935-1938. 28L"344 B81 

A survey of 1,837 high school boys and girls shows that 
milk consumption among them is influenced by external 
situations such as slight deteriorations of the milk itself 
or unfortunate circumstances under which it is offered, 
and that many dislikes revert to experiences of early 
childhood. 

567. MILK RESEARCH COUNCIL and NEWARK UNI- 
VERSITY. RESEARCH CENTRE. Milk drinking habits 
among young people, a psychological study. New York, 
1938. 101 p. 389.1 M592 

Pearl Greenberg was in charge of the study. 

Aim of the investigation was to survey the drinking 
habits of high school children with reference to milk and 
other beverages; to study especially those who disliked 
milk or did not drink milk; and to describe and explain 
the reasons for their dislike. Data were obtained from 
questionnaires and by interviews with New York City 
children and their mothers. Sample questionnaires are 
appended. 



568. MISNER, E. G. Economic studies of dairy farm- 
ing in New York; factors affecting premiums received in 
grade-A-milk production. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. 
Sta. B. 698, 28 p. 1938. 100 N48C 

Factors found to be most significantly correlated with 
the premium ratings received on 100 farms producing 
grade A milk in the Tully-Homer area were the size of 
the business and labor efficiency. 

569. MISNER, E. G. Economic studies of dairy farming 
in New York; 100 grade A farms in the Tully-Homer area, 
crop year 1936. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 696, 
59 p. May 1938. 100 N48C 

Costs and returns of milk production are shown for the 
year ending Feb. 28, 1937. Factors affecting labor income 
and the cost of milk production, including size of business, 
diversity of business, rates of production, and labor ef- 
ficiency, are examined. 

570. MONTGOMERY, D. E. The reaction of consumers 
to changes in retail price of milk. U. S. Agr. Adjust. 
Admin. 1938. 11 p. 1.94 Ad422Ad 

There is little factual support for the generalization that 
demand for milk is inelastic. Opportunity for increasing 
consumption will be greatly enhanced when it is recog- 
nized that there is a large group of the population who do 
not consume milk because they cannot pay either for the 
milk or services. Possible means of supplying the low- 
income market are considered. 

571. NAIR, J. H., and BENTHAM, L. C. Judging sweet 
cream. J. Dairy Sci. 21: 791-799. Ref. Dec. 1938. 
44.8 J822 

Present-day quality in sweet cream, as distributed in ur- 
ban centers, merits careful consideration of a number of 
characteristics not recognized in the score card now used 
interchangeably for milk and cream. At the same time, 
it appears desirable that a different weighting of individ- 
ual qualities be made. A separate score card for cream 
is suggested, with proposed methods for judging the re- 
spective characteristics. Details of application are given. 

572. NANNESON, L. R'akenskapsresultat fran svenska 
jordbruk. XXm. Bokforingsaret 1936-1937. Sweden. K. 
Lantbr. Styr. Meddel. 315, 117 p. 1938. HSw3 

An annual statistical summary of Swedish agriculture 
for the fiscal year 1936-1937, including figures on dairy 
products, marketing and prices. Gives comparative sta- 
tistics for a 25-year period. 

573. NEW JERSEY. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Fac- 
tors influencing the production of New Jersey official 
grade A milk. N. J. Dept. Agr. C. 289, 46 p. Mar. 1938. 
2 N46C 

Sections of this report discuss efforts to control bovine 
brucellosis, milk flavors and odors, the care of milk- 
handling equipment, composite samples for butterfat tests, 
official inspection of grade A milk, and the safety and 
wholesomeness of this grade from the standpoint of the 
consumer. 

574. NEW YORK (STATE) ATTORNEY GENERAL'S 
OFFICE. A report to Hon. Herbert H. Lehman, Governor, 
and the Honorable, the legislature of the State of New York 
by John J. Bennett, Jr., Attorney General, on the milk in- 
dustry of the State of New York with particular reference 
to the New York metropolitan area. March 8th, 1938. 
New York, Case Press, 1938? 129 p. 280.344 N483 

Presents data on the operations of the milk companies 
dominating this market. Analyzes the cost of handling, 
pasteurizing, and distributing milk in the area, involving 
country plant operations, freight and truck hauling, bot- 
tling and city plant costs, selling and delivery, adminis- 
tration expenses, and container costs. Discusses milk 
prices, and profits from fluid milk and from manufactured 
dairy products. 

Discusses milk prices, and profits from fluid milk and 
from manufactured dairy products. 






35 



575. NEW YORK (STATE) COMMISSIONER OF AGRICUL- 
TURE AND MARKETS. Report... regarding the audit of 
milk dealers and cooperative associations. Legislative 
Doc. 1938, 100, 632 p. 1938. 281.344 N4822 

Presents combined financial statements and statistics 
of 14 dealers of milk and milk products in the New York 
City metropolitan area from Jan. 1, 1936 to Sept. 30, 1937. 
A report covering operations of the Dairymen's League 
Cooperative Association, Inc., for the period Apr. 1, 1936 
to Sept. 30, 1937, is included. 

576. NEWMAN, W. A. The effectiveness of the butter 
tariff. Minn. Agr. Ext., Farm Business Notes 191: 3. 
Nov. 1938. 275.29 M663 

A high tariff on butter is effective only in raising prices 
for temporary periods when the supply is short and some 
importations of butter are made. 

577. NICHOLAS, J. E. The warming of milk in transit. 
Agr. Engin. 19: 61-62. Feb. 1938. 58.8 Ag83 

Also in Dairy World 16(10): 38, 40, 44-45. Mar. 1938. 
44.8 D1423. 

Reports studies made on cold fresh milk transported by 
truck under conditions similar to those on average Penn- 
sylvania routes. Tables show rises in temperature of 
cans exposed to the outside air in the sun and differences 
in temperature between the top and bottom of the cans. 
The effect on bacterial growth because of stratification in 
the cans should be studied. 

578. NIGHTINGALE, E. We can sell 25 per cent more 
liquid milk. Farmer & Stock-Breeder 52: 2273. Sept. 27 
1938. 10 F228 

Points out how a new market for milk can be reached 
through the medium of paper containers. 

579. NIXON, A. J., and REED, O. M. Municipal milk 
distribution in Tarboro, North Carolina. U. S. Agr. 
Adjust. Admin. DM-5 (Mktg. Inform. Ser.), 30 p. Dec. 
1938. 1.4 Ad47D 

A description and evaluation of the operation of a unified 
milk plant and distribution system, municipally owned and 
operated. The study develops (1) the historical basis of 
the Tarboro milk enterprise, (2) data and information on 
receipts and sales in that market, and (3) an analysis of 
the operations of the system. 

580. OLSON, T. M. Elements of dairying. New York, 
Macmillan, 1938. 570 p. 44 0182 

Ch. 13, Composition and Properties of Milk, discusses 
the utilization of casein, lactalbumin, and lactose; Ch. 27, 
Developing a Dairy Herd, gives data showing profitability 
of high -producing cows; and Ch. 32, The Dairy Cow, in 
part considers milk production costs. 

581. OVERMAN, O. R., GARRETT, O. F., and RUEHE, 
H. A. Studies on the keeping quality of butter in cold 
storage. HI. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 446: 45-90. Sept. 1938. 
100 H6S 

Grading of 36 butters taken directly from the churn and 
packed in 3-pound paraffined, parchment-lined, Sealright 
cartons. 

582. PARKER, C. V. Economic analysis of creamery 
operations in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
Canada. Dept. Agr. Tech. B. 13, 36 p. Mar. 1938. 

7 C16T 

Objectives of study include a determination of cream 
gathering costs, of butter manufacturing costs, and of the 
effect of volume of output on the cost of manufacturing 
butter. Records of 78 creameries covering the fiscal 
year 1933/34 were used. 

583. PARNELL, G. S. Digest of milk control law in 
Pennsylvania thoroughly indexed and annotated with deci- 
sions of other states; with orders and forms; also New 
Jersey statutes on this subject. Newark, N. J., Soney & 
Sage, 1938. 319 p. Libr. Cong. 

Includes chapters on the history of milk control laws, 
procedure before the Pennsylvania Milk Control Commis- 
sion, constitutional law, milk marketing areas in Pennsyl- 
vania, and a table of cases cited. 



584. PARSONS, M. S. Effect of changes in milk and 
feed prices and in other factors upon milk production in 
New York. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 688, 67 p. 
1938. 100 N48C 

Based on two series of production data covering the 
periods 1910-36 and 1921-36. Shifts in the seasonality of 
milk production were largely the result of long-time 
changes in the milk-grain price ratio. The shif ! - " 
seasonality of milk prices probably was due to the classi- 
fied-price plan and a shift in the seasonality of butter 
prices. 

585. PENNSYLVANIA MILK CONTROL BOARD. Coun- 
try receiving station and transportation allowances in the 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, milkshed. 10 p. Philadel- 
phia, 1938. 280.344 P38C 

Shows the basis for determining an allowance for coun- 
try receiving stations, cost of operation of city plants, 
and cost of receiving milk purchased through these 
stations, tank care expense, and transportation allowances 
on class I and class II milk. 

586. POLLARD, A. J. Transportation of milk and 
cream to Boston. Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 437, 42 p. 
June 1938. 100 V59 

Outlines the Boston milkshed, and discusses the relative 
importance of milk and cream; describes methods of 
transportation and their importance, and compares their 
rates and services; discusses the accuracy of the reports 
of milk and cream receipts issued by the U. S. Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics. 

587. POST, J. W. Economies of grade buying. Wider 
spread in butter values makes price differentials for 
Cream imperative. Amer. Prod. Rev. 85: 580, 582-584. 
Mar. 9, 1938. 286.85 N482 

An address at annual convention of Illinois Dairy Pro- 
ducts Association. 

Purchase of cream on grade is advocated and would 
benefit both producers and creameryman. Paying the 
same price for all cream places a Dremium on poor 
dairying and discourages the careful producer. 

588. PRIESTLEY, H. The future of the milk industry. 
Roy. Smitary Inst. J. 58: 522-530. Feb. 1938. 

449.9 R812 

Discusses milk marketing, production, costs of produc- 
tion and distribution, consumption, the purity of the sup- 
ply, including milk-borne diseases and pasteurization, 
and loose distribution compared with the distribution of 
milk in bottles and wax containers. 

Discussion, p. 530-534. 

589. PRUCHA, M. J. Sanitary aspects of paper milk 
containers. J. Milk Technol. 1: 4-9. Jan. 1938. 
44.8 J824 

Paraffining at 185* F. for 30 sec. results in a practically 
sterile container, and one that is safe to use. 

590. REGAN, J. J. Veterinary supervision of milk 
supplies in the New York milkshed. Amer. Vet. Med. 
Assoc. J. 92: 769-771. June, 1938. 41.8 Am3 

The use of veterinary services in sanitary milk control 
in New York is reviewed. At the beginning, particular 
emphasis was placed on tuberculosis, but as that disease 
was gradually eliminated, with the completion of Federal 
and State programs, more attention was given to bovine 
mastitis. 

591. REICHART, E. L. How to figure mix costs. Ice 
Cream Trade J. 34: 22, 26. Feb. 1938. 3*9.8 Ic2 

In territories where fresh products are available, ice 
cream mixes are best and most cheaply, made with milk, 
cream and condensed skim as sources of fat and serum 
solids. In localities removed from actual production 
areas, mixes are cheapest when made from butter, skim 
milk powder or other concentrates. 



36 



592. REID, W. H. E., DREW, R. J., and ARBUCKLE, 
W. S. The composition and serving temperature as a 
means of increasing consumer preference for ice cream. 
Internatl. Assoc. Ice Cream Mfrs. Rpt. of Proc. 4: 76-81. 
1938. 389.9 ln83 

Based on a thesis presented by R. J. Drew in partial 
fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts at the Univer- 
sity of Missouri. 

Results of this study of the influence of the composition 
of the mix on serving temperature shows that ice cream 
containing 14 percent fat was generally the most desir- 
able. Illustrated by a table, charts and microphotographs. 

593. REID, W. H. E., and ARBUCKLE, W. S. The effect 
of serving temperature upon consumer acceptance of ice 
creams and sherbets. Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 272, 
34 p. Jan. 1938. 100 M693 

Also in Ice Cream Trade J. 34(1): 10, 12, 18, 32-34, 38. 
Jan. 1938. 389.8 Ic2 

Represents opinions of 181 consumers. The most de- 
sirable serving temperature for most ice creams and 
sherbets was 10° F. Ice creams and sherbets low in sugar 
content and with mild flavors were preferred at a higher 
serving temperature than 10°F., while products more pro- 
nounced in flavor and with a higher sugar content were 
preferred at a lower temperature. 

594. RENNER, K. M. Factors the butter industry should 
consider in future quality improvement. Natl. Butter and 
Cheese J. 29: 26-28. Mar. 10, 1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

With introductory paragraph relating to Texas, published 
under title "Factors for Texans to consider; a Discussion 
of Directions for further Improvement" in Amer. Prod. 
Rev. 85(25): 750-751. Apr. 13, 1938. 286.85 N482 

Factors with respect to the cream station system of 
quality control are outlined. Plant operations, involving 
more rigid quality and laboratory control, are further 
emphasized. Adequate dairy legislation affecting the 
butter industry is considered a prop in quality improve- 
ment. Lastly, some of the reasons for poor quality cream 
and butter are enumerated. 

595. REYNOLDS, A. E. California's ice cream control 
program. Calif. Dept. Agr. B. 27: 532-535. Nov. 1938. 
2 C12M 

Changes in the ice cream laws of California are de- 
scribed. These involve the standards for sherbet and of 
composition and quality for ice cream mix and ice milk 
mix, as well as quality requirements for unsalted butter 
used in these products. Pasteurization of all ingredients 
except fruits, nuts and flavors is required. The sanitary 
regulation of ice cream factories is strengthened. 

596. RICE, E. B. Observations on the dairy industry of 
Denmark. Queensland Agr. J. 50: 716-729. Dec. 1938. 
23Q33 

Contains information on butter sampling, grading and 
quality control. 

597. RICE, E. B. Observations on the dairy industry of 
the Irish Free State. Queensland Agr. J. 49: 443-455. 
May 1, 1938. 23 Q33 

Describes breeds of cattle, schemes for improvement of 
dairying, creamery butter manufacture, butter grading, 
and the Irish Butter Testing Station. 

598. ROBERTS, H. E. Consumer preference for ice 
cream. Ohio State U. Col. Agr. and Domestic Sci. 
Dairy Technol. Conf. Mater. Presented 1938: 137-139. 
44.9 Oh35M 

Results of quantity test of consumer preferences in ice 
cream. For further report see item no. 829. 

599. ROGERS, F. E. Daylight vs. night delivery. Milk 
Plant Monthly 27(3): 28-30. Mar. 1938. 44.8 C864 

Finds that in general night delivery is preferable, but 
that extension of daylight service may be desirable in 
some communities. 

600. ROLAND, C. T., and TREBLER, H. A. A plant 
study of damaged and defective milk bottles. J. Dairy Sci. 
21: 275-281. June 1938. 44.8 J822 

A study of data from two large bottling plants. 



601. RUEHE, H. A., and BARTLETT, R. W. Price 
relationship of fluid milk. Hoard's Dairyman 83: 339, 
351. June 25, 1938. 44.8 H65 

Shows the influence of consumer income on prices, of 
butter prices on market milk prices, and of price on 
sales, especially in low income groups. 

602. SANBORN, J. R. Proposed standards for paper 
milk containers. J. Milk Technol. 1(2): 41-45. Jan. 
1938. 44.8 J824 

603. SANBORN, J. R. Suitable paper wrappers and con- 
tainers for foods. Amer. J. Pub. Health 28: 571-575. 
May 1938. 449.9 Am3J 

Discusses the public health aspects of paper food con- 
tainers with particular reference to milk containers, and 
states that the present satisfactory paper milk container 
is sanitarily manufactured from virgin pulp and contains 
less than 500 bacteria per gm. of disintegrated board. 
Results of tests for bacterial content of fabricated con- 
tainers are shown in a table. 

604. SCHUBRING, W. Butter trade and prices in 1937. 
Internatl. Inst. Agr. Internatl. Rev. Agr. 29: 515S-519S. 
June 1938. 241 In82 

Gives average annual prices of Danish and New Zealand 
butter, and average of all butters imported into the United 
Kingdom for 1913 and 1928-1937, individually, and average 
monthly prices of butter imported into the United Kingdom 
for the period 1931-1937. 

605. SCHULTHEISS, F. Fluid milk market stabiliza- 
tion. Milk Plant Monthly 27(3): 36, 38, 40-41. Mar. 
1938. 44.8 C864 

States that Wisconsin was the first State to attempt to 
stabilize fluid milk markets, discusses the Wisconsin 
plan, and reports on the work done and results attained. 

606. SCHURMANN, R. Der handel mit deutscher butter. 
Germany. Reichs Min. f. Ernahr. u. Landw. Ber. iiber 
Landw. Sonderheft 136, 113 p. Ref. 1938. 18G 31A 

The German wholesale butter trade which is largely in 
the hands of small dealers in the consumption area 
receives a great part of the dairy farm butter in Germany. 
Joint marketing is, however becoming of increasing im- 
portance. In 1934, 20 associations marketed 15 percent 
of the entire production. 

This article discusses prices and price regulation de- 
signed to stabilize German agriculture in a failing world 
market, and shows that, because of the short route from 
the producer to the consumer, the rapid turnover, and 
great competition, the selling margin for butter was very 
small. Nevertheless profits were made. Now that prices 
have been stabilized, profit possibilities are greater. 

607. SHEPARD, J. B., SMITH, R. K., and WILSON, J. L. 
Milk production and utilization in the United States, 1934, 
1935 and 1936. Washington, U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ., 1938. 
11 p. 1.9 Ec71Mpu 

Includes material on total supply and utilization of milk 
in the U. S., and on milk utilization for each purpose on 
farms by States. 

608. SHERMAN, R. W. Effect of base and surplus plans 
on volume of milk sales by individual producers. Ohio. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bimo. B. 194: 176-177. Sept.-Oct. 1938. 
100 Oh3S 

A group of 374 milk producers from four Ohio markets 
who shipped milk continuously from 1927 to 1936 was 
selected for this study. Sales were studied from the 
standpoint of what happened to their sales volume when 
they changed from a so-called summer producer to a 
winter producer and vice versa. Data are given on the 
number of producers who had a smaller or larger volume 
of sales accompanying both types of changes. These 
changes indicate that the adherence to base and surplus 
plans was accompanied to some degree by lower sales. 



37 



609. SHERRARD, F. R. G. N. Some costs of producing 
tuberculin -tested milk. Farm Econ. 2: 187-189. Apr. 
1938. 281.8 F223 

Records for six tuberculin-tested herds, in different 
parts of England, for the three years, 1934-35 to 1936-37. 
Although most of the costs were reduced during this time, 
the range of cost among the farms remained wide. This 
is attributed partly to differing interpretations of the 
standards required for the production of tuberculin-tested 
milk. 

610. SMITH, H. P., and TRACY, P. H. Consumers' pre- 
ference for ice cream. Dairy Indus. 3(10): 397-399. 
Oct. 1938. 44.8 D1427 

Also in Ice Cream Rev. 21(5): 27-28, 38. Dec. 1937. 
389.8 Ic22 

Summary of thesis presented by the senior author in 
partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's 
Degree at the University of Illinois. 

Results of the survey, in which the problem was studied 
from two angles, first by questionnaire and second by 
actual sampling of the ice creams in question. 

611. SPENCER, L. The general economic situation as 
related to problems of the milk industry. In Brown, E. F, 
comp. Milk Papers 3(52), 9 p. 1938. 28T7344 B81 

Discusses such topics as milk sales and business acti- 
vity, flexible and inflexible prices, retail prices and 
margins, wages and taxes, and profits in milk distribution. 

612. SPENCER, L. Milk and cream use in New York. 
Amer. Prod. Rev. 85(14): 396. Jan. 26, 1938. 

286.85 N482 

Compares the consumption of fluid milk in New York 
City with that in other cities in the State and with that in 
other countries. Factors influencing consumption are 
retail milk prices, income, birth rate, and educational 
campaigns and other methods of making consumers fully 
aware of the food value of milk. 

613. SPENCER, L. Milk prices in New York under 
federal and state orders. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 234, 19 p. 
Oct. 1938. 281.9 C81 

A study of the price control program which became 
effective Sept. 1, 1938, dealing with the classification and 
prices of milk for Sept. 1938 as announced by the Market 
Administrator; the effect of the reduction of freight dif- 
ferentials on returns to farmers near New York City and 
those in the most distant counties; retail prices of Grade 
B milk and evaporated milk at grocery stores in New 
York City, 1925-Oct. 1938; and the probable duration of 
improvement in milk prices resulting from the Federal- 
State control program. 

614. SPENCER, L. The surplus problem in the north- 
eastern milksheds. U. S. Farm Credit Admin. Coop. 
Div. B. 24, 88 p. Apr. 1938. 166.2 B89 

Published in cooperation with the N. Y. State College of 
Agriculture. 

The surplus problem in the northeastern milksheds is 
said to involve two phases, (1) utilization of milk in these 
states, and (2) western cream as a supplementary supply 
for the markets of this region. These aspects are treated 
separately in part I and part n of this bulletin. Lines of 
action toward solving the problem are suggested. 

615. SPENCER, L. Western cream for eastern mar- 
kets. J. Farm Econ. 20: 196-207. Feb. 1938. 

280.8 J822 

Summary in N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. Farm Econ. 99: 2429- 
2430. Feb. 1937. 280.8 C812 

The trend in the utilization of cream shipped from dairy 
plants in the midwestern states is shown, together with 
the extent of operations of these plants. Conditions affect- 
ing the sanitary quality of "western cream" are indicated. 
Data are given on the costs of making and shipping cream 
from this source, and also on net returns. 

Discussion, p. 208-213. 



616. STECK, L. J. The regulation of milk marketing in 
England and Wales. U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin. DM -4 
(Mktg. Inform. Ser.), 75 p. 1938. 1.4 Ad47D 

Discusses the provisions of the Milk Marketing Scheme 
and its operation, and compares Federal regulation of 
milk marketing in the United States with that in England 
and Wales. Includes a brief account of the dairy industry 
and a description of marketing conditions in England and 
Wales prior to the introduction of the Scheme. 

617. STEERE, L. V. Recent developments in Swedish 
agricultural policy. Econ. Foreign Agr. 2(5): 213-234. 
May 1938. 1.9 Ec7For 

The functioning of the Swedish Milk Scheme with partic- 
ular reference to milk and butter price equalization. 

618. STEVENS, G. P. A quality improvement plan for 
Utah. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29: 33. May 10, 1938. 
286.85 B98Bu 

Gives details of a three-months' quality improvement 
program for Utah's milk, cream, butter and cheese indus- 
try. 

619. STITTS, T. G., and others. Relative prices to pro- 
ducers under selected types of milk pools. U. S. Farm 
Credit Admin. Coop. Div. B. 253, 127 p. June 1938. 
166.2 B87 

W. C. Welden, E. W. Gaumnitz, O. M. Reed, and H. L. 
Forest, joint authors. 

On the basis of a study made in 1937, the authors dis- 
cuss pooling procedure and analyze some of the specific 
factors involved in setting up pooling plans for distributing 
the sales returns among different producer groups in the 
milk-supply area. The analytical portions treat entirely 
of conditions in the milkshed and marketing area of Bos- 
ton, Mass. Information collected in the administration of 
Federal programs regulating the handling of milk in this 
market forms the basis of most of the statistical analyses 
included. 

620. SURVEY of cream grading laws in the United States. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29: 18-20, 22-25. June 10, 
1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

Results of a questionnaire survey show that half of the 
40 states from which replies were received have cream 
grading laws; 8 percent have some type of voluntary grad- 
ing system; and 42 percent have no grading laws whatso- 
ever. Facts on differences in the provisions of these laws 
and their application in the various states are noted. 

621. SVAUDSTRdM, F. Marknadsundersbkningar 1-3. 
Sweden. K. Lantbr. Styr. Meddel. 306, 307, 312. 79 p., 
80 p., 148 p. 1937-1938. HSw3 

Nos. 306(2), 307 and 312 have English summaries under 
the titles "The production of milk," "The British butter 
market" and "Prices of milk and dairy products in the 
period 1922-1936." No. 306 discusses the relationship 
between supply and demand and prices; no. 307, the effect 
of United Kingdom butter stocks on world market prices; 
no. 312, trends in dairy prices, as affected by supply and 
demand, by foreign price levels, and by government regu- 
lation. 

622. TANNER, F. W. Microbial flora of paper contain- 
ers. Amer. J. Pub. Health 28: 587-592. Ref. May 1938 
449.9 Am3J 

The average bacterial content of paper milk containers 
is found much lower than that reported for some glass 
bottles, and of no sanitary significance. Methods of mak- 
ing paperboard, while not always yielding a sterile prod- 
uct, cause a profound reduction in numbers of viable bac- 
teria. Waterproofing the paperboard with hot paraffin 
also contributes to this end. The containers studied were 
made and sealed in the factory. That part which comes 
into contact with the milk is not exposed to contamination, 
for the containers are not opened until they are about to 
be filled. They are considered safe and convenient to use. 

623. TAUSSIG, ST. The world butter production. In-, 
ternatl. Inst. Agr. Internatl. Rev. Agr. 29: 44T-61T. Feb. 
1938. 241 In82A 

Although the emphasis herein is placed almost exclusive- 
ly upon production, material is given on milk utilization, 
p. 60-61, for a number of countries. 



38 



624. TAYLOR, G. R. Restrictions on the free movement 
of farm products in the United States. New England Inst. 
Coop. Ann. Cong. 11: 108-126. 1938. 280.29 N44 

Restrictions on dairy products, p. 121-126. 

625. TAYLOR, G. R. Trade barriers in the dairy indus- 
try. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Agr. Situation 22(8): 9-11. 
Aug. 1938. 1 Ec7Ag 

The operation of measures acting as trade barriers 
against the interstate and intrastate movement of dairy 
products is critically reviewed. 

626. TENNY, L. S. The use of a futures market in con- 
nection with the dairy industry. Tex. Cream Improve- 
ment Assoc. Addresses 2, 5 p. 1938. 44.9 T312 

Explains how the Chicago Mercantile Exchange can be 
used by the creameryman to eliminate price risks. 

627. THOMSEN, L. C. What needs to be done to in- 
crease the consumption of butter. Amer. Prod. Rev. 86: 
534. Sept. 14, 1938. 286.85 N482 

Also in Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 29: 10-12, 14. 
Jan. 25, 1938. 286.85 B98Bu 

The author points to factors making for a decrease in 
butter consumption. He suggests that improved flavor, 
texture, and color would enhance its appeal to consumers, 
and points out a need for consumer education as to the 
nutritional properties of butter. 

628. TIEDEMAN, W. D. The role of platform tests and 
farm inspections in milk control. J. Milk Technol. 1(5): 
17-32. July, 1938. 44.8 J824 

Evaluates the odor, strainer dipper, methylene blue, 
and sediment tests. The first proved of considerable 
value, particularly at grade B plants. 

629. TILL, I. Milk— the politics of an industry. In^ 
Hamilton, W. Price and price policies, p. 431-524. 
New York, McGraw-Hill, 1938. 284.3 H182 

The milk industry as a big business pent in by the petty 
economy of the farm and the petty economy of the house- 
hold. A study of the milk market, its. method of fixing 
prices, and its regulation by the State. Prepared for the 
Cabinet Committee on Price Policy set up in 1934. 

630. TINLEY, J. M. California milk control legislation. 
J. Mktg. 3: 175-177. Oct. 1938. 280.38 J82 

A discussion of the Young Act, amended 1937, providing 
for the determination and enforcement of producers' 
prices based upon the economic relation between prices of 
market milk and prices of manufacturing milk in the 
various marketing areas, and of the Desmond Act, effec- 
tive Aug. 27, 1937, extending the power of the Director of 
Agriculture to determine and establish minimum whole- 
sale and retail prices as Soon as possible in existing mar- 
keting areas and to put both producer and resale prices 
into effect in new areas. 

631. TINLEY, J. M. Lessons from public control in 
milk marketing. J. Farm Econ. 20: 807-822. Nov. 1938. 
280.8 J822 

Since 1933 the Federal and many State legislatures have 
passed laws foT the regulation of some or all phases of 
milk marketing. These laws have been reviewed by vari- 
ous State supreme courts and by the United States Su- 
preme Court. These decisions make possible certain 
tentative conclusions, which are enumerated. 

The various State laws may be divided under two general 
headings: those which provide only for the support of min- 
imum (not maximum) prices to producers; and those 
which in addition provide for regulation of minimum re- 
sale prices. Most of this paper is devoted to this latter 
aspect of the problem, illustrated from the operation of 
the California milk control legislation. 



632. TINLEY, J. M. Public regulation of milk market- 
ing in California. Berkeley, U. of Calif. Press, 1938. 
213 p. 280.344 T49 

Discusses the subject under the following topics: Setting 
the stage for milk wars ; collapse of milk marketing in 
California; public stabilization efforts before 1937; eco- 
nomic basis for regulating milk distribution; regulation' of 
producer prices under the amended Young Act; resale 
price regulation under the Desmond Act; survey of distri- 
bution costs and store margins; allocation of costs 
between fluid milk and other products; and resale prices 
based on distribution costs. Concludes that "the present 
milk- stabilization legislation in .California appears to be 
founded on sound economic principles, and if well admin- 
istered and conscientiously supported by those in the 
market-milk industry should gradually promote greater 
efficiency in fluid milk distribution." 

633. TO MAINTAIN sanitary standards of grade A milk. 
Milk Plant Monthly 27(7): 52, 54, 57. July 1938. 

44.8 C864 

Lists four "most important features" of conditions 
which have prevailed in the Eastern States in the produc- 
tion and sale of Grade A milk for some 25 years, and 21 
"general principles" adopted by the Grade A Milk Associ- 
ation of New York City. 

634. TRACY, P. H. Certain practical aspects of the use 
of paper milk containers. J. Milk Technol. 1: 40-42. 
Mar. 1938. 44.8 J824 

Discusses the type of container formed and paraffined 
immediately before filling, its manufacture, its condition' 
when filled with milk, and the reaction of the milk in the 
container to heat. Consumer tests based upon 221 com- 
pleted questionnaires show a preference in most respects 
for the paper container. 

635. TUFFT, J. E. Arden of Los Angeles "goes to 
town" with a new 15-cent package. Ice Cream Rev. 22 
(3): 40-41. Oct. 1938. 389.8 Ic22 

The package, eight-sided and pie-shaped, is a convenient 
size for slipping into the freezing compartment of the 
domestic mechanical refrigerator. 

636. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Economic brief with respect to the proposed marketing 
agreement and proposed order [for various marketing 
areas]. Washington, 1936-38. 16 v. (Its Series on 
Marketing Agreements and Orders Paper 1-18.) 

1.94 D14Pap 

No. 4-5 not issued. 

These briefs discuss the economic bases for the pro- 
posed agreements, supply and demand conditions and 
prices in the various markets. 

Contents: No. 1. Greater Boston marketing area, by P. L. 
Miller and O. M. Reed; No. 2. Fall River, Massachusetts 
marketing area, by P. L. Miller, O. M. Reed and E. E. 
Warner; No. 3. San Diego, California marketing area, by 
O. H. Hoffman, Jr., and E. E. Warner; No. 6 Kansas City, 
Missouri marketing area, by P. L. Miller and H. L. 
Forest; No. 7. Topeka, Kansas marketing area, by P. L. 
Miller and H. I. Richards; No. 8. Dubuque, Iowa market- 
ing area, by P. L. Miller and H. I. Richards; No. 9. Dis- 
trict of Columbia marketing area, by P. L. Miller, W. P. 
Sadler and H. L. Forest; No. 10. Fort Wayne, Indiana 
marketing area, by P. L. Miller, W. F. Caskey, and A. W. 
Colebank; No. 11. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania marketing 
area, by P. L. Miller and E. E. Warner; No. 12. Proposed 
amendment to Order No. 4 for the Greater Boston market- 
ing area, by O. M. Reed, H. L. Forest, J. R. Hanson and 
P. L. Miller; No. 13. Louisville. Kentucky marketing area, 
by H. L. Forest, J. R. Hanson and W. P. Sadler; No. 14. 
La Porte County, Indiana marketing area, by H. L. Forest, 
J. R. Hanson, and W. P. Sadler; No. 15. Fall River, Mass- 
achusetts marketing area, by A. W. Colebank and P. L. 
Miller; No. 16. Cincinnati, Ohio marketing area, by J. R. 
Hanson and P. L. MiUer; No. 17. St. Louis, Missouri 
marketing area, by P. L. Miller, H. L Richards, and W. G. 
Sullivan; No. 18. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania marketing 
area. 



39 



637. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
New York milk; explanation of the Federal-State market- 
ing plan contained in Order No. 27. U. S. Agr. Adjust. 
Admin. DM-6, (Mktg. Inform. Ser.), 13 p. 1938. 

1.4 Ad47D 

Includes material on purpose of the program, principal 
provisions, proposed joint state and federal administra- 
tion, classification of milk according to use, minimum 
price for each class of milk, uniform price computation, 
payments out of pool, and uniform pool prices for pro- 
ducers. 

638. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Stability in milk markets. U. S. Agr. Adjust. Admin. 
DM-3, (Mktg. Inform. Ser.), 13 p. 1938. 1.4 Ad47D 

The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 is 
discussed, with reference to its application to the regu- 
lation of milk marketing in interstate or foreign com- 
merce. This often calls for coordination of the Federal 
and State programs, which the Act makes possible. 

639. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Tentatively approved marketing agreement regulating the 
handling of milk in the Cincinnati, Ohio, marketing area. 
Washington, 1938. 13 p. (Docket No. A-5a) 

1.94 D14Ma 

Contains articles relating to the administration of the 
agreement, and such items as reports of handlers, classi- 
fication of milk, values and prices, and manner and calcu- 
lation of payments. 

640. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Estimating yearly changes in fluid milk and cream con- 
sumption in cities and villages, by G. W. Sprague and 
G. G. Foelsch. Washington, 1938. 32 p. 1.9 Ec724Ey 

A study of the bases used by the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics in estimating milk and cream consumption. 

641. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
Fo^g 1 ? agricultural Policies-a rev iew and appraisal. 
The Netherlands. Foreign Agr. 2(2): 84-92. Feb. 1938. 
1.9 Ec7For 

Price regulation of butter, cheese and milk. 

642. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Revised tentative United States standards for quality of 
creamery butter, effective April 1, 1938. 33 p. Mar 
1938. 1 Ec7Rt 

Explanation of revised tentative United States standards 
for quality of creamery butter, by Roy C. Potts, Edward 
Small, and C. W. Fryhofer, p. 11-33. 

643. U. S. COMMODITY EXCHANGE ADMIN. Grades of 
butter, eggs and Irish potatoes deliverable on contracts 
for future delivery. Washington, 1938. 81 d. 

1.9 C73Gb P 

Gives rules of trading procedure on the Chicago Mercan- 
tile Exchange and the New York Mercantile Exchange. 

644. *U. S. CONGRESS. HOUSE. COMMITTEE ON COIN- 
AGE, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Standard metal con- 
tainer act of 1937. Hearings, 75th Cong., 3d. sess. on 

H. R. 6964, Mar. 15 and 16, 1938. Washington, 1938. 
190 p. 280.3 Un322S 
Includes milk containers. 

645. U. S. DEPT. OF STATE. The trade-agreements 
program benefits the dairy industry. Washington, 1938. 
16 p. 150.1 T673 

Also in Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 7(160), 16 p. Jan.- 
Feb. 1940. 281.344 B81 

By increasing world trade and thus improving business 
conditions and increasing employment at home, the pro- 
gram provides better domestic markets for dairy products 
as well as other products. It also relieves the pressure 
of competition in dairying from other farm groups and, to 
some extent, opens and enlarges foreign markets for 
American dairy products. 

646. WAITE, W. C, and COX, R. W. Seasonal varia- 
tions of prices and marketings of Minnesota agricultural 
products, 1921-1935. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. B. 127, 
59 p. Mar. 1938. 100 M66 

Discusses type and regularity of seasonal price move- 
ment, market movement and utilization, and variations in 
production, consumption, and price of butter. 
♦Not examined. 



647. WALWORTH, G. The Government and milk. Co- 
op Rev. 12: 48-51. Feb. 1938. 280.28 C7823 

Criticizes several poUcies of the British Milk Market- 
ing Board and caUs for greater efficiency of production, 
transportation, and distribution with a view to effecting 
economies in the interests of the consumer. 

648. WELLWOOD, R. M. What wiU be the effect on 
metropolitan milk dealers of the New York Federal- State 
market agreement? Milk Plant Monthly 27(10): 72-73, 
78. Oct. 1938. 44.8 C864 

The effect of this agreement is to spread the burden of 
surplus milk through the operation of a market pool. Each 
producer will assume his proportionate share of the ex- 
cessive production. Adoption of a market pool by produ- 
cers, the author says, also makes it possible for them to 
charge each dealer the same price for milk sold in the 
market area. However, he estimates that the probable 
cost increase will amount to 1 1/2 c. per qt. of milk. 

649. WHEATON, E., LUECK, R. H., and TANNER, F. W. 
Observations on problems relating to the paper milk 
bottle. J.MilkTech. 1(3): 11-15. Mar. 1938. 44.8 J824 

Fiber milk containers were found to be in a nearly ster- 
ile condition as determined by an approved rinse test. 
Describes methods used in their manufacture. 

650. WHITE, G. C. Setting milk on its food value. . Hol- 
stein-Friesian World 35: 434-435, 464. Apr. 30, 1938. 

43.8 H742 

Address, Northeastern Dairy Conference, January 25, 
1938. 

Notes that there are several breeds employed in supply- 
ing the markets with fluid milk, and that the product of 
these breeds varies from a little less than 3.5 to over 5 
percent in fat and almost as widely in the other milk in- 
gredients. Because of these variations, advocates sale of 
milk to consumers on its food value. 

651. WHITTIER, E. O. Dairy by-products development. 
Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. 
Papers Presented at Short Course Conf. for Dairy Plant 
Oper. and Milk Distrib. 17: 66-76. Dec. 7-8, 1938. 

44.9 V593 

Deals with the utilization of skim milk, buttermilk, and 
whey. 

652.- WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY. COLLEGE OF AGRICUL- 
TURE EXTENSION SERVICE. Reciprocal trade agree- 
ments and Wisconsin dairying. Wis. A'gr. Col. Ext. Econ. 
Inform. Wis. Farmers 9(12): 1-4. Dec. 1938. 
275.29 W75Ec 

Considers the subject mainly in relation to prices of 
dairy products. 

653. WITNEY, D., and MAXWELL, S. B. Report on the 
financial results of 12 East of Scotland dairy-arable 
smallholdings for 1936-37. Edinburgh, Edinburgh and 
East of Scotland Coll. of Agr. Econ. Dept., 1938. 8 n 
281.9 Ed4 y 

Milk represents nearly half of the total output of these 
farms; cattle and eggs together, one-quarter. The crops 
grown are mainly for home consumption. Data given in- 
clude costs of production and returns for total produce, 
with a note on milk prices received. 

654. WOODWARD, B. T. Many changes made by new 
dairy laws in California. Milk Plant Monthly 27(1): 72- 
76. Jan. 1938. 44.8 C864 

-Stabilization, marketing and price control plans recently 
established under the administration of the California 
Director of Agriculture, affect the production and distri- 
bution of all dairy products, including sherbet which is 
introduced for the first time as a standardized product. 



40 



655. *WUTZ, A. T. Alpenlandische milchwirtschaft... 
Berlin, Reichsnahrstand verlags-ges., 1938. 133 p. 

Ref. (Schriftenreihe der studiengesellschaft flir national - 
okonomie e. v., Institut fiir b'auerliche rechts- und wirt- 
schaftsordnung. Reihe B. Deutsche und fremdvblkische 
landwirtschaft, v. 1) 281.344 W96 

Milk production and consumption in Austria. - U. S. Bur. 
Agr. Econ. Agr. Econ. Lit. 13: 1117. Dec. 1939. 
1.9 Ec73Ag 

656. YATES, J. W. Common sense needed in our milk 
laws; chaotic conditions of regulations revealed by com- 
parison of rules in different jurisdictions. Milk Plant 
Monthly 27(5): 34, 36-41. May 1938. 44.8 C864 

Address, Dairy Manufacturers' Conference, University 
of Wis. 

Discusses and compares the regulations of different 
States and the milk ordinances of different cities. The 
overlapping and conflict of laws are causing much trouble 
and expense and are hampering expansion of the industry. 
Because of this situation much good milk is being rejected 
and does not have a free market while other milk, of in- 
ferior quality, is permitted to be sold. 
♦Not examined. 



657. YOUNG, G. How the Board of Health and our in- 
dustry may co-operate in the public's interest. Ice 
Cream J. 34: 14, 28, 40. Feb. 1938. 389.8 Ic2 

Efforts of both are directed to producer and consumer 
education regarding the importance of a wholesome pro- 
duct, and the promotion of standardization of methods of 
milk production and handling, whether intended for fluid 
milk or for ice cream manufacture. 

658. YOUNG, M. G. Ice cream regulations. Ice Cream 
Rev. 21(6): 28-30. Jan. 1938. 389 .8 Ic22 

Standards for ice cream require sanitary control through 
its production background on the farm and manufacturing 
process to the consumer. Discusses regulation of the 
raw products going into ice cream, the control problems 
arising since the development of counter freezers, the 
question of requiring pasteurization of mix and the manu- 
facture of ice cream to be a continuous process, the 
sanitary conditions at the retail outlet, and the advisability 
of grading ice cream the same as milk. 



1939 



659. EL ALZA indebida de precios de los artfculos de 
primera necesidad. Indus. Azucarera 45: 737-745. 
Sept. 1939. 65.8 In22 

Deals in part with Decree No. 41,545 which fixes initial 
maximum prices of milk and butter for public sale in the 
Federal Capital of Argentina. 

660. ANDERSON, E. F. Milk price control in the 
United States, January 1, 1938. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. J. 
Ser. Paper 894, 7 p. 1939. 100 P381J 

Excerpt from thesis entitled "Problems Arising from 
Public Regulation of Milk Prices with Special Reference 
to Pennsylvania," presented to the Pennsylvania State 
CoUege in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of 
Science, 1938. 

Outlines the principal features of the marketing agree- 
ments under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration 
and lists the various agreements that were in effect on 
January 1, 1938. Reasons for control, methods, and 
features of the various milk orders are discussed. 

661. ARNOLD, L. Pouring lip and cap as sanitary fac- 
tors in bottled milk. J. Milk Technol. 2: 41-43. Jan. 
1939. 44.8 J824 

Sanitary standards that the closure of a glass bottle of 
milk should meet are given. 

662. BALDWIN, F. B. Sanitary regulations as they 
affect the milk dealer. Milk Plant Monthly 28(5): 43-44. 
May 1939. 44.8 C864 

Address, Joint Conference on Milk Sanitation, Pennsyl- 
vania Milk Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Febru* 
ary 9, 1939. 

Milk dealers are responsible for both farm and plant 
sanitation. The two problems are related, since without 
proper plant sanitation, good production methods would be 
wasted. Uniformity and clarity, elimination of economics 
and politics, and common sense in inspections are princi- 
pal requisites of sanitary regulations. 

663. BARTLETT, R. W. Considerations in governmen- 
tal price control of dairy products. HI. Farm Econ. 45: 
222-227. Feb. 1939. 275.28 n5 

A study of the effect of price-fixing in the United States 
upon milk production and market milk consumption, and 
upon consumption of substitute products such as oleo- 
margarine and evaporated and condensed milk. 

664. BARTLETT, R. W. Increasing milk consumption 
through use of flexible prices to producers and cont- 
sumers. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. of Anim. and 
Dairy Husb. Papers Presented at Short Course Conf. for 
Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 18: 97-108. 1939. 
44.9 V593 

Outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of 
milk price control, and suggests that the class I price for 
milk be established directly upon butter or condensery 
prices. 



665. BARTLETT, R. W. Price control of dairy produc- 
tion. Hoard's Dairyman 84: 372, 383. June 25, 1939. 
44.8 H65 

Study of the effects of price-fixing upon milk production, 
consumption of market milk, and the use of substitute 
products. Relatively high prices for market milk result 
in decreased consumption, increased consumption of but- 
ter substitutes, and a shift by farmers engaged in other 
enterprises to the production of milk. 

666. BARTLETT, R. W. Some problems which milk 
producers and distributors are now facing. Vt. U. and 
State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. Papers Pre- 
sented at Short Course Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. and 
Milk Distrib. 18: 44-55. 1939. 44.9 V593 

These are: the adjustment to a declining population 
curve and to the leveling off of the upward trend in mHk 
consumption, the substitution of canned milk in place of 
market milk, and the lowering of costs of production, 
transportation, and distribution. 

667. BAUER, P. T. The fixing of retaU milk prices. 
Manchester School Econ. and Social Studies. Oct. 1939. 
280.8 M313 

The action of the Milk Marketing Board of Great Britain 
in relation to the question of distributors' margins in milk 
retailing. Some attempt is made at an equitable solution 
of the problem. Through their effect on liquid sales, fixed 
retail prices are considered partially responsible for the 
considerable proportion of total supplies which had to be 
manufactured, and the consequent adverse effect on pro- 
ducers' returns which led to demands for higher whole- 
sale prices. 

668. BENDKEN, H. A. For greatest good to all concern- 
ed: friendly producer-distributor relations. Milk Plant 
Monthly 28(1): 38, 40-41. Jan. 1939. 44.8 C864 

To some extent a fair division of the consumer's milk 
dollar determines how happy the relationship between 
producer and dealer will be. Producer organization to 
control surplus production and stabilize prices, quality 
control, efficient operation, and cooperation between both 
parties are concomitants of this factor. 

669. BENNETT, K. R. Comparative costs of fixed and 
variable dairy rations. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 115: 
2827, 2833-2835. Nov. 1939. 280.8 C812 

A variable dairy ration was worked out, variations In 
ingredient prices of which between 1931 and 1938 are in- 
dicated. Compared with a fixed dairy ration, it was al- 
ways less expensive and by about the same proportionate 
amount. 



41 



670. BISHOP, G. R. Milk sales by stores in Buffalo. 
N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 113: 2791-2793. May 1939. 
280.8 C812 

On March 1, 1937 there were 2816 independent stores 
and 391 chain stores that sold milk in the Buffalo, N. Y., 
market. The number of retail stores that sold milk was 
approximately the same as the number of stores that sold 
food at retail. Independent stores most commonly sold 
from 13 to 24 quarts of milk; sales within this range were 
made by 1019 of the 2816 stores. Chain stores most com- 
monly sold from 25 to 36 quarts, sales within this range 
were made by 182 of the 391 chain stores. The total daily 
sales of milk by independent stores were 52,360 quarts; 
and by chain stores, 10,259 quarts. An average of 1.7 
stops per independent store is recorded, and 1.1 stops 
per chain store. 

671. BLANFORD, C. J. Day-of-the-week variations in 
the store sales of milk and cream in the New York mar- 
ket. N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 112: 2755-2756. Apr. 
1939. 280.8 C812 

The year covered is 1937. Due to the fact that many re- 
tail food stores are closed all or part of the day on Sunday, 
milk and cream sales on Sunday were low and were high 
on Saturday and Monday. The degree of variation differed 
with the product, the type of store, and the type of trade 
served. 

672. BLANFORD, C. J. Relation of family income to 
prices and sales of fresh milk, cream, and evaporated 
milk by stores in the New York market, June 1938. N. Y. 
Agr. Col. Farm Econ. Ill: 2720-2723. Feb. 1939. 

280.8 C812 

Store sales of grade B milk per family were greatest in 
the low-income areas of the city. The stores serving 
families in low-income areas sold fresh milk at lower 
prices than those in the medium and high-income areas. 
Sales were greatest in areas where average selling prices 
were lowest, with variations noted in prices of fresh and 
evaporated milk. Comparatively few families in low in- 
come areas were willing to pay any premium for milk in 
paper containers. Heavy cream sales were more than 
twice as great in the high-income areas as in the low and 
showed similar tendencies in respect to price. 

673. BLANFORD, C. J. Sales of cream by retail stores 
in the New York market, June 1938. In Brown, E. F. 
Milk Papers 5(92): 1-14. Jan. -May 193"9. 281.344 B81 

Issued as N. Y. Agr. Col. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm 
Mangt. A. E. 244, 14 p. Jan. 1939. 281.9 C81 

About two-thirds of all cream distributed in New York 
City is sold for home consumption and one-third to soda 
fountains and restaurants. Of the quantity sold for home 
consumption, about seven-eighth is sold through stores. 
Retail prices of cream varied considerably and were low- 
est at stores serving low income families. The effect of 
price differentials upon relative sales of evaporated milk 
is also discussed. 

674. BLANFORD, C. J. Sales of evaporated milk by 
retail stores in the New York market, June 1938. In 
Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 5(93): 1-10. Jan. -May 1939. 
281.344 B81 

Issued as N. Y. Agr. CoLDept. Agr. Econ. and Farm 
Mangt. A. E. 245, 10 p. Jan. 1939. 281.9 C81 

Estimated consumption of evaporated milk amounted to 
the equivalent of 1.7 tall cans per capita. Sales were 
greatest in low income areas where the price differential 
between evaporated milk and grade B milk was greatest. 
No clear evidence was found that evaporated milk is sub- 
stituted for cream except in the low income areas. 

675. BOKER, H. World supply of fats and oils. Inter- 
natl. Inst. Agr. Monthly B. Agr. Econ. and Sociol. 30: 
243E-271E. June 1939. 280.29 In83 

Includes section on butter, p. 252E-254E. 



676. BOOKER, H. S. A survey of milk distribution. 
Economica (n. s.) 6(21): 78-85. Feb. 1939. 280.8 Ec73 

Discusses milk consumption and milk distribution in 
part of Battersea, England, which is primarily a working 
class area. The most common consumption is one pint 
per day in the Western Section and half -a -pint per day in 
the poorer Eastern Section. In most roads about 60 per- 
cent of the milk is provided by two distributors and 90 
percent by four. Throughout the whole area 60 percent 
of the milk is supplied by two dairies, divided fairly 
evenly between them. The other dairies do not serve so 
generally over the whole area, but specialize on particu- 
lar sections. Some of the families buy from more than 
one supplier, making for higher cost of milk distribution. 
A monopoly by one dairyman in a specified district is 
considered advisable. 

677. BOUCHER, G. P., and HOPPER, W. C. An econom- 
ic study of cheese consumption in certain urban and rural 
districts of Canada. Canada Dept. Agr. Tech. B. 22, 

34 p. Dec. 1939. 7 C16T 

Housewives were interviewed and questionnaires com- 
pleted during the summer of 1935 by enumerators who 
called at their homes. Information was obtained from 
3,213 families and care was taken to secure a representa- 
tive sample of the various localities in which the study 
was conducted. Significant variations in respect of cheese 
consumption which appeared to be related to differences 
in location, income, nationality and other factors are in- 
dicated. 

678. BREED, R. S. The use of the financial stimulus in 
high grade milk production. Farm Res. [N. Y. State Sta.] 
5(3): 10. July 1, 1939. 100 N48H 

History of premium payments for grade A milk in New 
York shows that farmers respond to price stimulus by 
improving quality of product. Discusses application of 
premium payments to grade B milk. 

679. BREMER, H. E. The present status of farm and 
plant inspection and quality control. Vt. U. and State Agr. 
Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. Papers Presented at 
Short Course Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk Dis- 
trib. 18: 59-63. 1939. 44.9 V593 

Contains information on the application of the Vermont 
milk control law. 

680. BRIDGES, A., and SHERRARD, F. R. G. N. 
Changes in costs of milk production between the years 
1934-5 and 1936-7. Farm Econ. 3: 28-31. Apr. 1939. 
281.8 F223 

Records of the costs of milk production on 251 farms in 
England and Wales producing milk for sale on a wholesale 
contract were kept for the 3 years, October-September 
1934-35 to 1936-37. On these farms the number of cows 
increased in 1935-36 by 2.5 percent, but fell in the next 
year by 0.7 percent, a net increase of 1.8 percent over 
the 3 years. The increase in number of cows was accom- 
panied by an increase in the production of milk. The net 
cost on the farm fell from 9.46d. in 1934-35 to 9.06d. in 
1935-36, and rose to 9.45d. in 1936-37. These changes 
were due mainly to the influence of charges for feeds. 
Other items of cost also changed, notably the cost of 
labor, which showed a steady rise. 

681. BRIDGES, A. The economics of machine-milking. 
Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. and Fisheries J. 46: 63-72. Apr. 
1939. 10 G79J 

Shows, for different periods between 1934 and 1938, in- 
crease in milking machines on 400-500 herds in England 
and Wales, relation of size of herd to number of milking 
machines, labor costs and net farm costs in milk pro- 
duction on herds milked by machine and by hand, labor 
costs on 24 herds before and after the installation of 
milking machines and costs of running and upkeep of the 

machines, net saving in labor by machine milking on 20 

farms, and yields in gallons of milk per cow before and 
after introduction of the machine. 



42 



682. BRIDGES, A. Food costs in milk production 1935- 
6 to 1937-8. Farm Econ. 3: 43-46. July 1939. 

281.8 F223 

Feed costs and quantities consumed per cow during 
the three years covered are given for a large number 
of farms well distributed over the dairying districts 
of England and Wales. The quantity of milk produced 
for the period is also shown. The data are thought in- 
teresting because they may be used as standards by 
which farmers may test their efficiency as milk pro- 
ducers, because of the considerable rise in the prices 
of purchased feed during the three years, and because 
they illustrate the effect of seasonal conditions on feed 
requirements. 

683. BROTHER, G. H. Plastic materials from farm 
products. Indus, and Engin. Chem. 31: 145-148. Feb. 
1939. 381 J825 

Discusses the use of casein for plastics and in the manu- 
facture of a film material similar to cellophane and of 
synthetic wool. 

684. BROWN, A. A. and DONLEY, J. E. Milk cartage 
in the Southwick-Agawam area of the Springfield milk- 
shed. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 363, 26 p. May 1939. 
100M38H 

Analyzes milk cartage rates in the area for 1935 and 
suggests a reorganization of rate structure based on 
distance from market and farm location. 

685. BROWN, A. A., and DONLEY, J. E. Product-costs 
of milk to dealers in the Springfield area, 1935. Mass. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 365, 28 p. July, 1939. 100 M38S 

Conditions in various Massachusetts secondary areas, 
not conducive to market stability, are uneven distribution 
of fluid outlets among dealers, rigidities in producer - 
distributor relationships, and the absence of reasonable 
relationships between the prices for milk disposed of as 
fluid and as surplus. 

686. BROWN, B. Administrative law— price fixing— 
Oreg. Milk Control Act. Oreg. Law Rev. 19: 38-50. 
Dec. 1939. Libr. Cong. 

Discusses the validity of the Act in the light of court 
decisions. 

687. BROWN, E. F. A conspiracy against business? 
Milk Dealer 28(6): 43, 66, 68, 70. Mar. 1939. 

44.8 M595 

The author comments on the unfair criticism of big 
business in general and says, "the milk industry is an 
excellent example of a big business which has received 
an inordinate amount of unjust criticism in the press." 
Modest profits made and records of achievements of the 
industry are cited to prove such criticism unwarranted. 

688. BROWN, J. H. Revision of methods and standards 
for certified milk. Amer. J. Pub. Health 29: 355-358. 
Apr. 1939. 449.9 Am3J 

Improvements in bacteriological control procedures for 
certified milk are described. Herd supervision is being 
increased, in view of the occurrence of bovine mastitis. 
Special winter feeding of cows is urged for better flavor 
and nutritive quality of winter milk. 

689. BUCKINGHAM, S. M. Dealers' spread in Connecti- 
cut. In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 5(86): 1-9. Jan.- 
May 1979. 281.344 B81 

"From the Report of Proceedings, -57th Annual conven- 
tion, Connecticut Dairymen's Association, January 1939." 

Based on a survey made by S. W. Tator and H. P. Snow. 

In this study of profit and loss statements from 47 
merchant dealers, 25 dealers showed profits and 22 
losses. Includes a table in which the data submitted by 
the dealers are summarized. 

690. BUELL, R. L. Death by tariff. Protectionism in 
State and Federal legislation. Pub. Policy Pam. 27, 40 p. 
1939. 280.12 P96 

Includes discussion of efforts to exclude foreign butter 
and to control the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine , 
and on interstate trade barriers for milk. 



691. BUTLER, J. B. Report on the cost of milk pro- 
duction, 1937-1938. Harper Adams Agr. Col. Dept. of 
Econ. Farmer's Rpt. 2, 13 p. Jan. 1939. 103 H234 

Gives data on feed, labor, herd depreciation, *nd mis- 
cellaneous costs for 54 farms in the West Midland Prov- 
ince. 

692. BUTTERWORTH, T. H. Trends in milk control in 
Texas promote voluntary improvement of quality by milk 
dealers. Milk Plant Monthly 28(3): 23-26. Mar. 1939. 

44.8 C864 

Milk control in Texas has been aided by the adoption of 
the Standard Milk Ordinance and Code of the U. S. Public 
Health Service and by the passage in 1937 of the Texas 
Milk Grading and Labeling Law. Where grading exists 
it must be in conformance with this Code. Provisions of 
the law are reviewed and their application discussed. 

693. CANADA. MARKETING SERVICE. Agricultural 
marketing legislation, 1939. 18 p. Ottawa? 1939. 
280.3 C1662 

Reviews legislation enacted in 1939 to aid in the distri- 
bution of surplus butter and to promote the production of 
high quality cheese. 

694. CHINN, A. Consumer attitude toward ice cream. 
Ohio State U. Col. Agr. and Domestic Sci. Ohio State U. 
Dairy Technol. Conf. of Mater. Presented 1939: 107-110. 

44.9 Oh35M 

Considers quality of the product in relation to consumer 
education. 

695. COHEN, R. Milk policy and milk prices. Econ. J. 
49: 79-90. Mar. 1939. 280.8 Ec72 

Two chief objectives of milk policy in Great Britain are 
stressed: an increased consumption of liquid milk an^ 
the establishment of a reasonable standard of life for milk 
producers. One method of increasing consumption would 
be to lower generally the price of liquid milk. This arti- 
cle deals almost wholly with the policy which could be 
adopted to achieve this end. 

696. COHEN, R. Variations in liquid milk consumption. 
Farm Econ. 3: 51-54. July 1939. 281.8 F223 

The Committee of Investigation for England put forward 
the view, which was accepted by the Milk Marketing Board 
that the liquid milk consumer should only pay such a price 
for his milk as would cover the costs of producing the a- 
mount consumed liquid, plus a safety margin. This safety 
margin has been estimated at 10 percent at the season of 
shortest production. Presumably this margin makes some 
allowance for variations in production and in consumption 
within the month. Gives information on these shorter pe- 
riod variations in consumption, and on their relevance to 
the margin necessary throughout the year. 

697. COLVIN, E. M. Transportation of agricultural 
products in the United States, 1920-June 1939; a selected 
list of references relating to the various phases of rail- 
way, motor, and water carrier transportation. U. S. Bur. 
Agr. Econ. Libr. Agr. Econ. Bibliog. 81, 3 v. 1939. 

1.9 Ec73A 

Contains references on transportation of and freight 
rates on milk, butter, cheese and dairy products. 

698. COOKE, B. A. The development and operation of 
milk control boards. Sci. Agr. 20(1): 29-38. Sept. 1939. 
7 Sci2 

Discusses the basis of price fixing, production cost, 
milk control legislation, and cooperation with health au- 
thorities in Canada. 

699. COX, R. W., and WAITE, W. C. Consumption of 
butter by Minneapolis families. Minn. U. Agr. Ext. Farm 
Business Notes 193: 3. Jan. 1939. 275.29 M663 

Presents data on expenditure for and use of butter for 
2,350 families as of 1938. 

700. CUTTING milk delivery costs by replacing obso- 
lete trucks with new equipment. Milk Dealer 28(11): 30- 
31, 50, 52, 54. Aug. 1939. 44.8 M595 

Data covering 75 delivery trucks and based upon opera- 
ting costs for 1937 when old trucks were run, and for 1938 
when new trucks were purchased, show a $663 yearly av- 
erage saving per truck after replacement. 



43 



701. CUTTING milk delivery costs through discount 
plans; experiments being carried on in Minneapolis, 
Minn. Milk Dealer 28(5): 54, 56. Feb. 193S. 44.8 M595 

An account of the operation of the Elwell Plan for sell- 
ing dairy products, the basis being a platform price 
plus cost of delivery. Under the plan each customer is 
charged 13 cents for the first quart of milk purchased, 
and 7 cents for each additional quart. 

702. DAHLBERG, A. C, HENING, J. C, and DURHAM, 
H. L. Reduction of milk losses in milk plants. N. Y. 
State Assoc. Dairy and Milk Insp., Ann. Rpt. (1938) 12: 
187-194. 1939. 44.9 N4833 

A study of conditions in eight milk-receiving plants in- 
dicates that losses may be materially reduced by proper 
selection and installation of equipment together with sound 
operating procedures. Suggestions as to how this waste 
may be reduced are offered. 

703. DANKERS, W. H. Surplus problems in dairying. 
Minn. U. Agr. Ext. Farm Business Notes 199: 3. July 
1939. 275.29 M663 

States that the situation can be bettered only through in- 
creased industrial activity and consumer purchasing pow- 
er, lower retail prices, or curtailment of production. 

704. DEVELOPMENT and present status of the big milk 
bottle. Milk Plant Monthly 28(9): 24-28. Sept. 1939. 
44.8 C864 

Market requirements, practices and opinions of milk 
dealers in regard to the gallon jug and the half -gallon 
bottle are indicated. The majority of the distributors with 
whom the large container was discussed favored the two- 
quart or half -gallon bottle over the gallon container. 

705. DONLEY, J. E. Towards a perfect milk market. 
Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 366, 28 p. Nov. 1939. 100 N38S 

Discusses economic aspects of marketing fluid milk in 
Worcester, Mass., with specific reference to supply and 
sale relationships-, including prices. An equilibrium of 
supply and demand has been attained in this area. Trans- 
portation might be more efficiently organized. 

706. DOW, G. F. An economic study of milk distribu- 
tion in Maine markets. Maine. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 395: 
523-674. Mar. 1939. 100 M28S 

A comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting 
distribution costs based on detailed records procured by 
the survey method from 266 milk distributors in 10 Maine 
market areas for the years ending April 30, 1935 and 1936. 
These distributors represented 43 percent of all distribu- 
tors and they handled three-fourths of the milk and cream 
sold in these markets. 

707. DOW, G. F. Reducing cost of distributing milk in 
Maine. J. Farm Econ. 21: 309-314. Feb. 1939. 
280.8 J822 

Recommends that special attention be given to the fol- 
lowing factors: larger volume per distributor; greater 
volume of sales per mile traveled on milk routes; stricter 
credit policy to reduce bad debts and collection costs; re- 
duction of bottle losses; consideration of the use of horses 
instead of motor trucks on milk routes up to 15 miles in 
length; employment in general of only one man to a route; 
and curtailment of special services such as special de- 
liveries. 

708. DURAND, L v Jr. Cheese region of southeastern 
Wisconsin. Econ. Geog. 15: 283-292. July, 1939. 
273.8 Ec7 

The cheese industry in' this area is built upon the prod- 
uct of 220 factories. Not only do they compete with, one 
another for territory and milk, but with the condensery 
and large urban cheese factory. The shift has been both 
to larger factories, with fewer manufacturing units, and 
to greater variety of types of cheese. 

709. DURYEE, W. B. "Effect of milk control upon 
spreads, utilization, production and consumption of 
milk." In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 6(155): 1-19. 
June-Dec. 1939. 281.344 B81 

Opinions vary as to the effect of milk control on 
spreads; however in certain markets the advent of control 
has brought a reduction in spread and has increased pro- 
duction. Whether milk control has caused a decrease in 
consumption is a matter of disagreement and probably 
varies according to policies of the various boards. 



710. DURYEE, W. B. Stimulating milk consumption. 
Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. 
Papers Presented at Short Course Ccnf. for Dairy Plant 
Oper. and Milk Distrib. 18: 22-25. 1939. 44.9 V593 

Constant effort in maintaining quality, reducing costs 
of production and distribution, sound merchandising, and 
building public confidence is required to accomplish this 
aim. 

711. ELLENBERGER, H. B. Lower production costs 
essential. Amer. Prod. Rev. 88: 94-96. May 24, 1939. 
286.85 N482 . 

Also with title Lower Production Costs a Vital Factor, 
in. Hoard's Dairyman 84: 335. June 10, 1939. 44.8 H65 

Address, Production Section, 31st Annual Convention of 
the International Association of Milk Dealers, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Oct. 17, 1938. 

Milk can and will be produced more cheaply when ap- 
proved modern methods are more generally practiced on 
dairy farms. More milk would be used, the consumer 
would be benefited, and profits to the producer and dis- 
tributor would be more certain if milk could be produce* 

3.t lsSS COSto 

712. FLORIDA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Twenty- 
fifth biennial report.. .from July 1, 1936, to June 30, 1938. 
Tallahassee, 1939. 220 p. 2 F66R 

Includes an account of the work of the State Milk Inspec- 
tion Division, information on out -of -State importations of 
milk and cream, dairying in the Miami area, and herd re- 
placements in the State. 

713. FOELSCH, G. G. Estimates of gross and net 
weights of butter in various types of packages at New 
York, Chicago, Boston, and Philadelphia. Washington, 
U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ., 1939. 13 p. 1.9 Ec724Est 

Results of a survey in 1938 of the four markets, for the 
use of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in compiling 
information regarding market receipts. Weights of the 
various types of containers are given. 

714. FOWLER, H. C. Statistical approach to the feed- 
milk production problem. New England Res. Council 
Mktg. and Food Supply. Proc. 1939: 44-47. 

252.004 N443M 
Includes data on grain costs. 

715. FRIBLEY, Mrs. W. E. The distributor is the 
chief factor in the successful and adequate consumption 
of dairy products. Milk Plant Monthly 28: 52-54, 56. 
June 1939. 44.8 C864 

Discusses the place of the distributor in promoting the 
utilization of dairy products. It is frequently indifference 
rather than price that keeps women from buying more 
dairy products. 

716. FROKER, R. K., COLEBANK, A. W., and 
HOFFMAN, A. C. Large-scale organization in the 
dairy industry. U. S. D. A. C. 527, 68 p. July, 1939. 
1 Ag84C 

Gives data on the growth of large-scale dairy concerns, 
financial tendencies of the leading dairy companies, 
dairy organization and plant ownership in Wisconsin, and 
mass distribution of dairy products. Also discusses 
sources of supply and sales outlets of the dairy compan- 
ies and the importance of patent control in the industry. 

717. FUCHS, A. W., and FRANK, L. C. Milk supplies 
and their control in American urban communities of over 
1,000 population in 1936. U. S. Pub. Health Serv. B. 245, 
70 p. 1939. 151.66 B87 

Based on a questionnaire survey covering 2,654 munici- 
palities representing 41 percent of the total number 
and 63 percent of the combined population of all munici- 
palities of over 1,000 population in the United States. 
Presents data on production and consumption of fluid 
market milk, volume and price of various grades, pas- 
teurization, tuberculin and abortion tests, legal require- 
ments, state and local control organization, inspection, 
sampling and bacterial quality, and cost of local milk 
control. 



44 



718. FUCHS, A. W. The need for uniform dairy sanita- 
tion legislation. Region. Conf. on Dairy Prob. 1939: 8-13. 
44.9 R26 

Shows how uniform standards make for consumer confi- 
dence in the safety and quality of the milk supply and for 
effective sanitary control. Cites the U. S. Public Health 
Service Milk Ordinance. 

719. GASSER, E. Present state of the dairying industry 
in the various countries. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Internatl. 
Rev. Agr. 27: 91T-102T; 189T-196T; 424T-429T; 28: 51T- 
62T; 89T-97T; 133T-139T; 209T-215T; 216T-223T; 441T- 
448T; 29: 61T-73T; 242T-250T; 278T-292T; 313T-333T; 
30: 144T-151T; 183T-195T; 342T-350T. Ref. 1936-1939. 
241 In82A 

A series of articles reporting on conditions in the fol- 
lowing countries: Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium, Poland, 
Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, Norway, 
Iceland, Sweden, Rumania, Albania, Yugoslavia and 
Greece. For each country, information is given on dairy 
species and breeds, production of milk, cheese, butter 
and other dairy products. Percentages of total milk pro- 
duction utilized for human consumption and in the manu- 
facture of dairy products are shown. There is a bibliog- 
raphy at the end of each article. 

720. GAUMNITZ, E. W. Marketing agreement and order 
programs of the Federal Government. Pa. Dairymen's 
Assoc. Rpt. 14: 14-16, 18-20. 1939. 44.9 P384 

Describes the history of the Federal regulation of mar- 
keting fluid milk and other dairy products and discusses 
some of the problems encountered and some of the things 
necessary for the program to work in the interests of the 
dairy industry and the public. 

721. GEYER, D. N. Market milk problems in New Eng- 
land. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy 
Husb. Papers Presented at Short Course Conf. for Dairy 
Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 18: 41-44. 1939. 

44.9 V593 

Discusses the subject from the standpoints of production, 
processing, and sales. 

722. GILTNER, W. Milk hygiene in the United States. 
Internatl. Vet. Cong. (1938). Rpt. 13(2): 1143-1153. 
1939. 41.9In843 

Similar article in Vet. Med. 34(6): 346-351. June 1939. 
41.8 M69 

On the regulation of milk sanitation, with a discussion 
of protection of milk from contamination by human patho- 
gens. 

723. GLASS CONTAINER ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 
Milk container costs; a study in comparisons. N. Y.? 
1939. 22 p. 280.344 G46 

A study of milk packaging costs in seven dairies located 
in the East North Central and Middle Atlantic States. 
Of these seven dairies, four use both glass and paper con- 
tainers; one, glass only; and two, paper only. 

724. GLASS CONTAINER ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 
Your milk container; a study of its competitive progress 
in other markets. In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 6(130): 
1-23. June-Dec. 1939. 285.344 B81 

This study of conditions in 12 markets, as of August 
1939, shows that consumers prefer the glass bottle to 
paper containers and that milk costs approximately 1 i a 
quart less to package and deliver when glass bottles are 
used. 

725. GOVERNMENT measures for the relief of agricul- 
ture in Sweden since 1930. Svenska Handelsbanken. In- 
dex 1939 (sup.), 32 p. Ref. Mar. 1939. 280.8 In23 

Contains section on milk control, p. 9-12, which discus- 
ses the operation of the Swedish government's plan de- 
signed mainly to keep up the price of butter. 

726. GT. BRIT. FOOD COUNCIL. Report... to the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, 1936-1938. London, H. M. 
Stationery Off., 1937-1939. 3 v. 284.39 G792 

Contains sections on milk and milk products and market- 
ing schemes (1936),whichshow developments for each 
year, with emphasis on prices. 



727. GT. BRIT. MILK MARKETING BOARD. Milk mar- 
keting scheme; five years' review, 1933-1938. London, 
1939? 55 p. 280.3449 G79M 

Achievements of the first five years are summarized as 
follows: Prices have been stabilized, and the market has 
been widened; production of graded milk has been expand- 
ed; cost of transportation has been reduced; the farm 
cheesemaking craft has been revived; supplies have been 
allocated in time of scarcity; the board is financing an 
investigation of the costs of milk production; producers 
own a chain of creameries in various parts of the country. 
Outlines a similar program for the future. 

728. GT. BRIT. MILK MARKETING BOARD. Sixth an- 
nual general meeting of registered producers, report and 
accounts, 1st April, 1938-31st March, 1939. London, 
1939. 20 p. 280.3449 G79A 

Report on the working of the Milk Marketing Scheme. 

729. GT. BRIT. MILK PRODUCTS MARKETING BOARD. 
Scheme under the Agricultural Marketing Acts, 1931 to 
1933, regulating the marketing of milk products. London, 
H. M. Stationery Off., 1939. 31 p. 280.344 G796 

Gives details of the scheme, which covers butter, cheese, 
condensed milk, condensed skim milk, dried milk, dried 
skimmed milk, cream and sterilized cream. 

730. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Arrangements under the Milk Act, 1934 to 

1938, for increasing the demand for milk within the area 
of the Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales by 
the supply of milk to nursing and expectant mothers and 
children under five years of age at reduced rates... 
London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1939. 4 p. 

280.344 G792Arm 
Price control of milk falling within this category. 

731. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF HEALTH. Scheme for 
the supply of milk at a reduced rate for mothers and 
children. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1939. 16 p. 
280.344 G797 

Introductory letter and explanatory memorandum dis- 
cuss the purpose and functions of the scheme. 

732. HALE, R. W. Cost of rearing dairy heifers. Gt. 
Brit. Min. Agr. J. 46: 268-276. June 1939. 10 G79J 

During 1934-38, 69 heifers were reared by the Agricul- 
tural Research Institute of Northern Ireland at an average 
cost of L22 per head. This was L2 or -L3 higher than the 
price at which heifers of roughly similar type could have 
been purchased in the open market at the same time, but 
the Institute herd was being graded up and was producing 
a tuberculin-tested grade of milk. The components enter- 
ing into this figure are cost of keep, allowance for heifers 
not calved, and credit balance on stock account. 

733. HARE, H. R. Factors affecting efficiency in dairy 
farming. Sci. Agr. 20: 51-60. Sept. 1939. 7 Sci2 

A management study of Ontario dairy farms for the year 
ending June 30, 1937, which includes data on the cost of 
milk per cwt. as' related to numerous given faptors. 

734. HARE, H. R. Rating the success of farm business. 
Econ. Annal. 9: 19-23. Apr. 1939. 281.8 Ec72 

Based on data from the Ontario whole milk shipper 
farms for the year ending June 20, 1937. Shows the effect 
of varying degrees of efficiency in the five farm manage- 
ment factors of size of business, crop production, live- 
stock and livestock product production (milk production 
per cow), use of labor and of capital on operator labor 
earnings and on the cost of producing 100 pounds of milk. 
Presents an analysis of the data relating to the business 
of the Ontario whole milk producers which shows the 
cumulative effect of above-average efficiency in these fac- 
tors. 

735. HARMON, E. M. How the New York milk market- 
ing agreement works. Amer. Agr. 136(3): 5, 19. Feb. 4, 

1939. 6 Am3 

Deals with milk prices, and the Producer Settlement 
Fund. Mentions the Agricultural Marketing Act, and the 
New York State Rogers-Allen Law of 1937. 



45 






736. HARRY, E. L., and PHILLIPS, J. R. E. Milk con- 
sumption in a North Wales slate quarrying community. 
Welsh J. Agr. 15: 41-54. Jan. 1939. 10 W46 

In addition to information on household constitution, and 
quantities and values of fresh and other milks purchased, 
details of use made of fresh milk, number of retailers 
supplying milk at each household, and number of deliver- 
ies per household per day are shown for 185 households 
containing a total of 596 persons. The relation between 
income and milk consumption of these families is brought 
out. 

737. HASKELL, W. H. Milk supply control. Amer. 
Municipalities 63(4): 17-21. Jan. 1939. Libr. Cong. 

The value of the U. S. Public Health Service Milk Ordi- 
nance in promoting uniform milk regulatory standards is 
set forth. Its main characteristics are outlined and dis- 
cussed. The ordinance is subject to annual review, thus 
admitting of desirable changes. 

738. HEPBURN, N. W. Labeling provisions of the new 
Federal Food and Drug Act. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 
30(5): 14-15, 23. May 1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Suggestions are offered for the labeling of butter cartons 
and wrappers to conform with the provisions of the new 
Federal law. The use of certain terms in this connection 
is discussed. 

739. HOFFMAN, A. C. The patent situation in the food 
industries. In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 6(114): 1-13. 
June-Dec. 1939. 281.344 B81 

Issued separately by the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics. 1.941 M1P27 

Patents affecting the dairy industry, their holders, and 
the dates of expiration are discussed in detail. Control of 
important processes by means of patent rights has given 
the holder commercial advantages and in a few cases 
seems to be an important factor in the growth of some 
large concerns. 

740. HOLM, G. E. Industrial products of the dairy in- 
dustry. Indus, and Engin. Chem. News Ed. 17: 348-349. 
May 20, 1939. 381 J825N 

Products derived from the 53,000,000,000 pounds of 
skim milk produced annually in the United States, includ- 
ing lactose, lactic acid and casein, are discussed, quanti- 
ties produced are noted and possible industrial uses are 
considered. A statistical flow sheet showing production 
of milk and products derived therefrom, United States, 
1937, is included. 

741. HOOD, E. G., WHITE, A. H., and FELLOWS, E. S. 
Wood taint in butter boxes. Ottawa? 1939. 14 p. 
280.344 H76 

Experiments conducted by the Division of Dairy Re- 
search, Science Service, of the Dominion Department of 
Agriculture and the Forest Products Laboratories of 
Canada, of the Lands, Parks, and Forests Branch of the 
Department of Mines and Resources, at the request and 
with the assistance of the British Columbia Lumber and 
Shingle Manufacturers Association. Western hemlock, 
Sitka spruce, amabilis fir and grand fir were tested. 
Types of lining employed were aluminum foil, single 
parchments and single parchment with circular liner, all 
of 40-pound weight. 

742. HOPSON, G. H. Quality milk and its control. 
Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. J. 94(6, pt. 2): 378-382. Apr. 
1939. 41.8 Am3 

Presented at the seventy -fifth annual meeting of the 
American Veterinary Medical Association, New York, 
N. Y-, July 5-9, 1938. 

Gives results of tests of over 2,670 consumers' door- 
step samples of certified milk during 1937. 

743. HUMRICKHOUSE, C. W. The milk control law in 
Indiana. Mo. Farmer 31(14): 3, 7. July 15, 1939. 
6M696 

Deals with costs of production and distribution, and 
with the effect of this law on milk prices. 



744. ILLINOIS DAIRY PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION. What 
the farmer gets and what the consumer has to pay under 
milk control. In Brown, E. F. MUk Papers 6(126): 1-12. 
June-Dec. 1939. 281.344 B81 

Results of the study comparing prices in Chicago with 
prices in several middle western cities, including Milwau- 
kee, St. Paul and Minneapolis, show that consumers in 
regulated markets have been forced to pay high prices for 
their milk and that farmers whose prices are controlled 
received little, if any more, real income than farmers 
supplying the Chicago market under a free price system. 

745. INCREASING cheese factory income with mechanical 
refrigeration. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 30(10): 14-15, 
50. Oct. 1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Control of temperature and humidity in the curing room 
creates savings and increases profits by preventing devel- 
opment of rind rot, pin holes, or other defects which 
would lower the value of the product, and by reducing 
shrinkage and weight loss to a minimum. 

746. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ICE CREAM 
MANUFACTURERS. Ice cream can analysis. Internatl. 
Assoc. Ice Cream Mfrs. Spec. B. 59, 23 p. Feb. 1939. 
389.9 In83S 

Includes material on the plant costs of metal and paper 
cans, and of the effect on distribution costs of the use of 
each type of can. 

747. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE. 
International chronicle of agriculture: United Kingdom; 
milk market. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Monthly B. Agr. Econ. 
and Sociol. 30: 170E-182E. Apr. 1939. 280.29 In83 

The milk marketing schemes of England and Wales, 
Scotland, and Northern Ireland are discussed. Tables are 
given for milk prices and sales (including sales for manu- 
facture) in the area of the English Milk Marketing Scheme, 
and of the Scottish Milk Marketing Scheme, 1933/34- 
1937/38; milk sold to creameries for manufacture, North- 
ern Ireland, 1934/35-1937/38; and prices fixed for liquid 
milk consumption, Northern Ireland, 1934/35-1938/39. 

748. JONES, E. H. Milk control in Vermont-past, 
present, and future. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. 
Anim. and Dairy Husb. Papers Presented at Short Course 
Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 18: 9-14. 
1939. 44.9 V593 

The milk control law has eliminated from most markets 
in Vermont the price cutting, the giving of free merchan- 
dise, and other detrimental trade practices formerly prev- 
alent. 

749. KELLY, E. Supervision and inspection of milk. 
U. S. D. A. Ybk. 1939: 360-363. 1 Ag84Y 

A brief account in which it is pointed out that mainte- 
nance of nutritive value, prevention of fraud and sanita- 
tion are the main factors involved in the inspection of 
market milk. 

750. KENNEDY, M. Policies that have promoted the 
growth of the Rochester dairy company, Rochester, 
Minnesota. Milk Plant Monthly 28(3): 28-33. Mar. 1939. 
44.8 C864 

9uality control, farm inspection, cooperation with health 
authorities, premiums to farmers for high quality, pre- 
miums to operators for superior efficiency and active 
promotional work, are among the policies to which the 
success and growth of the company are attributed. 

751. KENNEDY, M. Sliding scale of prices takes de- 
livery costs into consideration. Milk Plant Monthly 28 
(6): 58-66. June 1939. 44.8 C864 

Discusses systems adopted by milk dealers in Minne- 
sota, Iowa, and Wisconsin allowing discounts for quantity 
purchases and thus increasing milk sales. 

752. KESSLER, L. M. Cost control in the ice cream in- 
dustry. Ice Cream Trade J. 35(9): 10-11, 14, 28-30. 
Sept. 1939. 389.8 Ic2 

Certain concepts of cost in the ice cream industry and 
their control are advanced. 

753. KLINEFELTER, H. E. Missouri's fiUed milk case. 
Mo. Farmer 31(6): 8. Aug. 15, 1939. 6 M696 

Account of litigation resulting from violation of the Mis- 
souri FiUed Milk Law. 



46 



754. KLUETER, H. Is the creamery industry obligated 
to consider the wishes of the consumer? In Consolidated 
Reporting Co. 1938 butter and cheese industry symposium, 
p. 156-160. New York, 1939? 44 C764 

Deals mainly with cream and butter grading and stand- 
ards, with reference to conditions in Wisconsin. 

755. ROLLER, E. F. Recent trends in the Minnesota 
dairy industry. Minn. U. Dept. Agr. Farm Business 
Notes 196: 1-2. Apr. 1939. 275.29 M663 

Between 1920 and 1938, the dairy industry in Minnesota 
expanded in nearly all its branches including the number 
of milk cows, quantity of milk produced, and the produc- 
tion of butter, cheese, and other milk products. A signi- 
ficant trend in the marketing of butter has been that of 
more direct sale with less dependence on wholesale re- 
ceivers. 

756. KRUISHEER, C. I. Methods of dairy control in 
Holland and an analytical study on the quality and special- 
ly the firmness of butter. Chem. & Indus. 58: 732-740. 
Aug. 5, 1939. 382 M31C 

Shows how standards are maintained by butter and 
cheese control stations supported by the producers and 
under Government supervision. Milk powder, condensed 
milk, and other milk products are subject to control by a 
special station at the Hague. The second half of the 
article reviews the research work of the Government 
Dairy Station at Leyden. 

757. LECUYER, R. Ten-year cost study, production of 
fluid milk, region of Montreal. Quebec, Dept. Agr. 1939? 
22 p. 281.344 Q3 

A study begun in October 1929 in cooperation with the 
Economics Department of Macdonald College McGill Uni- 
versity. Information was obtained from 225 individual 
farm records during the first year, and from subsequent 
surveys. 

758. LET 'EM drink Grade A. The milk industry sells 
service. Most of its customers would rather have milk... 
at 4 cents less. Fortune 20(5): 82-84, 128, 131-132, 134, 
136. Nov. 1939. 110 F772 

Points out that high prices result in reduced consump- 
tion; that prices are too high and could be reduced; that 
milk can be sold through stores at 4 cents less a quart 
than through home delivery; and that farmers and labor in 
some markets have raised prices and wages to uneconom- 
ic levels. 

759. LITTLE, J. L. A new, quick and accurate method 
of standardizing milk by the slide rule: Milk Plant 
Monthly 28(1): 22-25. Jan. 1939. 44.8 C864 

A modification of the slide rule is used in this method of 
standardizing milk and cream for butterfat. Found appli- 
cable to any type of standardizing problem, the method, it 
is claimed, accounts for the butterfat- in each ingredient 
entering into the standardized product so that proof will be 
completed along with the standardizing calculations. An 
explanation of the procedure is given for each kind of 
standardizing and calculation commonly encountered. 

760. LONG, W. H. Is "milk-and-feed" system justified? 
Farmer and Stock-Breeder 53(2579):666. Mar. 14, 1939. 
10 F228 

Analysis of figures of six reasonably representative 
Yorkshire farms for the contract year 1936/37. Cows in 
milk-and-feed" herds cost nearly L12 a year more than 
™i*"£?r. herdS - Production ? er stall, however, was 

761. LONG, W. H. Three years' milk costs in York- 
shire. Farm Econ. 3: 47-48. July 1939. 281.8 F223 
, Ar c ?o mparls , on ? f the costs on 35 identical farms, 

1 n S ? io n^ 37/38 ' S ! 10WS **"*■ the average cost rose fron. 
iu.bd.to 12. Od. per gal. 

762. MCCARTHY, D. A. From raw to pasteurized milk. 
Milk Dealer 28: 39, 60. Mar. 1939. 44.8 M595 

Also la Milk Plant Monthly 28: 39. Apr. 1939. 
44.8 C864 

Results of a survey of milk distributors in Luzerne 
County, Pa., who installed pasteurizing equipment during 
the previous 10 years, show that nearly all the distribu- 
tors increased their daily output thereby, and that the 
changes were made, voluntarily for the most part, in 
accordance with consumer demand and milk sanitation 
standards. 



763. MCDONOUGH, W. F. State regulations covering 
the fat testing of milk. N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy and 
Milk Insp., Ann. Rpt. (1938) 12: 121-122, 124-127. 1939. 
44.9 N4833 

Discusses New York State laws relating to fat tests and 
fat testing of milk. Checking the accuracy of work done by 
licensed testers employed by those who purchase milk 
from producers is a major project of the Division of Milk 
Control. Records indicate that somewhat over 1,400 
plants receiving milk from producers buy on fat test and 
require the milk to be tested. 

764. MACKINTOSH, J. The evolution of milk-produc- 
tion. In Agriculture in the twentieth century; essays on 
research", practice, and organization to be presented to 
Sir Daniel Hall, p. 397-421. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 
1939. 30.4 Ag8 

Traces the development of dairy science in Great 
Britain and its application to milk production, including 
sanitary quality control. Discusses briefly some features 
and results of the Milk Marketing Scheme. 

765. MACY, H., and OLSON, J. C. Preliminary observa- 
tions on the treatment of parchment paper with sodium or 
calcium propionate. J. Dairy Sci. 22(7): 527-534. July 
1939. 44.8 J822 

Experiments to determine the most practical and 
efficient methods for inhibiting surface mold growth on 
butter. 

766. MALOTT, D. W., and MARTIN, B. F. The agri- 
cultural industries. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1939. 
483 p. Ref. 281.12 M29 

Presents the business aspects of purchasing, processing, 
financing, and marketing the leading agricultural raw 
materials. Analyzes the business problems peculiar to 
these industries. Chapter 2, deals with the dairy industry. 

767. MARION, J. A. Problems in the butter market. 
Eastern Canada Conf. on the Mktg. of Farm Prod. Proc. 
1939: 71-75. 280.39 Ea73 

Problems of overproduction and disposal of the surplus 
are discussed. Increasing the production of cheese, for 
which there is a market in Britain so long as it is offered 
in quantities to provide for a continuous supply, is sugges- 
ted as a possible solution. Attention is also called to the 
Australian Equilization Scheme, under which producers 
have regulated the home price through their power to ex- 
port the surplus month by month and to require every 
creamery in Australia to bear its share of the loss in ex- 
porting such butter. 

768. MARQUARDT, J. C. Proposed changes in scoring 
Cheddar cheese. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 30(4): 12, 13. 
Apr. 1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Recommendations for crediting desirable qualities of the 
product, rather than using standards which are mainly 
measures of defects. 

769. MASUROVSKY, B. I. Milkmeter— a slide rule for 
the dairy industries. J. Milk Technol. 2(4): 174. Julv 
1939. 44.8 J824 

The rule is used to calculate the milk-solids-not-fat 
when the specific gravity and butterfat content are known. 

770. MASUROVSKY, B. I. Slide rule aids in standardi- 
zing milk and cream. Food Indus. 11(9): 489. Sept. 1939. 
389.8 F737 

A simplified method, with examples illustrating its 
application. 

771. MAYBERRY, R. H. The Canadian cheese industry, 
with special reference to export. Eastern Canada Conf. 
on the Mktg. of Farm Prod. Proc. 1939: 76-81 
280.39 Ea73 

Mainly a discussion of the problems confronting the dis- 
tribution of Canadian cheese, with recommendations for 
improvement. 



47 



772." MELDER, F. E. Trade barriers and dairy prod- 
ucts. Chicago, 1939. 7 p. (Council of state govt. Trade 
barrier research bull, ser.) 286 C832 

Market protection takes various forms, including con- 
trol of wholesale and retail prices of fluid milk and the 
exclusion of competitive milk or cream from a local 
market. Measures which tend to cause this condition, 
although they may be merely incidental to achieving some 
other public purpose, constitute trade barriers. He dis- 
cusses the operation of these measures in relation to the 
trade barrier problem which exists in the dairy industry. 

773. MENAFRA, A. Selective di stributi on, a unique 
dealer sales policy. Ice Cream Trade J. 35(12): 8-10, 
59. Dec 1939. 389.8 Ic2 

The principle of select representation, plus an "ex- 
clusive agency," In the dealer r e lati on s hi ps of one firm 
has helped bring a higher -than -average price and built 
volume consistently for its products since the program 
was first i naugu rated. 

774. MERKET, H. Miichwirtschaftliche marktordnung 
als beispieL Internal!. Agrar -Rundschau 1939(9): 19- 
21. Sept. 1939. 28 In89 

The controlled milk market in Germany is credited 
with raising the prices to producers, building up the milk 
industry, reducing the costs of distribution, and improving 
the quality of milk products with special reference to the 
needs of the consumers. 

775. MICHIGAN MTT.K PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION. 
Detroit-Michigan dairy products prices, 1928-1938. 23 p. 
1939. 284.344 M58 

Tables give monthly prices for all Detroit milk, Detroit 
sales milk, surplus milk, net base price, and condensary 
prices - all f . o. b. country; 3.5 times average Chicago 
92-score butter prices, and Chicago batter prices; cents 
and percent Detroit sales milk was above all Detroit milk, 
condensary prices, and 3.5 times Chicago butter prices; 
cents and percent all Detroit milk was above condensary 
prices and 3.5 times Chicago butter prices; and various 
index numbers and relatives. 

776. MILEY, D. G. A summary of 12 dairy farm rec- 
ords, Jacksonville area, for the two-year period from 
July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1939. Gainesville, Fla. Univ. 
Agr. Ext. Serv., 1939. 25 p. 275.29 F661S 

The net cost for producing and marketing miTk on the 5 
retail dairy farms for the two-years was $0,453 per gaL 
and the value of all milk produced was $0,469. On the 7 
wholesale dairy farms the net cost of producing and mar- 
keting milk for the period was $3.02 per cwt. and the 
value of all milk produced was $2.97. 

777. MILK in Chicago. When Meadowmoor Dairies cut 
the price of milk two cents, the bombs began to burst. 
Then came the U. S. Government with charges of conspir- 
acy. Fortune 20(5): 80-81, 124, 126, 128. Nov. 1939. 
110 F772 

Discusses briefly the milk problem and describes the 
system, adopted by Meadowmoor Dairies, for the distri- 
bution of milk through stores at cut-rate prices. Tells 
of the milk strike of Jan. 1934, and of the efforts of the 
U. S. Agricultural Adjustment Administration to stabilize 
orices in the market. 

778. MTLK INDUSTRY FOUNDATION. Milk for millions. 
New York, 1939. 20 p. 280.344 M592Mm 

Includes information on prices and milTr economics. 
Shows the higher prices paid by milk companies for milk 
they seU in bottles, the relationship between 21 milk com- 
panies' selling prices and cost prices per quart, and how 
these milk companies' sales to the public were divided 
among their different products. 

779. MTLK RESEARCH COUNCIL. Comparative study 
of attitudes of housewives, executives and milk-route men 
in the New York City area. 1. Housewives. In Brown, 

E. F. Milk Papers 5(97): 1-49. Jan.-May 1939. 
281.344 B81 

Sanford Griffith was in charge of the study and was as- 
sisted by Mar jorie Fiske and Alvin Meyrowitz. 

Based on interviews with 1,025 housewives. Discusses 
milk buying habits, brand buying habits, reasons for brand 
selection, familiarity with the milk industry and factors 
influential in milk buying. Questionnaire used by the 
interviewers is appended. 



780. MILK RESEARCH COUNCIL. Housewives' atti- 
tudes toward the milk companies in New York City; a pre- 
liminary survey. New York, 1939. 38 p. 

281.344 M59H 

Market Analysts, Inc., joint authors. 

Based on surveys of a conservative low-ineome area in 
Manhattan an average low-income area in Brooklyn, and 
a radical (mainly cooperatively housed) area in the Bronx. 
Reports attitudes as to prices, propaganda against high 
prices, and government control of the milk industry. 

781. MILLER, L C. Laws forced by farm groups halt 
trade in processed foods. Food Indus. 11: 500-503. 
Sept. 1939. 389.8 F737 

Shows how barriers to out-of-State trade are created by 
the administration of State dairy laws. 

782. MIOLLIS, R. Suggested standards for the cheese 
industry. Nail. Butter and Cheese J. 30(3): 64-65. Mar. 
1939. 286,85 B98Bu 

Advocates the adoption of new measures, in line with in- 
ternational cheese standards. These relate to the correct 
statement of butterf at and moisture content; the classifi- 
cation, specifications and nomenclature for all fermented 
types of cheese; the manufacture and sale of raw milk 
cheese; and the use of "green" or uncured cheese, as 
well as of deteriorated cheese in the processing blends. 
Conditions in France and Holland in regard to such regu- 
lation are described. 

783. MJSNER, E. G. Dairy economics; the cost of milk 
production. Holstein-Friesian World 36: 616, 630. 
June 10, 1939. 43.8 H742 

Costs and returns in New York State are shown, espe- 
cially labor costs. 

784. M1SNER, E. G. Relation of size of cow to produc- 
tion and cost of production of milk on 94 grade A farms in 
the Tally- Homer area. N. Y. (CorneH) Agr. Expt B. 
719, 25 p. June 1939. 100 N48C 

Total cost of production was 16 percent less for large 
cows than for small cows. 

785. MOFFETT, W. K. Milk regulations in Pennsyl- 
vania. Rural New Yorker 98: 86, 119. Feb. 11, 25, 1939. 
6R88 

In 1935 a new Stale miHc sanitation bill was passed winch 
tightened up the supervision over the fluid milk industry 
and placed ice cream and all prodacts used in the manu- 
facture of ice cream on the same health basis as required 
for fluid milk. The situation prior to the passage of this 
bill, especially with respect to the manufacture and use of 
ice cream, is reviewed, in contrast to the improvements 
which have since been effected. 

786. MOONEY, G. L. Skim cheese — a menace to the 
dairy industry. Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 30(3): 56-57. 
Mar. 1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Cheese made from skimmed or partly skimmed milk 
provides unfair competition resulting from the fact that 
the retail price of "skim cheese" may be less than the 
price of Cheddar cheese with which it is identical in shape 
and appearance, but which complies with the established 
standards. The price attraction is sufficient to induce the 
consumer to purchase this product, although not properly 
marked or labeled. The author looks to the new Food, 
Drug and Cosmetic Act for correction of this practice. 

787. NATIONAL FARM CHEMURGIC COUNCIL. Re- 
search committee. Chemurgic potentialities. Columbus? 
Ohio, 1939. 1 v. 281.12 N217 

Contains section on the utilization of milk byproducts, 
including casein and lactose. 

788. NEW JERSEY MTT.K CONTROL BOARD. Report, 
July 1, 1935- June 30, 1938. Trenton, 1939. 35 p. 
280.3449 N46 

This is the second report of the Board since the passage 
of the original act in 1933 and is continuous with the first. 
The two cover the entire five-year period. Such topics 
as controlling milk in interstate commerce, trends of 
milk production in the State, returns to producers, and 
production regulation are considered. The basic presen- 
tation is supplemented by tables. 



48 



789. NEW YORK (STATE) MILK COMMITTEE. Albany 
milk conference: a record of proceedings. Albany, 1939. 
62 p. 281.3449 All 

Producers, consumers and state executives and legisla- 
tors attended this conference. Contains brief addresses 
by dairy farmers from every section of the State, with an 
analysis of present dairy sentiment in their territories. 

790. NICHOLLS, W. H. Post-war concentration in the 
cheese industry. J. Polit. Econ. 47: 823-845. Dec. 1939. 
280.8 J82 

Traces the shift in cheese from an unstandardized bulk 
product to one in a form adapted to extensive product 
differentiation and advertising. Considers the causes of 
certain postwar developments in the industry, the most 
important of which, were patents on the new processed" 
cheese. Presents trends in the sale of the processed 
product and in the purchase of the bulk cheese. Estimates 
the quantitative importance of the various cheese-market- 
ing channels, and analyzes the forces operating toward 
more direct marketing. 

791. NICHOLLS, W. H. Post-war developments in the 
marketing of butter. Iowa. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 250: 
321-384. June 1939. 100 Io9 

Important trends in butter marketing during the post- 
war period were the rapidly increasing total volume of 
butter available, with production on farms forming an 
ever-smaller proportion of the whole; improvement of 
quality and consumers' preferences therefor; increasing 
amount of butter sold in package; tendency toward grading 
at point of production rather than on the terminal market; 
and the trend toward an increased number of large oper- 
ators and more direct marketing channels. The move- 
ment toward more direct marketing raises the question of 
the relative economies of specialized independent agencies 
and integrated organizations. 

792. NICHOLLS, W. H. Post-war developments in the 
marketing of cheese. Iowa. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 261, 
148 p. June 1939. 100 Io9 

The post-war increase in direct marketing of cheese 
was brought about by the development of organizations of 
size, financial strength, and standardization comparable 
with those in other industries. Post-war concentration 
was largely due to monopolistic elements, especially to 
patents. The concentration on processed cheese and on 
packaging was hastened and enhanced by these legal 
monopolies. 

793. NICHOLLS, W. H. Short-circuiting the butter 
middleman. Iowa Farm Econ. 5(1): 13-14. Ames, Jan. 
1939. 275.28 Io92 

Finds that the postwar period has brought a marked in- 
crease in direct marketing of butter. 

794. ONTARIO CREAM PATRONS' ASSOCIATION. A 
plan to improve the price of butter-fat in Canada. Farm- 
er's Advocate & Home Mag. 74: 439, 461. July 27, 1939. 
7 F22 

Calls for the setting up of a central agency in each Pro- 
vince under provincial marketing legislation, and the col- 
lection of a toll of 1/2 c. per lb. (tentatively set) on every 
pound of butter produced within the Province. Effects of 
the plan would be to improve the income of the farmer, 
take care of surplus, and establish Canadian butter on the 
British market. 

795. PARSONS, F. L., and others. Butter storage. I-n. 
Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 30(5): 16-18; (6): 50-52. May- 
June 1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Pt. I, by F. L. Parsons, W. H. Martin, and D. L. Martin; 
Pt. H, by F. L. Parsons, W. H. Martin, and D. Murray. 

Only high quality butter should be stored. Shrinkage of 
storage butter is not of great importance as a risk factor. 
The quantity of butter in storage in the United States is 
greatest between August and October and lowest in April." 
The cost of storing butter for six months in a Chicago 
warehouse is approximately 1.58 c. per lb. Hedging costs 
increase the total costs to 1.86 c. per lb. for a six-months 
period. 



796. PERRING, C. International chronicle of agricul- 
ture: United Kingdom. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Monthly B. 
Agr. Econ. and Sociol. 30: 475 E-486 E. Oct. 1939. 
241 In82A 

An account of the provisions of the Milk Industry Bill 
introduced at the end of 1938, and the objections which led 
to its withdrawal; and of the Milk Industry Act, No. 2, 
1939. The milk marketing schemes do not include proces- 
sed milk, but at the beginning of 1939 the Government pro- 
posed the establishment of a marketing scheme for pro- 
cessed milk. 

797. PETERSEN, W. E. Dairy science, its principles 
and practice in production, management, and processing. 
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1939. 679 p. Ref. (Lippin- 
cott's Agr. Sci. Ser.) 44 P444 

Chapters on milk consumption, the economics of milk 
production, market milk, the butter industry, the cheese 
industry, the ice-cream industry, and the economic 
phases of milk by-products and concentrated milk 
products, contributed by H. C. Trelogan. 

798. PHILLIPS, J. R. E. The operation of the milk mar- 
keting scheme in Wales, 1937-8. Welsh J. Agr. 15- 115- 
128. Jan. 1939. 10 W46 

Subjects discussed include nominal contract prices and 
actual realized prices for liquid milk, manufacturing and 
sales prices, deductions from contract prices, producers- 
retailers' levies, pool prices, retail prices, and quality 
milks. 

For similar reviews of the operation of the milk market- 
ing scheme in Wales in earlier years see Welsh J. Agr. 
12: 86-97, Jan. 1936 for 1934-35; 13: 94-107, Jan. 1937 
for 1935-6; 14: 133-146, Jan. 1938 for 1936-7. 

799. POLLARD, A. J., and CHAMPLIN, L. F. Receipts 
of milk and cream at the New York market. Washington, 
U. S. Bur. of Agr. Econ., 1939. 12 p. 1.9 Ec724Rem 

In cooperation with the N. Y. State College of Agricul- 

Thls study supplements previous ones reporting rail and 
truck receipts of milk and cream at the New York market, 
covering the period from July 1937 to July 1938, inclusive, 
certain estimates being obtained for earlier periods. 
Receipts of milk and of cream and plain condensed milk 
at this market are tabulated for the period 1933-38. 

800. POTTER, P. What consumers think about milk 
and the milk business. Milk Plant Monthly 28(4): 36-38. 
Apr. 1939. 44.8 C864 

A study of consumer and storekeeper attitudes in regard 
to the use and sale of milk, conducted by the Business Re- 
search Corporation of Chicago on behalf of the Associated 
Milk Dealers of Chicago, was completed in March, 1938. 
Another survey was made about the same time by the 
Research Bureau of De Paul University under the direc- 
tion of Prof. L. M. McDermott. Findings of the two sur- 
veys are summarized. 

801. PRICE, W. T., and FLEMING, R. J. Accredited 
milk. Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. J. 46(5): 429-435. Aug. 1939. 
10 G79J 

The Accredited Milk Scheme, first introduced in Wilt- 
shire on a county basis in 1929 as a "register" of accred- 
ited producers, has made considerable progress during 
the past ten years and done much to increase the hygienic 
quality of the milk supply of England and Wales. De- 
scribes the operation and effects of the system as it re- 
lates to the health of the cattle, producing processes, 
sanitation, and farm facilities. A large proportion of the 
herds in the country are still outside the scheme, although 
the financial inducement of a bonus for designated milk 
is offered, 

802. QUINTUS..P. E., and ROBOTKA, F. Butterfat pro- 
curement by creameries in Butler County, Iowa. Iowa 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 265: 253-302. Dec. 1939. 100 Io9 

Finds that the areas served by individual creameries 
are characterized by excessive overlapping, and that 
many of the creameries have too small a volume of busi- 
ness to operate most economically. 



49 



803. QUINTUS. P. E., and ROBOTKA, F. Cutting butter - 
fat marketing costs. Iowa Farm Econ. 5(3): 3-7. July 
1939. 275.28 Io92 

A survey of Butler County, Iowa, showed that much of 
the inefficiency in obtaining cream by local creameries 
resulted from the prevailing system of paying truckers 
on a commission basis without designating the territory 
or the farmers they shall serve, confusing methods of 
making hauling charges against patrons, and lack of effec- 
tive control over hauling practices. Recommendations 
for improvements are made. 

804. QUINTUS, P. F. Wholesale butter prices and 
premiums. J. Farm Econ. 21: 595-605. Aug. 1939. 
280.8 J822 

The emergence of premiums appears to be the result 
of two closely interrelated peculiarities of the market: the 
nature of the receivers' business, and the manner in 
which the quotations are made. Growing out of the sys- 
tem of outright purchases, premium payments became, 
in effect, a competitive device developed by buyers in an 
effort to insure themselves particular marks of butter. 
The author traces this development to the stage when 
price stabilization purchases counteracted the system. 
The relationship between the settlement price and the 
type of bulk packages is included in the discussion. 

805. REED, O. E. New developments in the uses of 
manufactured dairy products. Washington, U. S. Bur. 
Dairy Indus., 1939. 12 p. 1.973 A2R25 

Increasing the consumption of manufactured dairy prod- 
ucts and the utilization of byproducts, such as casein, 
whey and lactic acid, are dealt with. Better management 
of dairy herds for lower production costs is another sub- 
ject considered. 

806. REGIONAL conference on dairy problems; held at 
the Council of State Governments, Chicago, Illinois, 
October 6 and 7, 1939. 13 p. 44.9 R26 

Recommendations regarding sanitary inspection stand- 
ards and herd inspection. 

807. REID, W. H. E., DREW, R. J., and ARBUCKLE, 

W. S. The effect of composition and serving temperature 
upon consumer acceptance and dispensing qualities of ice 
cream. Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 303, 44 p. July 
1939. 100 M693 

A serving temperature of 10 F was considered most 
desirable from the consumer's viewpoint. Ice cream con- 
taining 14 percent fat, 13 percent serum solids, 14 per- 
cent sugar and o.3 percent gelatin was preferred in the 
series of mixes studied. As the serving temperature was 
increased the vanilla flavor was more pronounced, the 
ice creams were sweeter, the high-fat ice creams were 
criticized less for being buttery and were considered to 
be more desirable. Considers also crystalline structure, 
stability, dipping and keeping qualities of ice cream. 

808. RICE, E. B. Some observations on dairying in 
Britain. Queensland Agr. J. 51(5): 476-495. May 1939. 
23 Q33 

Discusses milk standards and the Milk Marketing 
Scheme. About 10 percent of Britain's milk production 
is converted into cheese. 

809. RICE, J. L., and others. Administration and pro- 
cedure in the enforcement of milk regulations; a sympo- 
sium. N. Y. State Assoc, of Dairy and Milk Insp. Ann. 
Rpt. (1938) 12: 241-273. 1939. 44.9 N4833 

G. W. Molyneaux, M. Dooling, J. E. Greenway, W. Roth- 
ery, D. R. Davidson, J. J. Regan, and C. S. Leete, joint 
authors. The status of milk control is treated from the 
standpoint of cities and localities of different size and 
facilities, and also from that of the agencies administer- 
ing the programs. 

810. RICHARDSON, C. S. High grade milk production 
and marketing in Tynedale. Gt. Brit. Min. Agr. J. 46: 
547-552. Sept. 1939. 10 G79J 

Describes conditions on an English farm, producing 
from both an "attested" and an untested herd. Indicates 
milk sales and farm management practices, with regard to 
maintaining and improving the quality of the product. 



811. RINEAR, E. H. Milk distribution costs of producer- 
distributors and subdealers in New Jersey. N. J. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. B. 663, 56 p. Mar. 1939. 100 N46S 

Shows the distribution costs involved in processing, 
bottling, and delivering milk, the relationships between 
volume of business, capital, and labor, and the conditions 
whereby one distributor has lower costs than another. 

812. ROSS, H. E. Care and handling of milk. New 
York, Orange Judd, 1939. Rev. ed., 417 p. 44 R73C 

Ch. 8 and 9, Grades of milk; The transportation and 
distribution of milk. 

813. SAFFORD, C. E. Milk & cream; determination of 
bacteria in milk purchased on basis of bacterial count 
with law and recommended procedure. N. Y. State Dept. 
Agr. & Markets. B. 323, 30 p. 1939. 2 N482 

Sanitation regulation under the New York State Agricul- 
ture and Markets Law. 

814. SANBORN, J. R., and BREED, R. S. Sanitation 

of paper milk containers. Milk Dealer 28(7): 36-37, 88- 
91. Apr. 1939. 44.8 M595 

Sanitary problems that arise in connection with the 
making of containers. The sanitary condition of the 
finished container was found comparable to that of glass 
bottles used on well operated certified farms. It is con- 
cluded that the single service containers should be able 
to meet a standard of freedom from pathogenic organisms 
even more severe than those enforceable for present milk 
containers. 

81 4A. SHAUL, K. A. A survey of the New York metro- 
politan grade A milk supply from the producers' stand- 
point. N. Y. State Assoc, of Dairy and Milk Insp., Ann. 
Rpt. (1938) 12: 157-172. 1939. 44.9 N4833 

Report on a survey designed to compare the quality and 
varying conditions of production of grades A and B, pas- 
teurized milk as distributed in the New York metropolitan 
area. Summarizes the significance of the findings and re- 
ports the conclusion of the investigators that milk pro- 
duced on the average farm of grade A classification has 
had much better care in its production and handling and 
that the conditions under which it is produced are far 
superior to those for the grade B milk. 

Discussion, p. 172-183 

815. SHERMAN, R. W., and MCBRIDE, C. G. Ten years 
of farm sales of milk in four Ohio markets. Ohio. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. B. 609, 38 p. Dec. 1939. 100 Oh3S 

The introduction and use of base and surplus plans have 
been the greatest change in marketing practices in the 
major markets of Ohio during the period 1925 to 1936. 

816. SHOULD the term "surplus" be eliminated from 
marketing terminology and should fresh fluid milk be 
called "premium" milk? Milk Plant Monthly 28(7): 21- 
23. July 1939. 44.8 C864 

An editorial pointing out that the terms "surplus" and 
"skimmed" are derogatory and advocating a change in 
milk market terminology. States that elimination of the 
term "surplus" and adoption of the term "premium" 
might "remove psychological difficulties as between the 
milk industry and the regulatory and legislative authori- 
ties and help to prepare a sober and dignified groundwork 
for milk control and for stable, rational marketing." 

817. SMITH, L. T., and CLABORN, H. V. Utilization of 
lactic acid. U. S. Bur. Dairy Indus. BDIM 845, 4 p. 
1939. 1.9B14Bd 

Also in Indus, and Engin. Chem. News Ed. 17: 370-371. 
June 10, 1939. 381 J825N 

Use of lactic acid and its derivatives in the field of 
solvents, lacquers and plastics and as an acidulent for 
beverages and foods, are briefly discussed. 

818. SMITH, R. G. C. Market for dry milk in the United 
States. Canada Dept. Trade and Com. Com. Intel. J. 61 : 
734-735. Oct. 21, 1939. 286>.8 C16 

Under heavy tariff protection, the market for dry milk 
in the United States has not offered any openings to im- 
ports for some time. Reviews the current situation re- 
garding this market from the Canadian point of view, 
with a presentation of facts on domestic production, 
prices, and trade channels and methods. 



50 



819. SPENCER, L. Competition between fresh milk and 
canned milk. In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 6(123): 61- 
80. June-Dec."T939. 281.344 B81 

Also in Internatl. Assoc. Milk Dealers. Assoc. B. 32: 
61-80. Dec. 5, 1939. 44.9 In8 

Based on a study of milk prices, conducted jointly by the 
New York State College of Agriculture and the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Agricultural Economics. 

Points out that evaporated milk has become cheaper and 
cheaper in comparison with the cost of fresh milk and 
states that the reduced buying power of consumers in re- 
cent years affords an ample explanation for the increased 
consumption of canned milk. Competitive position of 
fluid milk producers and dealers can be improved through 
efforts to reduce the costs of production and distribution 
of fresh milk. 

("List of reports on surveys pertaining to the consump- 
tion of dairy products," p. 79-80.) 

820. SPENCER, L., and BLANDFORD, C. The distribu- 
tion of milk through health and welfare depots in New 
York City. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 273, 17 p. May 1939. 
281.9 D81 

Coincident with a rise in the retail price of milk in New 
York, 53 city-supervised depots were opened for the sale 
of milk at 8 cents per quart to needy families. These 
depots at no time handled more than 3 percent of the total 
distribution, and the cheaper type of service can scarcely 
be said to have caused a significant increase in the city's 
total consumption of milk. 

821. SPENCER, L. Public regulation of the milk indus- 
try: recent legislation aimed at raising farmers' incomes. 
State Govt. 12: 179-180, 187-190. Oct. 1939. 

280.8 St2 

Public regulation of the milk industry has only recently 
been undertaken by State and Federal units of government. 
This article analyzes the developments in milk control 
since New York pioneered with price-fixing legislation in 
1933. Judicial interpretation of State and Federal powers 
in regard to the regulation of this intra- and inter -state 
problem is emphasized, pointing the way in long-term ob- 
jectives to more adequate public control. 

822. SPENCER, L. A. A revised series of milk prices 
for New York. N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. Farm Econ. Ill: 
2707-2710. Feb. 1939. 280.8 C812 

Includes material on average of net prices paid by 
Dairymen's League and Sheffield Farms for 3.7 percent 
grade B milk at the 201-210-mile zone, 1910-1938; sea- 
sonal variation in the farm price of milk in New York, 
1912-1936; index numbers of the farm price of milk in 
New York, 1910-1938; and prices of milk and basic com- 
modities, 1910-1938. 

823. SPENCER, L. Subsidized distribution of milk and 
other products. Amer. Agr. 136(22): 10-11; (24): 13. 
Oct. 28, 1939, Nov. 25, 1939. 6 Am3 

A discussion of plans for Boston, Chicago, and New York. 
Includes material on the stamp plan. 

824. SPENCER, L. Ways of reducing costs of distribu- 
ting milk in New York. J. Farm Econ. 21(1): 291-298. 
Feb. 1939. 280.8 J822 

Deals with changes in price spread on grade B milk; 
items in spread on grade B retail milk; changes in costs; 
costs of distribution through stores; use of paper con- 
tainers; and maladjustment of prices and wages. The 
necessary adjustments resulting from the adoption of new 
methods and equipment requiring less labor in distribu- 
tion would be much less painful if commodity prices were 
to rise in the near future to 40 percent or more above 
pre-war. The Government can assist in promoting more 
efficient methods of distribution by providing adequately 
for research and education in this field, and by seeing to 
it that fair opportunity is given for the exploitation of new 
methods and devices. 



825. STEVENSON, JORDAN & HARRISON. A study of 
milk distribution in New Haven [Conn.] with recommen- 
dations, June 26, 1939. New Haven? 1939. 77 p. 
280.344 St4 

Analyzes costs created by the milk dealer's plant and 
delivery procedures. Findings reveal that dairy plant 
costs are very small in comparison with the costs that 
are imposed on dealers by prevailing delivery and col- 
lection practices. For this reason, the delivery of milk 
was analyzed in more complete detail. \Vhat influence 
such factors as increases in store sales, fluctuations in 
community income, variations in birth rates, and changes 
in resale prices have on the ponsumption of fresh fluid 
milk is also considered. The trend of evaporated milk 
sales is investigated to determine the competitive dangers 
of this product. 

826. STEWART, P. W., DEWHURST, J. F., and FIELD, 
L. Does distribution cost too much? A review of the 
costs involved in current marketing methods and a pro- 
gram for improvement. New York, Twentieth Century 
Fund, 1939. 403 p. 280.3 T91 

Milk distribution problems and costs are discussed on 
p. 34-39. 

827. STIEBELING, H. K., and PHIPARD, E. F. Diets of 
families of employed wage earners and clerical workers 
in cities. U. S. D. A. C. 507, 140 p. Jan. 1939. 

1 Ag84Ci 

Includes data on milk consumption in these families 
from December 1934-February 1937. 

"Literature cited," p. 101-104. 

828. STOLTZ, R. B., and ARMSTRONG, T. V. A com- 
parison of the imperviousness of commonly used paper 
milk containers when in contact with contained liquids. 
Milk Plant Monthly 28(12): 54-58. Dec. 1939. 44.8 C864 

Five experiments with five different makes of paper 
milk containers of one quart capacity. 

829. STOLZ, R. B., and ROBERTS, H. E. Consumer 
preference for ice cream. Ohio State U. Col. Agr. and 
Domestic Sci. Dairy Technol. Conf. Mater. Presented 
1939: 3-7. 44.9 Oh35M 

Results in respect to color, sugar, serum solids, egg 
yolk and fat content and flavoring, of tests of consumer 
preference. 

830. STRINGER, W. E. Profits from byproduct recovery 
depend upon products made. Food Indus. 11: 72-74, 262- 
263, 290. Feb., May 1939. 389.8 F737 

The first installment shows that in the recovery of milk 
solids from whey, only part of the milk sugar should be 
recovered, the remainder being utilized in poultry feed. 
The second deals with the manufacture of lactose from 
crude milk sugar. Flow sheets for the manufacture of 
these products are included. 

831. SUTERMEISTER, E., and BROWNE, F. L. Casein 
and its industrial applications. Ed. 2. New York, 
Reinhold, 1939. 433 p. Ref. 309 Su8 

Partial contents: Storage of casein, by Albin H. Warth, 
p. 169-180; Statistics, p. 398-404 (includes production, 
imports, and consumption, 1916-37; production by States, 
1920-37). 

832. TANNER, F. W. The present status of the paper 
milk container. J. Milk Technol. 2: 4-15. Ref. Jan. 
1939. 44.8 J824 

Finds that pathogenic bacteria cannot survive the various 
procedures used in the manufacture of these containers, 
especially the paraffin treatment. 

833. TAYLOR, C. C. Agricultural price-supporting 
measures in Ireland. Foreign Agr. 3: 347-370. Aug. 
1939 1.9 Ec7For 

Deals with butter, cream, cheese, condensed milk, and 
milk powder. 



51 



834. THIS milk business. Hoard's Dairyman 84: 138, 
167, 213, 251, 269. Mar. 10, Apr. 10-25, 1939. 

44.8 H65 

A series of three articles on marketing milk in Rock- 
ford, 111., a city of 95,000 population. The first article 
deals with efficiency in milk distribution. The second 
covers cooperative marketing, and the third outlines and 
shows results of a public health plan for milk that has 
been in operation since 1929. 

835. THOMSEN, L. C. New technique in butter judging. 
Amer. Prod. Rev. 87: 658, 660, 671. Apr. 12, 1939. 
286.85 N482 

Changes in scoring procedure under the revised Federal 
standards, effective April 1, 1939,' are discussed. Criti- 
cisms of the new score card are: the variation in weight 
which is given to body, color and salt defects and the dis- 
regard of package as an item in scoring. Commenting on 
the advantages of committee scoring, the author says the 
system will have a general tendency to produce a common 
level for the scores. 

836. THOMSON, G. S. Dairying; paying for fat in milk 
and cream. Sherborne, Dorset, England, Sawtells, 1939. 
52 p. 280.344 T38 

A resume of milk-buying practices in 21 countries. 
Urges payment for milk on butter-fat content. 

837. TINLEY, J. M. Reducing cost of distributing milk 
in California. J. Farm Econ. 21: 299-308. Feb. 1939. 
280.8 J822 

Reduction in cost of distributing fluid milk involves the 
problems of how to determine potential, immediate and 
long-time reductions in unit costs (or increased efficiency) 
and how to induce the milk-distribution industries in indi- 
vidual markets to adopt the necessary economies,. The 
success of an industry program depends upon the' develop- 
ment of a uniform detailed system of cost accounting and 
cost allocation, and upon the establishment of an adequate- 
ly financed research agency whose main function would be 
to conduct continuing analyses, based on cost and invest- 
ment data supplied by individual distributors, of ways and 
means of increasing efficiency and reducing unit costs 
of distribution. 

838. TOMLINSON, F. R. World production and inter- 
national trade in butter and cheese. Washington, U. S. 
Bur. Agr. Econ., 1939. 146 p. 1.9 Ec752Wp 

In a statistical presentation, long-range production of 
butter and cheese in the 21 most important countries is 
shown. Data are also given on intercontinental and world 
trade in the same products. 

839. TOTMAN, C. C, MCKAY, G. L., and LARSEN, C. 
Butter. Ed. 4. New York, Wiley, 1939. 472 p. 

44 T642 

Three phases of the butter industry are treated more 
fully than others: buying and grading of cream, churning 
(working of butter and composition control), and market- 
ing. 

840. TOVELL, G. W. Markets for creamery butter. 
Conf. Markets West. Farm Prod. Proc. 1938: 292-300. 
1939. 280.39 C768 

Includes discussion of butterfat price trends, and cost to 
Canadian Government under the Natural Products Market- 
ing Act of exporting creamery butter in 1935. 

841. TRACY, P. H., and TUCKEY, S. L. Accuracy of 
methods of sampling milk deliveries at milk plants. 111. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 459: 45-84. Nov. 1939. 100 IL6S 

Report of a study begun in the fall of 1936 at the sugges- 
tion of the Champaign County Milk Producers Association, 
using milk delivered by members of the Association to 
each of four milk plants in Champaign and Urbana. 

842. TRACY, P. H. Problems in the processing and 
marketing of homogenized milk. N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy 
and Milk Insp. Ann. Rpt. 1938(12): 69-84. 1939. 

44.9 N4833 

Quality control is more important in the marketing of 
homogenized milk than in the case of other types of dairy 
products. Discusses factors making for superior quality, 
processing techniques, and suggests a program to in- 
crease sales of this product. 



843. ULREY, O. Kalamazoo milk market. Mich. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Spec. B. 300, 44 p. Dec. 1939. 100 M58S 

Includes material on milk prices and distribution costs. 

844. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Boston drinks "surplus" milk. A new plan sponsored by 
the Department of Agriculture opens up the sluice gates to 
let more milk flow into the homes of needy families and to 
build up farmers' income from surplus milk. (J. S. Agr. 
Adjust. Admin. Consumers' Guide 6(10): 3-4. Nov. 1, 
1939. 1.94 Ad422C 

Also- in Brown, E. C. Milk Papers 6(119): 3-4. Juie- 
Dec. 1939. 281.344 B81 

Facts concerning the operation of the plan effective Aug. 
7, 1939. With the help of the Federal Surplus Commodi- 
ties Corporation, milk regularly retailing for 12 or 13 c. a 
qt. was sold for 5 c. a qt. to families receiving relief, and 
for 7 c. a qt. to families with wage earners on WPA. 
Approximately 60,000 qts. were distributed on an average 
day. 

845. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. The 
share of the domestic dairy market supplied by the Ameri- 
can producer. Washington, 1939. 3 p. 1.94 Ad45Sdd 

Dairy imports into the United States are made up pri- 
marily of special and fancy European cheeses supplying a 
luxury demand and a small amount of fresh milk and 
cream from Canada. Imports in 1938 amounted to only 
0.5 percent of domestic production. A table and chart 
showing imports as a percent of production, calendar 
years 1924-38 are included. 

846. U. S. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERV. Dis- 
position and value of milk produced on farms 1937 and 
1938. Washington? 1939. 5 p. 1.942 D22M59 

Estimates of quantity of milk utilized in 1938 for butter; 
cheese, evaporated milk and other products, and for 
butter-making on farms. 

847. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Agricultural price control in foreign countries— Germany. 
Foreign Agr. 3(2): 50-55. Feb. 1939. 1.9 Ec7For 

Includes material on prices and price spreads for milk 
for fluid consumption, and for butter and cheese. 

848. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Barriers to internal trade in farm products, by G. R. 
Taylor, E. L. Burtis, and F. V. Waugh. Washington, 1939. 
104 p. 1 Ec7Ba 

In the section on dairy products it is pointed out that 
dairy legislation of the past 10 or 15 years, while designed 
primarily to protect the health of consumers and to stabi- 
lize the dairy industry and to increase the purchasing 
power of dairy farmers, has caused serious interference 
with interstate and also intrastate commerce. 

849. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. The 
dairy outlook for 1939, by O. C. Stine. Washington, 1939. 
7 p. 1.9 Ec752Do 

Address before the Maryland- Virginia Milk Producers' 
Association, Feb. 6, 1939. 

An increase in dairy production is anticipated due partly 
to the large number of milk cows and better herd manage- 
ment, and partly to the low price of feedstuffs. One of the 
problems will be how to increase consumption correspond- 
ingly. 

850. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. 
Dairy products: the World War and the 1939 European War. 
Washington, 1939. 7 p. 1.941 H2D14 

Includes discussion of price trends of dairy products 
during World War I, and of important differences between 
1914 and 1939. 

851. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. A 
survey of quality of selected brands of butter sold in one 
pound cartons at retail in New York and Chicago, by G. W. 
Sprague, G. G. Foelsch, and E. Small. Washington, 1939. 
20 p. 1.9 Ec724Sq 

Actual grades as determined by Government graders of 
butter purchased in retail stores were compared with the 
grade stated on the certificate of quality, if any, or with 
claims made on the carton. Brands carrying certificates 
of quality were found to be of higher average quality and 
more uniformly standardized than butter sold without 
these certificates. 



F>2 



852. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY and U. S. BUR. OF 
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. Preliminary summary 
and analysis of records of 16 dairy farms in Louisiana. 
Washington, 1939. 21 p. (BDIM-864) 1.9 D14Bd 

In cooperation with the Louisiana State University and 
Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
Includes material on cost of production. 

853. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. Publications 
relating to the dairy industry. Washington, 1939. 10 p. 
1.9 Am55Pu 

Contains references on herd management, milk and 
cream, butter, cheese, ice cream, and on dairying in 
general. 

854. U. S. CONGRESS. HOUSE. COMMITTEE ON THE 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Investigation of the milk and 
cream supply of the District of Columbia... Report pur- 
suant to H. Res. 113. 76th Cong., 1st sess., H. Rpt. 1095, 
8 p. 1939. 148 10300 

Points out that in the main, the supply of milk of the 
District of Columbia comes from sources licensed by the 
Health Department, but that some imported and unlicensed 
cream finds its way into fluid consumption; also that the 
spread between what the producer receives and wnat the 
consumer pays is far too great. Remedial legislation to 
correct present unsatisfactory conditions is recommended 

855. U. S. CONGRESS. HOUSE. COMMITTEE ON THE 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Regulations governing the 
sale of milk and cream and ice cream in the District of 
Columbia. Hearing's before the Subcommittee on Public 
Health. Hospitals, and Charities, 76th Cong., 1st sess. on 
H. R. 6316, May 23, 24, and 26, 1939. Washington, 1939. 
150 p. 280.344 Un322 

856. U. S. DELEGATION TO THE INTERNATIONAL 
DAIRY CONGRESS, 11, BERLIN, 1937. Report.. .of dele- 
gation of the United States to the Secretary of State. U. S. 
Dept. of State. P. 1277 (Conference ser. 38), 119 p. 1939. 
44.9 In82HR 

Summarizes the work of the Congress, gives a brief 
account of the participation by delegates from the United 
States, and includes reviews and abstracts of scientific 
papers presented by representatives of governments of 
various countries. 

Sect. 3 covers legislation, sale of milk and milk prod- 
ucts, and marketing. 

857. U. S. EXTENSION SERVICE. The recently nego- 
tiated trade agreements with Canada and the United King- 
dom, with particular reference to dairy and poultry and 
other agricultural products, by W. B. Silcox. Washington, 
1939. 8 p. 1.913 E2R24 

Status of Cheddar cheese, cream, whole milk, skimmed 
milk, and dried buttermilk under the agreement with 
Canada, p. 2. 

858. U. S. MARKETING LAWS SURVEY. Comparative 
charts of State statutes illustrating barriers to trade be- 
tween States. Washington, 1939. 88 p. 173.? W89Com 

Selected Dairy Laws, p. 21-29, analyze legislation 
relating to licensing, inspection, price-fixing, ana other 
restrictive features affecting the interstate market in 
dairy products. 

859. U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Frozen desserts 
ordinance. Washington, 1939. 18 p. 151.66 F93 

Standards for the sanitary control of frozen desserts. 

860. WASHBURN, R. M. Some points to consider in 
making consumer preference tests of ice cream flavor. 
Ice Cream Rev. 22(8): 40, 70. Mar. 1939. 389.8 Ic22 

Factors considered include type of consumer, tempera- 
ture of ice cream, and effect of food and drink previously 
consumed and of odors breathed. 

861. WATSON, J. S. The status of milk marketing and 
stabilization in California. Calif. Dept. Agr. B. 28: 47-51. 
Jan. 1939. 2 C12M 

The benefits derived from the enactment and operation of 
the California Milk Stabilization and Marketing Act are 
appraised. The background for the legislation and some 
of its important features are discussed. 



862. WEAVER, E. Physiological factors affecting milk 
flavor, with a consideration of the validity of flavor 
scores. Okla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. B. 6, 56 p. Julv 
1939. 100 Ok4T 

"From a thesis submitted by the author in partial ful- 
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy at the University of Minnesota, March, 1938." 
A total of 1,641 milk samples for flavor scoring was col- 
lected over a period of 140 weeks from 32 Jersey cows in 
the station herd. Flavor scoring was done by a panel of 
seven staff members. 

863. WELLINGHOFF, E. F.- Much of industry success 
depends upon co-operation of processors, distributors and 
machinery and supply houses. Milk Plant Monthly 23(3): 
34, 36, 38. Mar. 1939. 44.8 C864 

The author develops the thesis that just as changes have 
taken place in the dairy industry, in point of production, 
processing and distribution, as well as in the equipment 
required to handle dairy products, so must the industry 
and the dairy equipment houses cooperate and the activi- 
ties of both be interrelated for mutual benefit. 

864. WHEN you cut price how much more ice cream 
must you sell to justify your action? Ice Cream Rev. 
22(S): 40. Apr. 1939. 3~8.8 Ic22 

A table, prepared by the Eddy -Rucker -Nickels Co., 
merchandising analysts, of Cambridge, Mass., shows how 
much more dollar volume is necessary to justify price 
cuts of from 5 to 33 1/3 percent on regular profits on 
selling prices ranging from 15 to 50 percent. 

865. WHITE, F. C. The marketing of dairy produce in 
England and Wales. Agr. Progress 16: 173-180. 1S39. 
10 Ag86 

It was not until 1933 that dairy produce was brought 
within the scope of the National Mark Schemes, when a 
scheme was introduced for Cheshire cheese; since then, 
schemes have been introduced for nine other varieties of 
cheese, comprising all those of commercial significance, 
in addition to one for creamery butter. They provide for 
the use of a statutory grade designation, guaranteeing the 
quality and origin of the produce, and thus foster in- 
creased domestic demand. Explains how these schemes 
operate. 

866. WHITE, R. G. Systems of dairy farming. Gt. 
Brit. Min. Agr. and Fisheries J. 46: 372-378. July, 193S. 
10 G79J 

The distribution of dairy farming in England and Wales 
in relation to milk markets or consuming centers, and 
also in relation to the suitability of soil, climate and 
other conditions for the economical production of milk; 
labor problems and the question of herd replacements 
as influencing the system of dairy farm management. 

867. WHITNEY, C. 'What price milk? New York, 
Caroline Whitney Memo. Fimd, 1939. 79 p., illus. 
281.344 W61 

Manuscripts left by the organizer and chairman of the 
Milk Consumers Protective Committee of New York City, 
edited and brought up to date by G. Barsky, P. B. Nort - 
man, and G. Holland. Includes chapters on the farmer and 
his problems, farm organizations, distributors, milk con- 
trol laws, and the Committee. 

868. WHITTIER, E. O. Greater uses for dairy by- 
products. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Agr. Situation 23(7): 
14-16. July, 1939. 1 Ec7Ag 

Also in Hoard's Dairyman 84: 499. Sept. 25, 1939. 
44.8 H65 

Gives amount of milk used in 1937 for manufacture of 
casein, condensed skim milk, skim milk powder, cul- 
tured milk, chocolate milk and skim milk cheese, and 
amount of whey converted to different products. Dis- 
cusses uses for skim milk, milk powder, casein, milk 
sugar, whey, and lactoflavin. 



53 



869. WILLIAMS, H. T. High and low costs in milk pro- 
duction. Farm Econ. 3: 63-67. Oct. 1939. 281.8 F223 

An analysis of costs of two groups of farms producing 
milk for the wholesale market, one at a low cost and the 
other at a high cost, selected from those farms which 
have taken part in the Milk Costs Investigation Scheme 
for England and Wales for tlie 3 years 1935/36-1937/38. 
The most striking difference between the two groups is 
in the price of cattle sold or transferred out, far higher 
in the low cost group. It is noteworthy, too, that family 
labor forms a higher proportion of the total labor in the 
low cost group (23 percent) than it does in the high cost 
group (14 percent). 

870. WILLIAMS, W. E. Milk marketing scheme of the 
lower mainland of British Columbia. Sci. Agr. 20: 39- 
42. Sept. 1939. 7 Sci2 

The scheme provides for the establishment of a mar- 
keting board. Milk is to be marketed by producers 
through an agency designated by the board. The agency 
in turn is to sell the milk to distributors and manu- 
facturers at prices to be fixed by the board. 

871. WILLIAMSON, P. Costs and returns from dairy 
cows on selected New York State farms. Based on cost- 
account records for the years, 1935, 1936 and 1937. 

N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 248, 8 p. Jan. 1939. 281.9 C81 

A study based on records for 60 farms with 1,248 cows, 
1935; 52 farms with 1,110 cows, 1936; and 53 farms with 
1,153, 1937. 



872. WINTER ice cream increased sales for Shaw of 
Danville, 111. 59 to 83 percent during season ending March 
31. Ice Cream Rev. 22(10): 34-35. May, 1939. 
389.8 Ic22 

Changing its formula to include an increased butterfat, 
sugar and total solids content made the ice cream taste 
warmer and resulted in increased sales. 

373. WRIGHT, K. T., and BALTZER, A. C. Profitable 
dairy management. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Spec. B. 297, 
57 p. Apr. 1939. 100 M58S 

A total of 499 records of dairy farms in Michigan was 
studied for the years 1932-36. The main points analyzed 
in this report are dairy costs and returns and factors 
affecting them. 

874. WYLIE, C. E. Dairy industry development in 
Tennessee. Natl. Butter & Cheese J. 30: 16-18. Mar. 
1939. 286.85 B98Bu 

Production, quality and marketing of milk in Tennessee. 
Production statistics are included for various dairy 
products for the period 1925-37, with relation to the num- 
ber of milk cows for the most part. 

875. YALE, M. W. Believes New York State cheese 
industry has promising future. Farm Res. [N. Y. State 
Sta.] 5(2): 10, 11. Apr. 1, 1939. 100 N48A 

Trends toward the production of new varieties of cheese 
in the State, and the need of new merchandising methods. 



1940 



876. ABBOTT, J. S. The food value and economics of 
skim milk. Amer. J. Pub. Health 30: 237-239. Mar. 
1940. 449.9 Am3J 

Deprecates the waste of skim milk, in view of its 
nutritive value, and restrictions against its sale or use. 

877. ABELE, C. A. Frozen desserts ordinance rec- 
ommended by the United States Public Health Service. 
Ice Cream Rev. 23(8): 31-32, 89-90, 92. Mar. 1940. 
389.8 Ic22 

Paper presented at the Silver Anniversary Convention 
of the Southern Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers 
in Memphis, Tenn. 

Includes grading the plant, specifications for grade A 
plant, and bacteria count requirements for milk and milk 
products used as ingredients of the mix and for the 
finished frozen dessert. 

878. AGENJO CECILIA, C. Le contr&le hygienique du 
"lait concentre Sucre." Lait 20: 271-279. May 1940. 
Ref. 44.8 L143 

Examines the causes of contaminated condensed milk 
in Spain and calls for stricter sanitary control. 

879. ALLEN, R. H., HOLE, E., and MIGHELL, R. L. 
Supply responses in milk production in the Cabot -Marsh- 
field area, Vermont. U. S. D. A. Tech. B. 709, 60 p. 
Ref. Apr. 1940. 1 Ag84Te 

This study is based primarily upon farm -management 
data for the adjacent towns of Cabot and Marshfield in 
northrcentral Vermont. The data cover 1926 and 1936. 
Changes during the intervening period are described and 
future trends in production are estimated for three al- 
ternative price levels; 

880. ALLRED, C. E., LUEBKE, B. H., and CRAWFORD, 
W. S. Shipments of dairy products into Knoxville, Tenn. 
Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rur. Res. Ser. Monog. 103, 20 p. 
Feb. 25, 1940. 173.2 W89Co 

Of total purchases of dairy products by Knoxville whole- 
salers 57.5 percent are shipped in from other States. 
Wisconsin is the chief out-of-state source of dairy pro- 
ducts. One of the principal reasons for buying elsewhere 
is underproduction in the area at certain seasons of the 
year. Quality and consumer demand are especially im- 
portant in the case of cheese importations. 



881. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL MILK 
COMMISSIONS, INC. Methods and standards for the pro- 
duction of certified milk adopted... June 10, 1940. New 
York, 1940. 24 p. 44 Am38 

Includes laboratory standards, buildings and equipment, 
care and handling of animals, milking, milk handling, 
transportation, and distribution. 

882. ANDERSON, L. C. The Elwell plan. In Brown, 
E. F. Milk Papers 7(190): 1-4. Jan. -Feb. 1940. 
281.344 B81 

Address, annual meeting of the New England Milk 
Dealers' Association, Inc., Boston, Mass., Feb. 15, 1940. 

Cites objections to the plan under which milk is sold to 
consumers at one price for the first unit, additional units 
being supplied at a lower price. 

883. ANTIOXIDANT gains favor ; pure oat flour concen- 
trate added to cream or for parchment treatment aids in 
overcoming butter quality deterioration. Amer. Butter 
Rev. 2: 266-267. Aug. 1940. 44.8 Am37 

Results of studies on "Avenex" at Pennsylvania State 
College and the University of Illinois. 

884. +BACKMAN, J. Flexibility of cheese prices. 
J. Polit. Econ. 48: 579-582. Aug. 1940. 280.8J82 

885. BARR, W. L. A preliminary report of the cost of 
milk production on 53 dairy farms in four areas of Penn- 
sylvania, 1939. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. J. Ser. Papers 987, 
7p. Aug. 1940. 100 P381J 

Report based on detailed records kept by 53 dairy 
farmers in northeast, southeast, central and-western 
Pennsylvania in 1939. 

886. BARTLETT, R. W. Increasing milk consumption 
by lowering distribution costs. 111. Farm Econ. 68: 
421-428. Nov. 1940. 275.28 IL5 

Finds store distribution more economical than wagon 
distribution. Shows variations in distribution costs, and 
savings made possible by the use of paper containers. 

887. BARTLETT, R. W. Increasing milk consumption 
by quantity discounts. Milk Plant Monthly 29(4): 40-41. 
Apr. 1940. 44.8 C864 

Increases in store sales and in the sale of milk in 
gallon and half -gallon lots through stores and by wagon 
are discussed. The relation between quantity discounts 
and total milk sales is traced. 

♦Not examined 



54 



888. BARTLETT, R. W. Maintaining stability in the 
market-milk industry through the use of flexible prices. 
111. Farm Econ. 62: 369-376. July 1940. 275.28 IL5 

Deals with the importance of butter prices in arriving 
at market-milk prices; price flexibility versus rigidity 
in the Chicago and St. Louis milk areas; actual and code 
prices for condensery milk; determination of Chicago 
milk prices under a flexible price plan; and effects of the 
Federal order upon consumer prices and milk consump- 
tion. Emphasis is placed upon butter prices in arriving 
at the price of market milk because butter prices con- 
stitute the best index available for measuring changes in 
supply and demand conditions in the dairy industry. 
About three -fourths of all the milk manufactured is used 
for butter. 

889. BARTLETT, R. W. Prospects for exports of dairy 
products. 111. Farm Econ. 56: 301-303. Urbana, Jan. 
1940. 275.28 IL5 

Shows United States exports for these products for 
1914-19 and 1937-38 and finds that with our present pro- 
duction capacity a small volume of concentrated milk and 
dairy products could be exported without materially affect- 
ing prices. 

890. BELL, E. W. Adapting pooling plans to milk 
markets. A comparison of dealer pool and market -wide 
pool operations. Mass. U. Agr. Ext. Farm Econ. Facts, 
13(1): 2-3. Jan. 1940. 275.29 M381Fa 

Milk markets in Massachusetts under public control 
have had experience with both types of pool. Although it 
may be too soon to draw conclusions from this experience, 
the greater possibility of obtaining permanent market sta- 
bility with the market -wide pool is apparent. 

891. BERCAW, L. O. The dairy industry in the United 
States; selected references on the economic aspects of 
the industry. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Libr. List 11, 59 p. 
Washington, 1940. 1.9 Ec73E 

A classified list of 323 references to publications issued 
during the period January 1939 through June 1940. 

892. BERCAW, L. O. State trade barriers; selected ref- 
erences. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Econ. Libr. List 1, rev., 
59 p. 1940. 1.9 Ec73E 

i References to dairy products, including milk, are listed 
in the index to f his bibliography. 

893. BERGFELD, A. J. Changing methods of distribu- 
tion: New Haven, Connecticut, study. In Northeastern 
Dair^ Conference, Providence, Rhode Island, March 7-8, 
1940. Stenoeraohic proceedings, d. 87-91. New York, 
Consolidated Rptg. Co., 1940. 44.9 N818 

A study made in 1939 whose purpose was to determine 
the cost of milk distribution, and to investigate every 
possible method for reducing costs. 

894. BISHOP, G. R. An analysis of dealers' sales of 
milk and cream in the Buffalo market on December 9, 1937 
In Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 7(173): 1-18. Jan. -Feb. 
T940. 281.344 B81 

Issued as N. Y. Agr. Col. Dept. Econ. and Farm Mangt. 
A. E. 253, 18 p. Feb. 1939. 281.9 C81 

Material based on reports obtained from all dealers 
licensed to sell milk in the Buffalo area. Includes data on 
sales of milk, cream, and other products, types and size 
of containers, number of customers and routes, and per 
capita consumption. 

895. BLACK, J. D., and others. Is production control 
of milk desirable? If so, how can it be accomplished? 
In Northeastern Dairy Conference. Stenographic Proc 
Providence, R. I., Mar. 7-8, 1940, p. 42-67. New York 
Consolidated Rptg. Co., 1940? 44.9 N818 

K. Geyer, R. J. Cooper, and W. H. Bronson, joint authors. 
Discusses the subject mainly in relation to a program in- 
volving also such considerations as consumption adjust- 
ment, production and distribution costs, and market reg- 
ulation. b 

896. BLANCH, G. T., and BROADBENT, D. A Pre- 
liminary report of study of dairy farms which marketed 
dairy products in Ogden, Utah -193 9. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta 
Mimeograph Sheet 240, 20 p. Oct. 1940. 100 UtlMi 

Includes material on average itemized expenses for 
milking herds in different areas near Ogden in 1939 and 
average total expenses for 1937-1939, inclusive 



897. BLANFORD, C. J. An analysis of dealers' sales 
of milk and cream in the New York market, 1933-1938. 
N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 735, 24 p. June 1940. 
100 N48C 

Gives information on grades of milk and types of pack- 
ages, milk and cream receipts, trends in sales of grades 
A and B milk and heavy cream, and variations in sales. 

898. BOTTLENECK busters. U. S. Agr. Adjustment 
Admin. Consumers' Guide 7: 14-15. Dec. 2, 1940. 
1.94 Ad422C 

Results of a questionnaire survey covering more than 
250 American cities. Deals in part with milk distribution 
from point of view of quantity discounts. 

899. BRESSLER, R. G., Jr. Transportation and country 
assembly of milk. J. Farm Econ. 22: 220-224. Feb. 
1940. 280.8 J822 

Three phases of country assembly of milk are consider- 
ed: farm collection and transportation to country plants, 
country plant operation, and plant to market transporta- 
tion. The object of the analysis is to determine the most 
economical combination of these three elements, or to dis- 
cover the optimum size of plant, of plant production area, 
and of transportation. 

900. BROCK, F. D. Necessity for and some difficulties 
of public health milk control. J. Milk Technol. 3: 36-40. 
Jan./Feb. 1940. 44.8 J824 

Problems affecting milk quality and milk sanitation con- 
trol are discussed. The program elaborated in Texas, 
which incorporates the U. S. Public Health Service Milk 
Ordinance and Code in its state law, is described as an 
example of what is being done in this field. 

901. BROWN, E. F. Let 'em eat Fortune. Easier to 
swallow than "facts" offered in Fortune article. "Let 
'em drink Grade A." In his Milk Papers 7(186): 1-11. 
Jan.-Feb.l940 ;< 281.344 B81 

Reply to the "misconceptions and erroneous conclusions 
reached by Fortune" in an article which appeared in the 
November 1939 issue. 

Explains that the high cost of milk is not due to profit- 
eering on the part of milk companies, but to labor costs, 
low consumption and the cost of the milk itself. 

902. BROWN, E. F. Milk papers, v. 2-8, 1936-1940. 
7 v. New York, Milk research council, inc., 1939-40. 
281.344 B81 

Consists of various documents and reports, bound to- 
gether, and intended to present all significant material on 
milk. The material is arranged by subject, including in- 
vestigations, consumer relations, labor relations, and 
milk control. 

Certain publications from this compilation are listed 
separately in this bibliography under author or issuing 
agency. 

903. BROWN, E. F. Psychological studies of consumers 
of dairy products. ..what the consumer believes. In Wis. 
Univ. Dept. of Dairy Indus. Papers presented at Dairy 
Mfrs. Conf. Mar. 12-14, 1940, p. 80-85. 44.9 W757 

Deals with milk buying habits of New York consumers, 
their reasons for particular brand selection, reactions to 
suggested innovations, and familiarity with practices in 
the milk industry. 

904. BROWN, E. F. Some "grade A" milk facts. 
New York, Milk Res. Council, 1940. 15 p. 280.344 B81 

Refutes the advisability of a proposed single-grade 
system in New York in view of expected cost, price, and 
quality changes. 

905 BROWN, E. F. Toward stabilizing the milk indus- 
try. Chamber Com. State N. Y. Mo. Bui. 31: 403-411. 
Mar. 1940. Libr. Cong. 

Fair milk prices and profits are the keynote of the 
author's thesis. He shows that there are many factors at 
play in this connection, which are not generally recog- 
nized. He lays down several principles which should mo- 
tivate intelligent effort to improve the situation. 



55 



906. BROWN, E. F. What do we know about consump- 
tion of milk by consumers. In Wis. U. Dept. of Dairy 
Indus. Papers presented at Dairy Mfrs. Conf. Mar. 12- 
14, 1940, p. 74-79. 44.9 W757 

Considers consumer "likes and dislikes" in regard to 
milk and suggests a public relations policy to increase 
consumption. 

907. BUCK, R. K., HOPKINS, J. A., and MALONE, C. C. 
An economic study of the dairy enterprise in northeastern 
Iowa. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. B. 278: 853-875. 

Sept. 1940. 100 Io9 

Considers the principal influences affecting the profit 
from dairying in northeastern Iowa, the amount of dairy 
income per cow which may be expected, and the capital 
investments, cash expenditures, feed and other costs that 
are involved in securing this income. 

908. BURTIS, E. L. Barriers and the milk industry. 
In Brown, E. F., comp. Milk Papers 9(279), 13 p. 
Oct. 1940-Sept. 1941. 281.344 B81 

Reprint from Ind. Law J. 16: 191-203. Dec. 1940. 

Discusses public health measures and economic stabi- 
lization measures as trade barriers. Suggests that ameli- 
oration would result if sanitarV requirements were made 
reasonably uniform from State to State and if all grounds 
for suspicion of the reliability of inspections could be 
removed. 

909. BURTIS, E. L., and WAUGH, F. V. Barriers to 
internal trade in farm products. U. S. D. A. Ybk. 1940: 
656-666. 1 Ag84Y 

Deals in part with milk. 

910. CAMENGA, C. C. The production of quality milk 
in the New York milk shed as affected by state and feder- 
al marketing control. N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy and Milk 
Insp. Ann. Rpt. (1939) 13: 167-172. 1940. 44.9 N4833 

Discusses marketing control of milk through legislative 
action, with reference to the situation in New York. The 
price stabilization and favorable returns to the producer 
made possible by this regulation are cited as proof of its 
usefulness. 

911. CANADA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. DAIRY PRO- 
DUCTS DIVISION. The correct branding for cheese and 
for cheese boxes. Canada Dept. Agr. C. 170, 3 p. 1940. 
7 C16C 

Designs and methods of marking cheese and cheese 
boxes, as provided by regulations under the Dairy Indus- 
try Act, are explained and illustrated. 

a 12. CASALINI, M. L'agricoltura e le industrie legate 
all agricoltura. Rome, Edizioni Sormani, 1940. 416 d. 
281.176 C26 V 

Contains section, "L'industria casearia," p. 295-302, 
which discusses the development of the industry in Italy, 
and the extent of production and trade in butter, cheese,' 
casein, condensed milk, and milk powder. 

913. COWAN, H. B. A municipally owned and operated 
milk plant. Wellington, New Zealand, has demonstrated 
the possibilities of such a system - which has paid for it- 
self. In Brown. E. F. Milk Papers 7(199): 47-48. 

Jan. -Feb. 1940. 281.344 B81 

Reprinted from Amer. City, 55(1): 47-48. Jan. 1940. 
98.58 Am31 

The system has been a success financially and has effec- 
ted a vast improvement in the quality of the city's milk 
supply. Under the system, milk with a butterfat content of 
almost 4.5 percent, is delivered to consumers at a price 
of about 8 c. a qt. 

914. CROWE, L. K., and DOWNS, P. A. A comparative 
evaluation of an ice cream supply as it reaches the con- 
sumer. J. Dairy Sci. 23: 615-620. July 1940. 44.8 J822 

No reason was found for differences in price of a number 
of pint samples of vanilla ice cream when compared on Che 
basis of the following: net weight of ice cream obtained; 
calculated overrun in percent; composition including 
butterfat, total solids, protein and calculated carbohy- 
drate; bacteria count of either total or colon type organ- 
isms; calorific value, or quality as determined by organ- 
oleptic examination. 



915. CUNNINGHAM, L. C. Dairy-farm management. 
N. Y. Agr. Col. Ext. B. 450, 36 p. Dec. 1940. 

275.29 N48E 

Based on 3700 survey records of New York farms pro- 
ducing grade B milk, obtained during 1926-38. Shows 
labor income, size of business, labor efficiency, capital 
efficiency, rate of milk production, crop yields, combina- 
tion of enterprises, and the effects of these factors in 
different combinations. 

916. DARLINGTON, J. B. A cost of production plan. 
Rural New Yorker 99: 278, 281. Apr. 20, 1940. 6 R88 

Advocates revision of the Pennsylvania Milk Control 
Board's price orders to cover adequately the cost of milk 
production, regardless of the use to which it is put. 

917. DAVIS, W. P. Financing the surplus removal of 
dairy products. In Northeastern Dairy Conference. 
Stenographic Proceedings. ..Providence, R. I., Mar. 7-8, 
1940, p. 74-76. N. Y., Consolidated Rptg. Co. 1940? 
44.9 N818 

Directs attention to a Treasury appropriation for this 
purpose. 

918. DELOACH, D. B., and WEST, W. A. Some econom- 
ic implications of milk control in Oregon. Oreg. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. B. 375, 16 p. Aug. 1940. 100 Or3 

County surveys of the administration of the Oregon Milk 
Control Act, effective Jan. i934, showed weaknesses to be 
the attempted maintenance of a uniform price under con- 
ditions of widely varying quality standards and widely 
varying costs with respect to the State as a whole. 

919. DOW, G. F. Receipts, utilization, and prices of 
milk and cream in Maine milk control areas. Maine. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 399: 71-183. Ref. 1940. 100 M28S 

Shows developments in milk price regulation and ana- 
lyzes milk distributors' records from May 1935 to Dec- 
ember 1937. Describes the Maine milk market control 
areas, indicates trends in utilization and seasonal varia- 
tion in receipts and utilization. Discusses prices paid 
producers, distributor's spread, and effect of price 
changes on consumption. 

920. DOWN go delivery costs. Milk Dealer 30(3): 41. 
Dec. 1940. 44.8 M595 

Users of a coordinated rail-highway milk transportation 
system report appreciable savings and improved sanitary 
conditions through the elimination of the pumping opera- 
tion at railheads. Increased volume per man is moved in 
less time. 

921. DOWNS, F. H., Jr. The voluntary grading of milk 
supplies in Alabama. Jour. Milk Tech. 3: 97-100. 
Mar. -Apr. 1940. 44.8 J824 

Finds that the level of safety in the milk supply achieved 
under this program has been higher than was the case with 
a mandatory grading policy, inadequately enforced. 

922. DURAND, L., Jr. Dairy region of southeastern 
Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. Econ. Geog. 16: 
416-428. Oct. 1940. 278.8 Ec7 

Tells of the settlement and development of the region, 
describes the various city markets and milksheds, shows 
the location of condenseries, and discusses prices and the 
surplus problem. 

923. EDEL, H. Cutting production costs through planned 
work schedules. Milk Dealer 29(9): 32-33, 59. 

June 1940. 44.8 M595 

Personnel management at Gehl's Guernsey Farms, 
Milwaukee, Wis., involving use of a "working and relief 
schedule" on which every employee's starting and finish- 
ing time each day is recorded, together with his various 
duties and his day off. 

924. EFFERSON, J. N., and MERRICK, F. An economic 
study of dairy farms in the Kentwood area of southeastern 
Louisiana, 1937-1938. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 325, 28 p. 
June 1940. 100 L93 

Discusses farm organization, costs and returns of milk 
production and factors affecting them, including number 
of cows per farm, production per cow, milk prices, and 
proportion of receipts from dairying. 



56 



925. EFFERSON, J. N., and MERRICK, F. Factors 
affecting costs of milk production in southeastern Louisi- 
ana. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 321, 8 p. j une 1940. 

100 L93 

Factors associated with low costs and high returns 
among 68 farms for the crop year 1937-38 were: (1) con- 
siderable home-produced feed and roughage and home- 
mixing of purchased feeds, (2) relatively large number of 
dairy cows (more than 20 cows), (3) relatively high pro- 
duction per cow (more than 4,000 pounds), (4) relatively 
high butterfat test (more than 4 percent), and (5) most of 
cows freshening in the fall. 

926. EVANS, R. M. The AAA farm program and the 
northeast dairyman. Washington, U. S. Agr. Adjust. 
Admin. 1940. 8 p. 1.42 Ad4Ev 

Shows that the Vermont dairyman has been benefited by 
its operation, and that his welfare is dependent on farm- 
ing conditions in other parts of the country. 

927. FARON, S. Use and future of two-quart and gallon 
milk bottles. Milk Dealer 29(7): 96, 98, 100, 102-104. 
Apr. 1940. 44.8 M595 

Multiple quart bottles increase sales and consumption 
by the offer of a price inducement justified by reductions 
in plant and distribution costs. This method of distribu- 
tion is found feasible for small as well as large dairies. 

928. FOREST, H. L. Increasing the consumption of 
dairy products by low -income distribution. Washington, 
U. S. Surplus Mktg. Admin., Dec. 1940. 10 p. 

1.944 D2F761 

Presented to the American Farm Bureau Federation, 
Baltimore, Md., Dec. 9, 1940. 

Describes the efforts made to expand the outlets and to 
increase the consumption of dairy products among needy 
families in Boston, Chicago, New Orleans, and Washing- 
ton, D. C, and to improve the marketing conditions for 
such products as a means of improving returns to dairy 

farmers. Activities of the Surplus Marketing Administra- 
tion, the Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation, and 
Dairy Products Marketing Association are discussed. 

929. GAUMNITZ, E. W. New trends in milk distribu- 
tion. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Agr. Situation 24(11): 18-21. 
Nov. 1940. 1 Ec7Ag 

Reports a definite tendency for milk dealers to experi- 
ment with new delivery methods, new types of containers, 
and new pricing plan6, pointing toward reduction in con- 
sumer prices. 

930. GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF FOOD. Report of the 
committee appointed ...to examine the cost of milk dis- 
tribution, 1940. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1940. 
38 p. 280.344 G7982 

Suggestions for reducing costs of distribution include 
abolition of the half-pint bottle, deposits on bottles, ex- 
clusion from the milk round of the sale of other goods, 
and restriction of milk deliveries in any one district to 
two organizations. 

931. GRIGSBY, R. M. Federal regulation in the New 
Orleans milk market. La. Agr. Col. Ext. La. Rural Econ, 
2(2): 8-10. Apr. 1940. 281.8 L93 

Considers the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 
1937, marketing problems in the New Orleans milkshed, 
and the application of Federal and State marketing orders. 

932. HADARY, G. The use of flavored milk drinks in 
the dairy industry. In 111. U. Dept. of Dairy Husb. 
Mater, presented at the Dairy Mfgr. Shortcourse. 1940: 
133-138. Ref. 44.9 IL63M 

Reviews literature on fruit-flavored milk drinks and 
states that today, chocolate -flavored milk is regarded as 
a standard dairy product. State standards for chocolate - 
flavored milk drinks are discussed and compared. Pro- 
motion by the industry of flavoredl milk as a means of in- 
creasing consumption is suggested. 



933. HAMMERBERG, D. O. Allocation of milk sup- 
plies among contiguous markets. J. Farm Econ. 22: 
215-219. Feb. 1940. 280.8 J822 

A study of the supply problems of 14 markets in Connect- 
icut, whose supply areas overlap to a considerable ex- 
tent, shows that significant economies can be effected 
through re-allocation of supplies among adjacent markets. 
Consolidation of supply areas through re-allocation would 
facilitate re-organization of transportation routes through 
which appreciable reductions in transportation costs 
might be possible. Suggests that a study of these inter - 
market relationships would furnish criteria of inestimable 
value in connection with the problem of formulating fluid 
milk price policies. 

934. HANNAY, A. M., comp. Price fixing by govern- 
ment in foreign countries, 1926-1939; a selected list of 
references on direct price fixing of agricultural products 
by foreign governments. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Bibliog. 
86, 631 p. 1940. 1.9 Ec73A 

Includes references to butter, casein, cheese, cream, 
milk, and dairy products. 

935. HARE, H. R. Dairy farm business in Ontario. 
Economic survey of farms producing milk for fluid con- 
sumption. Ottawa, Canad. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Serv. Econ. 
Div., 1940. 65 p. 281.344 C1632 

A preliminary report based on the books of 490 farmers 
in eight market zones in Ontario. Includes information on 
costs of production and price received per hundredweight 
in the various zones. Conclusions are drawn on factors 
affecting profitable operation. 

936. HOFFMAN, A. C. Large-scale organization in the 
food industries. U. S. Temporary Natl. Econ. Com. 
Monog. 35, 174 p. Ref. 1940. 280.12 Un3986M 

In Ch. 4, Large-scale Organization in the Dairy Indus- 
try, information is given on sales, proportion of products 
handled, extent of activities of leading dairy companies 
and producer cooperatives. The economic significance of 
the growth of large-scale food corporations, is evaluated. 

937. HOLFORD, F. D. The importance of milk trucking 
in maintaining sanitary quality. N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy 
and Milk Insp. Ann. Rpt. (1939) 13: 105-112. 1940. 

44.9 N4833 

Discusses use of hired trucks for transporting milk from 
the farms to the receiving plant and returning the clean 
empty cans to the farmers. Suggestions are made for 
maintaining sanitary conditions while the milk is in trans- 
it. The covered insulated truck is considered the ideal 
vehicle for hauling milk. 

Discussion, p. 112-118. 

938. HOLMAN, C. W. Proposed Federal legislation 
affecting dairymen. In Northeastern Dairy Conference. 
Stenographic Proceedings. ..Providence, R. I., Mar. 7-8, 
1940. p. 68-74. N. Y., The Consolidated Rptg. Co. 
1940? 44.9 N818 

Contains information on the status of the Marketing 
Agreement Amendment Act and conditions under the 
Trade Agreement Act of 1934. 

939. HOLMAN, H. P., and others. Farm products and 
by products for industrial use. U. S. Bur. Agr. Chem & 
Engin. ACE-55, 69 p. May 1940. 1.932 A2Ag8 

V. A. Pease, T. D. Jarrell, C. E. Senseman, Md A. B. 
Genung, joint authors. 

Contains section on dairy products (p. 60-62) showing 
the various purposes for which milk is utilized, together 
with amounts of the various products manufactured. 

940. HOPPER, W. C, and CASSELMAN, P. H. Con- 
sumption of dairy products in rural Canadian homes. 
Ottawa, Mktg. Serv., Econ. Div. Dominion Dept. of Agr., 
Sept. 1940. 45 p. 281.344 H77 

Based on a questionnaire distributed to women of farm 
and other rural households in 1937. Includes information 
on per capita consumption of whole and skim milk, butter- 
milk, cream, cheese, and butter, and prices paid for those 
products. All Provinces were covered by the survey, but 
inadequate data were received from Alberta and British 
Columbia. 



57 



941. HOTON, L. La reglementation du lait malpropre. 
Lait 20: 287-291. May 1940. 44.8 L143 

Reviews milk sanitary regulations in effect in Europe 
and holds that a strict legal definition of what is clean 
milk should be avoided, since the possibility of contami- 
nated milk is not necessarily excluded by the usual norms, 

942. HOWE, F. C. Final report on the milk and dairy 
industry directed to the Temporary National Economic 
Committee. Washington, U. S. D. A.. 1940. 47 d 
1.90A1F49 "" 

Testimony on the milk industry before the Committee 
brought to light various abuses. These are discussed and 
remedial suggestions, in addition to anti-trust proceed- 
ings, are offered. Suggestions include establishing a Fed- 
eral milk authority having large administrative power 
over the entire industry, with authority to fix prices to 
producers; adopting a milk control code by the District of 
Columbia which would serve as a model; and drafting a 
milk code by the U. S. Public Health Service in Coopera- 
tion with the U. S. Department of Agriculture to correct 
many abuses which have been written into the codes of 
many towns and cities. These abuses are responsbile for 
the birth of the milk monoply, as the necessity for the 
purification of fluid milk has divested the farmer of an 
open market for his product which must now be sold to 
two major and four minor processing corporations. 

943. HUEBNER, E. A review of the State's dairy laws 
and regulations. Wis. U. Dept. Dairy Indus. Dairy 
Manfrs. Conf. Papers 1940: 59-68. 44.9 W757 

Relates to the sanitary control of milk and cream, 
cheese, butter, condensery products, and ice cream in 
Wisconsin. 

944. HUFFMAN, G. L. Paper bottles: economics.of 
their use and consumer reaction. Wis. U. Dept. Dairy 
Indus. Dairy Manfrs. Conf. Papers 1940: 122-126. 
44.9 W757 

Cites advantages of the paper container for the distrib- 
utor and consumer. 

945. HUGHES, E. M. The business of milk retailing by 
producer -distributors in New York State. N. Y. (Cornell) 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 741, 85 p. Nov. 1940. 100 N48C 

Abridged report in N. Y. Agr. Col. Farm Econ. 105: 
2558-2561. Feb. 1938. 280.8 C812 

Ascertains the amount and variation of costs and profits 
in milk distribution and measures the effects of volume of 
business, labor, route and capital efficiency, snd type of 
business on costs and profits. 

946. HUGHES, E. M. Milk retailing by producer -dis- 
tributors in New York State. In Brown, E. F. Milk 
Papers 7 (172): 1-18. Jan.-Feb. 1940. 281.344 B81 

Issued as N. Y. Agr. Col. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm 
Mangt. A. E. 239, 18 p. Feb. 1939. 281.9 C81 

This study, made from detailed records of 92 producer - 
distributors located in upstate New York and on Long 
Island, shows capital invested, costs of distribution and 
sales outlets, and discusses factors affecting costs and 
profits. 

947. HUNZIKER, O. F. The butter industry, prepared 
for factory, school and laboratory. Ed. 3, LaGrange, 111., 
1940. 780 p. 44 H92B 

Partial contents: Ch. 6, Care of milk and cream on farm 
and in transit; Ch. 8, Systems of cream buying - relative 
merits; Ch. 9, Receiving - grading, sampling, weighing, 
can washing; Ch. 17, Packing - wrappers, containers, 
machines; Ch. 18, Creamery overrun, utilization of by- 
products (skim milk, skim milk powder, casein, butter- 
milk); Ch. 19, Markets, imports, exports, consumption; 
Ch. 20, Cold storage - volume, cost, effect on butter; 
Ch. 24, Butter scoring, butter standards, standardizing of 
milk and cream. 

948. IRWIN, H. S. Impressions of trading in butter and 
egg futures. U. S. Commod. Exch. Admin. CEA-21, 28 p. 
1940. 1.9 C73C 

Tables give volume of futures trading, 1927-38, and 
maximum aggregates of open contracts, 1928-38. Charts 
show average weekly spreads between cash and futures 
prices of butter in Chicago, 1932-37, and the relation be- 
tween storage holdings and open futures contracts in 
Chicago on the first day of May-April 1931-38. Effects 
of futures trading on butter prices are considered. 



949. IRWIN, H. S. Survey of butter futures as of 
August 31, 1939. U. S. Commod. Exch. Admin. CEA-22, 
36 p. 1940. 1.9 C73C 

Most of the traders in butter futures were engaged in the 
butter, egg, and poultry business. "Short selling" was al- 
most negligible. Hedging was highly concentrated at Chi- 
cago, where almost three -fifths of the storage butter was 
hedged, compared with less than one-twentieth of the but- 
ter stored elsewhere. In contrast to the concentration 
among the hedgers, speculative long positions were wide- 
ly scattered throughout the country, and most of them 
were small; concerns accounted for 60 percent of the long 
positions and for 99 percent of the short positions. Most 
longs showed paper losses and most shorts paper profits, 
but this situation was reversed quickly by the rise in 
prices occasioned by the outbreak of war. 

950. IRWIN, R. E. Has the approved inspector system 
promoted uniformity? N. Y. State Assoc. Dairy and Milk 
Insp. Ann. Rpt. (1939) 13: 173-176. 1940. 44.9 N4833 

Requirements for farm inspection by approved inspec- 
tors is set forth in an act passed in 1935 in Pennsylvania. 
The system is described and appraised. 

Discussion, p. 176-178. 

951. JACKSON, R. C. Trend in milk consumption in 
the Boston market. Milk Dealer 29(12): 92-93. 
Sept. 1940. 44,8 M595 

Data on consumer opinion regarding milk profits, wagon 
and store sales, and milk-drinking habits and preferences 
of adults and children is presented. 

952. JENSEN, E. Determining input-output relation- 
ships in milk production. J. Farm Econ. 22: 249-258. 
Feb. 1940. 280.8 J822 

Results of experiments with cows to determine how far 
milk production can be influenced by increased feeding. 
Indications are given as to use of these data. 

953. JENSEN, J. M. A study of cream quality from 
creameries located in southern Michigan. Mich. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Q. B. 22: 203-208. Feb. 1940. 100 M58S 

A wide spread exists in the quality of cream purchased 
for buttermaking. Cream cannot be graded entirely by 
acid test, on the basis of percentages in relation to score. 
The atmospheric temperature during the days the cream 
was accumulated and shipped to the creamery influenced 
the quality appreciably. On the whole, the cream which 
was held three days was of better quality than that held 
four days. The flavor criticisms of cream scoring less 
than 90 were due to such factors as improper cream 
storage and water contamination. 

954. JOHNSTON, C. I. Distribution of surplus butter. 
Econ. Annal. 10(4): 61-64. Aug. J940. 281.8 Ec72 

About May 15, 1939, vouchers foY 3,081,697 lbs. of but- 
ter were distributed to Canadian families on relief and to 
families with very low incomes as a means of reducing 
surplus stocks of butter in storage in Canada. The Do- 
minion Parliament voted funds for the redemption of 
vouchers exchanged for butter at grocery stores, where 
the^price of the butter was marked on the vouchers by the 
grocers. Grocers, upon presenting these vouchers to the 
banks, received the value of the butter as shown thereon. 
The Dominion government reimbursed the banks for the 
amounts paid to grocers, plus a commission. Statistics 
are given on the increase in consumption of butter as the 
result of this free distribution. 

955. JOHNSTON, C. I., and HOPPER, W. C. An econom- 
ic study of the consumption of milk and cream in Vancou- 
ver. (Pub. 678) Dept. Agr. Tech. B. 25, 41 p. Feb. 
1940. 7 C16T 

Eesides measuring the extent of consumption of milk and 
cream in Vancouver, this study purports to assess the 
effect that various conditions - such as income, number of 
young children in the family, type of occupation, racial 
origin, and the section of the city in which consumers 
lived - have upon the consumption. Fresh fluid milk is the 
form of milk considered, but one section of the bulletin 
deals with the consumption of milk as a beverage. In- 
cludes a few tables relating to the consumption of evapor,. 
ated and condensed milk. 



58 



956. KENNEDY, M. Elwell plan meets with both suc- 
cess and setbacks. Milk Plant Monthly 29(4): 38, 40. 
Apr. 1940. 44.8 C864 

Discusses the functioning of the Elwell plan of quantity 
discounts in milk distribution, with particular reference 
to Minneapolis and Cedar Rapids. 

957. KNIGHT, H. W. Inter municipal co-operation in 
milk inspection. Pub. Mangt. 22: 103-106. Apr. 1940. 
Libr. Cong. 

Also in 111. Municipal Rev. 19: 109-110. June, 1940. 

The cooperative plan of six adjacent Illinois municipal- 
ities in complete compliance with U. S. Public Health Ser- 
vice standards is described. Methods of operation and the 
cost of the service are discussed. 

958. KOENIG, N. Six years of marketing agreements. 
HI. Dairy products. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Agr. Situation, 
24(3): 21-23. Mar. 1940. 1 Ec7Ag 

A discussion of the nature and scope of, and problems 
arising under, marketing agreement programs. Includes 
material on price structure. 

959. ROLLER, E. F., and JESNESS, O. B. Trends in the 
Minnesota dairy industrv. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 346. 
40 p. Jan. 1940. 100 M66 

Relatively rapid growth in all phases of the industry in 
Minnesota over a long period of time is reported. Trans- 
portation and distribution arrangements have improved. 

960. pAUSS, W. E. Responsibility of the milk produc- 
ts #%? n £ ume ™- ?. hi0 Agr - Ex p 1 - sta - Bimo - B - 

-sa^U-i). 31-35. Mar./Apr. 1940. 100 Oh3S 

Deals m part with lowering costs of production and 
gives figures showing relationship between productfon 
level and cost of milk production, 1938. productlon 

961. KRIEGEL, M. W. Establishing a cheese factory in 
Texas; fundamental considerations. Austin, U. of Tex 
1940. 49 p. 44 K89 

Suggests desirable conditions for manufacturing cheese 
covering location of plant, raw materials, and equipment. 

962. LAYSON, S. V. New laws designed to improve 
sanitation, preserve inherent quality, and for the benefit 
of all to increase consumption of milk. Milk Plant Month- 
ly 29(1): 53-54, 56. Jan. 1940. 44.8 C864 

From an address delivered at the convention of the Illi- 
nois Dairy Products Association. A discussion of the 
Grade A Milk Law and the rewritten Pasteurization Law 
enacted by the General Assembly of Illinois in 1939. 

963. LOW- COST milk program seeks wider outlets. 
U. S. Ext. Serv. Ext. Serv. Rev. 11: 42. Mar. 1940. 
1 Ex892Ex 

Operating with Federal funds, low-cost milk programs 
for needy and relief families are in effect in the Boston 
and Chicago milk markets. One of the prime objectives 
is to make it possible for people to use milk in greater 
quantities with a minimum amount of interference with 
regular business. 

964. LUCAS, P. S. It pays to condense. Natl. Butter 
and Cheese J. 31(9): 36, 38. Sept. 1940. 286.85 B98Bu 

Cost of manufacturing bulk condensed milk suitable for 
ice cream mix, and for use bv bakers. 

965. MAACK, A. C, and TRACY, P. H. A method for 
the accurate sampling of ice cream. Ice Cream Rev. 23 
(8): 36, 58. Mar. 1940. 389.8 Ic22 

Paper presented at the Miiiois Dairy Manufacturers Con- 
ference, Urbana, 111., Nov. 13-17, 1939. 

Results of research at the University of Hlinois in 1939 
in the testing of fruit, nut, and candy ice cream. 

966. MCBRIDE, C. G., and SHERMAN, R. W. Farm 
sales of Ohio milk through different outlets. Ohio State 
U. Dept. of Rural Econ., Mimeo. B. 131, pt. 1, 30 p. 
1940. 281.9 Oh32 

Pt. 1, covers the Columbus area and includes Delaware, 
Fairfield, Franklin, Licking, Madison, Pickaway and Union 
Counties. 

Study is based on a survey of all farms with three or 
more cows. Creameries and milk products manu- 
facturing plants in the area are shown and changes in mar- 
ket outlets, 1903-1940 are discussed. 

Data for counties and townships are presented in tables 
and charts, and show number of dairy farms and milk 
cattle, and percent of each by market outlet, 1939. 



967. MCBRIDE, C. G. The Ohio farmer and his milk 
market. Ohio. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 614, 50 p. 1940. 
100 Oh3S 

Deals with the experiences of farmers in marketing 
whole milk, with emphasis upon the behavior and problems 
of the individual producer. Data used were taken from 
surveys of three townships, farm account records, and 
dealer statements. Topics discussed include finding and 
holding a market, milk statements, marketing plans, and 
the producers stake in transportation. 

968. MACLEOD, A. The transportation of New Hamp- 
shire milk. H. Reorganization of truck routes. N. H. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 325, 23 p. June 1940. 100 N45 

Considers three schemes of reorganization: the first 
involving only those producers whose milk is being hauled 
on commercial truck routes; the second, those selling at 
wholesale, who either take their milk to the plant them- 
selves, or exchange hauling with one or more of their 
neighbors; and the third, involving a relocation of milk- 
shed boundaries so that unnecessary expense and duplica- 
tion might be eliminated-a disturbance of producer- 
dealer relations. 

969. MACLEOD, A. G. Newer developments and needed 
changes in State milk control. In^ Northeastern Dairy 
Conference. Stenographic proceedings... Providence, 

R. I., Mar. 7-8, 1940. p. 1-6. N. Y., Consolidated Rptg. 
Co., 1940? 44.9 N818 

Legal and administrative aspects and bases for price- 
fixing. 

970. MANITOBA. MILK CONTROL BOARD. Annual re- 
port, 1938-1940. Winnipeg, 1939, 1940, 280.3449 M31 

Contains material on milk distribution, including costs 
of distribution and milk prices in the Winnipeg area. 

971. MARQUARDT, J. C. How cheese quality is deter- 
mined. Farm Res. [N. Y. State Sta.l 6(2): 13-14. Apr. 
1, 1940. 100 N48A 

Discusses briefly grading or scoring of dairy products, 
and cheddar cheese score cards. 

972. MARTIN, W. H., NELSON, F. E., and CAULFIELD, 
W. J. Measuring the quality of ice cream. J. Dairy Sci. 
23: 135-147. Jan. 1940. .44.8 J822 

Shows standard plate counts, minimum amounts of sam- 
ples containing Escherichia-Aerobacter organisms, re- 
sults of phosphatase and butterfat tests, weight per gallon, 
and flavor, body and texture, color and package scores on 
318 samples of ice cream collected from over 300 Kansas 
ice cream manufacturers during July, 1938. 

973. MILK and cream grading. J. Agr. New Zeal. 60: 
11-12. Jan. 15, 1940. 23 N48J 

Discusses methods and standards of grading milk and 
cream for butter-making and of grading milk for cheese- 
making. 

974. MILK RESEARCH COUNCIL. Housewives' atti- 
tudes on milk containers in Manhattan and Brooklyn. In 
Brown, E. F. Milk Papers 7(184), 59 p. Jan.-Feb. 1940. 
281.344 B81 

Sanford Griffith was in charge of the survey and was as- 
sisted by Alvin Meyrowitz. 

2,000 housewives were interviewed and gave opinions on 
milk buying habits (place, grade and quantity bought); 
paper container vs. glass bottle (which is more sanitary 
and takes less room in the ice box); two-quart container 
(reasons for using or not using); store prices; and na- 
tionality and milk habits (Americans buy more Grade A 
than any other nationality). 

Questionnaire used in the survey is given on p. 57-59. 

975. MOON, H. A. Analyzing packaging operation costs. 
Mod. Packaging 14(3): 77-80. Nov. 1940. 309.8 M72 

Four types of analysis are used involving the investiga- 
tion of lost motion, the correlation between men and ma- 
chines, the relationship of the packaging operations to 
other operations that come either before or after the ac- 
tual packaging, and the part that the packaging operations 
play in creating peak loads for power systems, for labor 
and the use of refrigeration or other machinery. The 
application of this method to a milk pasteurizing and bot- 
tling plant is shown. 



59 



976. MORRIS, C. G. What should be the price of milk. 
Milwaukee, Olsen, 1940. 190 p. 280.344 M83 

Deals in part with the class price plan of buying milk, 
price cutting, milk control by boards or officials, and 
operations of producers and dealers. 

977. MORTENSON, W. P. Legal possibilities and limi- 
tations of milk distribution as a public utility. J. Land 
and Pub. Util. Econ. 15: 438-447; 16: 61-71. Nov. 1939- 
Feb. 1940. 282.8 J82 

Although the U. S. Supreme Court has not ruled upon the 
question, sufficient legal support exists for the position 
that the legislatures have power either to grant exclusive 
franchise to a private corporation to process and distrib- 
ute milk, or to delegate to the city or municipality the 
power to perform the function itself through municipal 
ownership. Conjectures are made on the possibilities of 
Court action in this direction and on what degree of 
success public utility control operating as a unified sys- 
tem of milk distribution would have. 

978. MORTENSON, W. P. Milk distribution as a public 
utility. Chicago, U. Chicago Press, 1940. 221 p. 
280.344 M84 

If the functions of processing and of distributing fluid 
milk were operated as an efficient unified system, the 
possible economies and resultant savings might be con- 
siderable, provided that the general public accepts this 
different approach to the milk distribution problem. The 
subject is in five parts: 1, History and background of fluid 
milk regulation; 2, Costs and profits of distributing milk 
and savings through unification: 3. Legal aspects of milk 
control; 4, Methods and difficulties of public utility con- 
trol of milk distribution; and 5, Economic effects of such 
control. 

979. MOSS, F. J. Milk investigations of the U. S. Public 
Health Service. J. Milk Technol. 3: 145-154. May- June 
1940. 44.8 J824 

Reviews research work carried out chiefly since the 
formation of the Office of Milk Investigations in 1923. 

980. MUELLER, W. S. Suggested standards for choco- 
late milk drinks. Milk Plant Monthly 29(3): 25-28. Mar. 
1940. 44.8 C864 

Results of an experimental study undertaken in the Dairy 
Industry Department in cooperation with the Department 
of Bacteriology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts State 
College. 

981. NEW ENGLAND RESEARCH COUNCIL ON MAR- 
KETING AND FOOD SUPPLY. Proceedings of the annual 
meeting held.. .at Boston, Massachusetts. Boston, 1936- 
1940. 5 v. 252.004 N443M 

The proceedings of each meeting contain a section in 
which papers, round table discussions, and reports of the 
New England-Wide milk marketing study are given. The 
objectives and description of the study are covered in a 
paper which appears in the proceedings of the meeting 
held in 1936. 

982. NEW YORK (STATE) DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE 
AND MARKETS. Annual report.. .for the years 1935-1939, 
Albany, J. B. Lyon, 1936-1940. 5 v. 2 N482R 

Includes sections on milk control in the State, with in- 
formation on administrative aspects and general develop- 
ments in the industry. - 

983. NOYES, H. V. The effect of Federal and State 
regulations on the producer. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. 
Dept. Anim. and Dairy Husb. Papers Presented at Short 
Course Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 19: 
29-35. 1940. 44.9 V593 

Regulation of producer price structure has helped to 
stabilize the New York milk market and has brought im- 
proved returns, but the surplus problem still remains. 

984. NUGENT, R. This milk company finds six day- 
daylight delivery a success for both company and route- 
men. Milk Plant Monthly 29(5): 23-25. May, 1940. 
44.8 C864 

Outlines the advantages to both the distributor and the 
routemen of using a six -day milk delivery plan. De- 
s:ribesl consumer reaction to the plan of the General Ice 
Cream Corporation, Schenectady, N. Y. 



985. OMMODT, B. J. Quality improvement; the rela- 
tionship of butter grading and other factors to the con- 
stant essential effort toward betterment of product. 
Amer. Butter Rev. 2: 422-423, 427. Dec. 1940. 

44.8 Am37 

Producers should aim at a butter product free from 
foreign matter, and of United States 92-93 score quality, 
with good keeping quality, uniform color, salt content and 
texture, and low yeast, mold and bacteria content. 
Adherence to quality standards in the grading of the raw 
material, plant sanitation, and Federal grading of the 
butter are factors in attaining this goal. 

986. OREGON MILK CONTROL BOARD. Report, 1939- 
1940. 54 p. Portland? 1940. 280.3449 Or3 

This, the first report on operations under the Milk Con- 
trol Act, reviews activities and discusses the legal status 
of the act. Financial statements, statistical information 
and the text of the act, are included. 

987. OWEN, R. L. The two-quart glass bottle. In 
111. U. Dept. of Dairy Husb. Mater. Presented at the 
Dairy Mfg. Short Course 1940: 133-138. 44.9 IL63M 

The bottle is not a cure-all for the dairy business, but 
it is a great help in increasing consumption and in 
stopping the trend away from home delivery. 

988. OXFORD UNIVERSITY. AGRICULTURAL ECONOM- 
ICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE. Milk investigation scheme. 
Costs of milk production in England and Wales. Interim 
Report 1-4, Oxford, U. 1937-40. 4 v. 281.344 Ox2M 

Detailed analysis of cost figures for various producer 
groups and regions for the period November 1, 1934 to 
September 30, 1938. 

989. PACKARD, A. A. Some experiences under a Fed- 
eral milk marketing order. In^ Northeastern Dairy Con- 
ference. Stenographic Proceedings.. .Providence, R. I. 
Mar. 7-8, 1940, p. 103-107. New York, The Consoli- 
dated Rptg. Co., 1940? 44.9 N818 

Considers the subject chiefly in relation to price levels. 

990. PARKER, M. E. Quality control improved by re- 
search methods. Food Indus. 12(3): 41-44. Mar 1940 

389.8 F737 

Discusses the butter quality control program in opera- 
tion at a large creamery, with emphasis on maintaining 
grade standards. 

991. PELTON, G. M. What is the cost of a pound of 
butter? Natl. Butter and Cheese J. 31(8): 10-11 35 
Aug. 1940. 286.85 B98Bu 

Considers kinds of procurement and processing expen- 
ses that go into plant delivered cost of butterfat. 

992. PETTIT, G. H.'N. Economic study of foods and 
grazing in milk production, study of conditions in the 
eastern counties of England. Cambridge U. Dept. of 
Agr. Farm Econ. Br. Rpt. 28, 40 p. Ref. 1940. 

281.9 C14 

The complex relationships between milk yield per cow 
and food input are discussed in detail, both in general 
terms, and by reference to data collected in the eastern 
counties in the operation of the Cambridge Food Record- 
ing Scheme for Dairy Cows during the three -year period 
1S34/35 - 1936/37. Includes a section on money costs. 

993. PIERCE, C. W. Fluid milk vs. canned milk. 
Milk Dealer 29(10): 35, 63-64. July 1940. 44.8 M595 

PreMminary results of a study on consumer preference 
in the use of evaporated and fresh milk made in the 
spring of 1939 at Johnstown, Pa. 

y94. F1NCUS, S., and ABRAHAM, S. Practical value 
of deck inspection as compared with farm inspection. 
M. Y. State Assoc. Dairy and Milk Insp. Ann. Rpt. 
(1939) 13: 137-149. 1940. 44.9 N4833. 

The results of a program of deck control, put into ef- 
fect in 1936 in the New York City milk shed, are sum- 
marized. The author finds that deck inspection is an in- 
expensive and rapid method of efficient sanitary control 
in comparison with dairy farm inspection. It is admitted 
that some milk may be rejected by the deck tests which 
does not contain an excessive bacteria count and also 
milk with high counts may be passed. Some of the re- 
jections are based on objectionable odors and the pre- 
sence of foreign materials not necessarily associated 
with high bacteria counts. For these reasons a more 



60 



uniform and less fallible procedure of deck examination 
by plant and regulatory employees is desirable 

Discussion, p. 149-152. 

995. POLLARD, A. J. Duplication in delivery of milk 
to stores in New York City. N. Y. Col. Agr. Farm Econ. 
116: 2863-2865. Jan. 1940. 280.8 C812 

Obtained in a survey of retail food stores in New York 
City in June, 1938, data indicate an average number of 
delivery stops per store of 2.3. The independent stores 
tended to buy from more dealers than did the stores of 
other kinds, especially in low-income sections of the 
city. Duplication in delivery to independent stores was 
greater in the Bronx than in the other boroughs. 

9S6. REED, O. E. Efficiency in milk production. In 
Brown, E. F., comp. Milk Papers 8(239), 15 p. Mar.- 
Sept. 1940. ' 281.344 B81 

Finds that the two essentials for efficient and profitable 
dairying are cheap feeds and good cows. More attention 
should be given to the use of pasture and other home- 
grown roughage, and a breeding program followed that 
will eliminate the hereditary factors causing low produc- 
tion. Discusses in part new uses of skim milk and whey. 

997. REED, O. E. Improving dairy herds to lower the 
cost of milk production. Internatl. Assoc. Milk Dealers 
Assoc. B. 6: 159-164. Dec. 17, 1940. 44.9 In8A 

Shows how costs can be reduced by using high-producing 
cows and discusses the proved -sire system of breeding 
in this connection. 

99S. FEED, O. M. Experiences in coordinating Federal 
and State milk control activities. In Northeastern Dairy 
Conference. Stenographic Proceedings.. .Providence, R. 
I., Mar. 7-8, 1940. p. 112-123. New York, Consoli- 
dated Rptg. Co. 1940? 44.9 N818 

Evaluates the legal status of the Federal program and 
discusses price levels with stress on uniformity in milk 
market regulation. 

999. REYNOLDS, H. C. An analysis of milk classifica- 
tion. Rural New Yorker 99: 20. Jan. 13, 1940. 6 R88 

Shows manipulations under Pennsylvania price orders 
to increase dealer profits. 

1000. ROCHESTER, A. Why farmers are poor; the agri- 
cultural crisis in the United States. New York, Internatl. 
Publishers, 1940. 317 p. Ref. 280.12 R58 

In the section on milk, p. 231-243, prices, consumption, 
supply and demand are discussed and it is stated that the 
drive by dairy corporations for profits at the expense of 
the farmer and consumer is a basic source of difficulty 
to dairy farmers, and that the farmers' position is weak- 
ened by lack of balance between supply and effective de- 
mand 

1001. RUEHE, H. A. The trade barrier problem. In 
111. U. Dept. of Dairy Husb. Mater. Presented at Dairy 
Mfgrs. Short Course 1940: 119-126. 44.9 IL63M 

Defines an economic trade barrier and points out that 
activities of labor unions and producer groups, in 
some instances, react as trade barriers in the dairy 
industry. Barriers incident to the Agricultural Mar- 
keting Act of 1937 are considered as well as those 
arising from misuse of sanitary regulations and con- 
flicting city inspections. 

1002. SANBORN, J. R. Microbiological content of paper- 
board used in the packaging of foods. Amer. J. Pub. 
Health 30: 247-255. Mar. 1940. 449.9 Am3J 

Only very few counts in excess of 500 per gm. of disin- 
tegrated paperboard were found in 2,877 analyses of milk 
container board from 13 different mills. A standard of 
less than 500 colonies per gm. has been tentatively sug- 

fested 
003. SCHUBRING, W. General review of the production 
and international trade of preserved milk. Internatl. 
Inst. Agr. 31: 424S-432S. June 1940. 241 In82A 

Gives statistics of production of condensed, dried, and 
sterilized milk and exports and imports of condensed and 
dried milk, by country, 1932-38. 



1004. SELBY, H. W. Dairy products. Natl. Assoc. 
Mktg. Off. Proc. 22: 21-24. 1940. 280.39 N213P 

Address before the 22nd. annual meeting, Oct. 1940, 
Boston, Mass., evaluating current milk distribution and 
price control practices, and offering recommendations 
for improvement. 

1005. SELBY, H. W. Should a milk control program in- 
clude resale prices? In_ Northeastern Dairy Confer- 
ence. Stenographic Proceedings. ..Providence, R. I., Mar. 
7-8, 1940. p. 6-12. New York, The Consolidated Rptg. 
Co. 1940? 44.9 N818 

Discussion by L. Spencer, p. 12-16. 
Favors the fixing of resale prices when it becomes 
necessary to support a proper return to producers. 

1006. SHARP, P. F. New developments in dairy science 
and their applications. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. 
Anim. and Dairy Husb. Papers Presented at Short Course 
Conf. for Dairy Plant Oper. and Milk. Distrib. 19: 15-19. 
1940. 44.9 V593 

Includes information on the utilization of milk in larger 
containers and held for additional periods of time, frozen 
cream, evaporated milk, dried whey, cheese, butter, lac- 
tose, and casein. 

1007. SHULTIS, A. Dairy management in California. 
Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 640, 94 p. Aug. 1940. 

100 C12S 

Describes the four main dairy districts in the state, 
and presents information on dairy enterprise management 
relating to production per cow, price per pound of milk 
fat, net stock income per cow, total expense per cow, 
effect of size of herd on expense and net income per cow, 
effect of feeding on expense per cow, labor, facility and 
miscellaneous costs, with standard of costs for market 
and manufacturing milk in the San Joaquin Valley and 
Sonoma and Marin counties. 

1008. SHURTS, T. M. The gallon jug. In, 111. U. Dept. of 
Dairy Husb. Mater. Presented at the Dairy Mfgr. Short 
Course 1940: 50-52. 44.9 I163M 

Advantages and disadvantages of the gallon jug as shown 
by experiences of the Champaign-Urbana Dairy, are no- 
ted. 

1009. SNOW, C. H. Is there a place for substandard 
products in the ice cream industry? Ice Cream Rev. 
24(5): 74-75. Dec. 1940. 389.8 Ic22 

Substandard or inferior commodities should not be sub- 
stituted for the genuine, but there are places for addi- 
tional standards for special products that fill a real need 
which is beneficial to the industry. 

1010. SONLEY, L. T. Cost of transporting milk and 
cream to Boston. Vt. Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 462, 56 p. July 
1940. 100 V59 

Outlines the development of transportation facilities and 
tariff structures in the Boston milk and cream sheds, 
describes the present rates and methods of shipment, 
determines the approximate cost of the services and op- 
erations associated with transport which are included 
under rates only in certain cases, compares alternative 
methods as to total cost. Pages 3-5 deal with transpor- 
tation as an element in marketing costs; table 1 with the 
relation of transportation rates to fluid milk and cream 
prices in two zones, August through December, 1939. 

1011. SPENCER, L. Consumption and prices of canned 
milk as related to the demand for fresh milk. N. Y. 
Agr. Col. A. E. 303. 25 p., Ma v 1940 

281.9 C81 y 

Also In. Brown, E. F., comp. Milk Papers 8(213), 25 p. 
Mar. -Sept. 1940. 281.344 B81 

Reports a steady upward trend in per capita consump- 
tion of canned milk in the United States, due mainly to 
the fact that it has become much cheaper than fresh milk. 

1012. SPENCER, L. A discussion of proposals for ad- 
justing or controlling the milk supply with particular 
reference to the New York market. N. Y. Agr. Col. A. E. 
316, 22 p. 1940. 281.9 C81 

Also in Brown, E. F., comp. Milk Papers 8, (228). 
Mar. -Sept. 1940. 281.344 B81 

Considers the milk supply and price situation, and dif- 
ferent types of control measures. 



61 



1013. SPENCER, L., and KLING, H. The distribution of 
milk by sub-dealers in New York City. N. Y. Agr. Col. 
A. E. 320, 10 p. May 1940. 281.9 C81 

Sub-dealers, or peddlers, handle approximately 4 per- 
cent of all milk sold in New York City, or nearly 10 per- 
cent of the milk delivered to the doorstep. They have 
established their businesses mainly in medium-income 
areas with relatively few stores. Four -fifths of them are 
located in Brooklyn and Queens. The daily average of 
sales of milk, mostly Grade B, sold to family trade, is 
227 quarts per sub-dealer. 

1014. SPENCER, L. Health regulations and the milk 
supply. Amer. Agr. 137(2): 19. Jan. 20, 1940. 6 Am3 

A plan to reduce the milk supply for the New York mar- 
ket by withdrawing inspection from certain plants, there- 
by cutting off some of the dairies. 

1015. SPENCER, L. Milk production control. N. Y. Agr. 
Col. A. E. 304, 18 p. Feb. 1940. 281.9 C81 

Includes material on the milk supply and price situation, 
New York State, and on prices under the Monthly Quota 
Plan and the Basic-Surplus Plan. 

1016. SFENCER, L. The price differential for direct de- 
livery of milk to the Buffalo market. N. Y. Agr. Col. 
Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm Mangt. A. E. 333, 26 p. Dec. 
1940. 281.9 C81 

Deals with price regulation under Order No. 127, effec- 
tive Oct. 1938, issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture 
and Markets, N. Y. State, and with sanitation regulations 
of the Buffalo Health Dept. 

1017. STRAND, E. G., and HOLE, E. Production re- 
sponses of dairy farmers in east-central Minnesota. 

U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Farm Mangt. Rpt. 6, 71 p. 1940. 
1.941 L6F22 

Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station cooperating. 

Includes material on butterfat price trends, 1921-1937. 

1018. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Paper no. 1-14 series on State milk control acts. Wash- 
ington, 1936-40. 14 v. 1.94 D14Ps 

Discusses the type of regulations issued under these 
acts and legal developments in connection with their en- 
forcement. One paper is devoted to each of the following 
states: Indiana, Alabama, Connecticut, New Jersey, Vir- 
ginia, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, and Oregon. 

1019. U. S. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMIN. 
Statement concerning [various milk markets and the pro- 
posed marketing agreements for them]. Washington, 
1938-40. 14 v. 1.94 D14Sta 

Contents: Calumet, Indiana-Illinois y market, by E. S. 
Harris and P. L. Miller; Chicago market, by L. K. 
Wallace and P. L. Miller; Dubuque, Iowa, market, by E. S. 
Harris and J. R. Hanson; Louisville market, by R. C. 
Tetro and P. L. Miller; Lowell-Lawrence market, by 
P. L. Miller and R. H. Farr; New Orleans market, by 
R. C. Tetro and P. L. Miller; New York metropolitan mar- 
ket; Omaha-Council Bluffs market, by P. L. Miller and 
E. S. Harris; Providence, Rhode IslancLmarket, by C. W 
Smith, P. L. Miller and H. L. Forest; Quad Cities market, 
by E. S. Harris, C. W. Smith and P. L. Miller; St. Louis 
market, by P. L. Miller and R. H. Farr; Shreveport, 
Louisiana market, by R. H. Farr, J. R. Hanson and P. L. 
Miller; Sioux City market, by E. S. Harris and J. R. 
Hanson; Toledo market; Washington, D. C. market, by 
R. C. Tetro and P. L. Miller. 

Bound with the statement concerning the Omaha-Council 
Bluffs market is U. S. Agricultural Adjustment Admin. 
The audit of handlers' records in connection with Federal 
regulation of milk marketing, by E. S. Harris and O. M. 
Reed. Washington, Dec. 1937. 17 p. 

For each market information is given on economic con- 
ditions of producers supplying the market, the nature of 
the market, organization, milk classification, price levels, 
supply and demand and other provisions of the agreement. 



1020. U. S. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERV. Hand- 
book of official United States standards for quality of 
creamery butter; effective Apr. 1, 1939. Washington, 
1940. 29 p. 1 M341H 

"Explanation of United States Standards for Quality of 
Creamery Butter," p. 11-29, includes material on new 
features embodied in revised standards; the factor of fla- 
vor; classification of flavors according to origin; flavors 
and conditions in butter that cause it to be classified as 
"no grade"; factor of body, color and salt in butter; rat- 
ings of defects in body, color, and salt; tolerances for de- 
fects in body, color, and salt permitted in butter of cer- 
tain flavor ratings; and container, finish, and appearance. 

1021. U. S. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERV. Pro- 
duction of manufactured dairy products, 1938, and mis- 
cellaneous dairy statistics, 1939. Washington, 1940. 

82 p. 1.9 Ec724D 

Basically a statistical report. The discussion considers 
whole milk products, skimmed milk products, American 
cheese production, casein production and prices, and the 
disposition and value of milk produced, for 1938; and, 
separately, milk production and prices received for dairy 
products in 1939. 

1022. U. S. BUR. OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. A 
special report to the Agricultural advisory council on 
price spreads between farmers and consumers. Wash- 
ington, 1940. 24 p. 1.941 F3Sp31 

Presents data on farm and retail prices and price mar- 
gins between the farmer and the consumer for a selected 
group of foods, including dairy products. 

1023. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. Condensed and 
evaporated milk. Washington, 1940. 8 p. (BDIM-548) 
1.9 D142Co 

Includes figures for costs, prices, and production, and 
outlines prerequisites to establishing a condensery 

1024. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. New evaporated 
milk and sweetened condensed milk standards. Supple- 
ment to "Condensed and evaporated milk," Washington, 
1940. 2 p. (BDIM-548) 1.9 D142Co Suppl. 

Relates chiefly to the identity of these products, and for 
evaporated milk the label statement of optional ingredi- 
ents. 

1025. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. Report of the 
chief. Washington, 1936-1940. 5 v. 1 D14 

Includes an account of the work for each year on produc- 
tion, utilization, sanitation and quality of dairy products. 

1026. U. S. BUR. OF DAIRY INDUSTRY. A summary and 
analysis of the business on 23 dairy farms in West Vir- 
ginia, including the cost of producing milk, i U. S. Bur. 
Dairy Indus. BDIM 903, 28 p. 1940? 1.9 B14Bd 

Issued in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Agricul- 
tural Economics and the College of Agriculture of West 
Virginia University. 

Net costs of producing milk varied widely between farms 
in the wholesale and retail groups. Average net cost on 
wholesale farms was $1.35 per 100 lbs. of 4 percent fat- 
corrected milk and on the seven farms that bottled and 
sold milk at retail the net cost (not including cost of bot- 
tling and delivering) was $1.89. 11 pages of tables are 
appended. 

1027. U. S. CONGRESS. HOUSE. COMMITTEE ON AGRI- 
CULTURE. Dairy products stabilization. Hearing, 76th 
Cong., 3d sess., on H. R. 6500 and H. R. 6530. Washing- 
ton, 1940. 50 p. 280.344 Un323 

Proposed legislation would extend principles of the Soil 
Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, and the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Act of 1938, to the dairy industry, 
assist in the marketing of dairy products for domestic 
consumption and export, and assist dairymen to obtain, 
insofar as possible, parity prices for milk and its prod- 
ucts and parity of income. 



62 



1028. U. S. CONGRESS. SENATE. COMMITTEE ON AGRI- 
CULTURE AND FORESTRY. Promotion of sound dairy 
practices. Hearings, 76th Cong. 3d sess., on S. 2835, 
Mar. 20-22, 1940. Washington, 1940. 97 p. 

281.344 Un3 

Testimony on a bill to extend the provisions of the Soil 
Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act and the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Act to milk and its products. 

1029. U. S. MARKETING LAWS SURVEY. A digest of 
State laws relating to the problem of interstate trade 
barriers for States whose legislatures convene in 1940. 
Prepared... at the request of the United States Department 
of Commerce and the Inter-departmental Committee on 
Interstate Trade Barriers. Washington, 1940. 1 v. 
173.2 W89Dis 

A series of 32 charts, covering the states of Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, 
Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia, presenting a 
digest of marketing legislation in certain categories. 
Milk and dairy is one of the categories included. 

1030. U. S. MARKETING LAWS SURVEY. State price 
control legislation. Washington, 1940. 558 p. (Its P. 2) 
173.2 W89Map 

Includes statutes affecting marketing of milk and milk 
products, and digest of pertinent court decisions. 

1031. U. S. NATIONAL BUR. OF STANDARDS. Ice- 
cream-brick molds and cartons. Simplified practice 
recommendation R120-40, 13 p. 1940. 157.88 Si5 

1032. U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Milk ordinance 
and code, 1939, U. S. Pub. Health Serv. B. 220, 160 p. 
1940. 151.66 B87 

Recommended for adoption by States and communities 
in order to encourage a greater uniformity of milk con- 
trol practice in the United States, the ordinance regulates 
the production, transportation, processing, handling, 
sampling, examination, grading, labeling, regrading, and 
sale of milk and milk products; the inspection of dairy 
herds, dairies, and milk plants; the issuing and revoca- 
tion of permits to milk producers and distributors; the 
placarding of restaurants and other establishments serv- 
ing milk or milk products; and the fixing of penalties. 
The code is to be used as the legal interpretation of the 
ordinance. 

1033. U. S. TARIFF COMMISSION. Dairy products and 
reciprocal trade agreements. Washington, 1940. 22 p. 
173 T17Dai 

Summary for the dairy industry of the principal tariff 
concessions granted by the United States and the conces- 
sions obtained from foreign countries on United States 
exports of dairy products. Statistics are given for repre- 
sentative years since 1929 of production, exports, and 
imports of all products and of individual major products 
with concession and non-concession items distinguished. 

1034. VAN ARSDEL, W. B. The industrial market for 
farm products. U. S. D. A. Ybk. 1940: 606-626. 1 Ag84y 

Outlines some uses of casein, p. 613-614, and refers to 
the product as a plastics material, p. 615. 

1035. VARIOUS plans being tried tor increasing milk 
sales by quantity discounts. Milk Plant Monthly 29(1): 
24-31. Feb. 1940. 44.8 C864 

Plans suggested include the use of two-quart and one- 
gallon bottles, multiple quart bottle deliveries, consoli- 
dated or cooperative deliveries, six-day deliveries, and 
voluntary reduction of route men's wages. 

1036. VARNEY, H. R. The future of dairying in New Eng- 
land. Vt. U. and State Agr. Col. Dept. Anim. and Dairy 
Husb- Papers Presented at Short Course Conf. for Dairy 
Plant Oper. and Milk Distrib. 19: 66-71. 1940. 

44.9 V593 

Discusses milk supply and demand, competition from 
other areas, and price and production control. 

1037. VIAL, E. E. Ice cream consumption and consumer 
purchasing power. Ice Cream Rev. 24(2): 18-19, 68-69. 
Sept. 1940. 389.8 Ic22 

Weather and purchasing power are important factors af- 
fecting consumption of ice cream. 



1038. VIAL, E. E. Production and consumption of manu- 
factured dairy products. U. S. D. A. Tech. B. 722, 76 p. 
Apr. 1940. 1 Ag84Te 

Shows changes in production and consumption, and rela- 
tionships between production, foreign trade, and consump- 
tion of the individual products, as well as all combined. 
Products considered are butter, cheese, concentrated 
milks, ice cream, malted milk, dried or powdered whole 
milk and cream, and skim milk and buttermilk. Uses for 
skim milk are discussed. 

1039. WALWORTH, G.- Feeding the nation in peace and 
war. London, Allen 6 Unwin, 1940. 548 p. 280.3 W17F 

Various marketing experiments in Great Britain, includ- 
ing the Milk Marketing Schemes are surveyed and facts 
arising from a study of the Milk Board's activities are 
presented. Concludes, in the case of milk, that the 
schemes have not been satisfactory and that the whole in- 
dustry needs reorganization. 

1040. WALWORTH, G. Hopeless milk position: new con- 
tract muddles. Co-op Rev. 14: 130-132. Apr. 1940. 
280.28 C7823. 

A milk contract prescribed by the Milk Marketing Board, 
dating from Apr. 1, 1940 until Sept. 30, 1940 and permit- 
ting of extension, is criticized chiefly on the score of in- 
adequacy in providing subsidies to producers from a cen- 
tral pool. Another difficulty is seen in the fact that the 
Milk Board will continue to function on behalf of the pro- 
ducers, but the Ministry of Food has the responsibility of 
fixing prices of milk and, if necessary, deciding the pur- 
poses for which the milk is used. 

1041. WARNER, G. Controlling weights and measures of 
packaged dairy products. Wis. U. Dept. Dairy Indus. 
Dairy Mfrs. Conf. Papers 1940: 8-14. 44.9 W757 

Reviews laws and regulations on the subject, with partic- 
ular application to Wisconsin. 

1042. WATSON, A. E., and RAUCHENSTEIN, E. The or- 
ganization and management of 95 dairy and cash crop 
farms in Androscoggin and Oxford counties, Maine. 
Maine Agr. Expt. Sta. B. 398, 72 p. Feb. 1940. 

100 M28S 

The period covered is from May 1, 1936 to Apr. 30, 
1937. Includes milk production costs, use of the milk 
produced, and relation between seasonal variation of cows 
freshening, milk sales, and wholesale composite milk 
prices. 

1043. WATSON, J. F. Container competition. In North- 
eastern Dairy Conf. Stenographic Proc... Providence, 

R. I., Mar. 7-8, 1940, p. 91-98. New York, Consolidated 
Rptg. Co., 1940? 44.9 N818 

Shows developments in the construction and use of glass 
and paper milk containers, and compares container costs. 

1044. WERNE, B. Statutes and decisions regulating price 
in the New York milk shed. New York, New York U. 
School of Law, 1940. 94 p. (Contemporary Law Pam. 
Ser. 1, No. 29.) 284.344 W49 

The Federal and State decisions involve such considera- 
tions as constitutionality, power to limit prices, reason- 
able return, and determination of price fixing. Includes 
annotations on the Agricultural Adjustment Act, and Con- 
necticut,. Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Vermont statutes. 

1045. WHITE, W., and others. Correlation between 
grades on scores and grades on criticisms in the judging 
of dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 23: 1-12. Jan. 1940. 
44.8 J822 

P. A. Downs, M. J. Mack, E. L. Fouts, and G. M. Trout, 
joint authors. 

Results of study of grades on scores and on criticisms 
of 483 contestant-sample judgments each of butter, cheese, 
milk and ice cream. 

1046. WHITMORE, B. F. What should we tell the con- 
sumer? Ice Cream Trade J. 36(2): 10-11, 64. Feb. 
1940. 389.8 Ic2 

The author finds that the ice cream industry lacks con- 
sumer confidence and can gain it only by the quality of 
the product and by more constructive advertising. 



63 



1047. WILCOX, R. H. Cost of producing milk in the Chi- 
cago and St. Louis milksheds. 111. Farm Econ. 61: 363- 
365. June, 1940. 275.28 115 

Shows relation of milk production per cow to costs and 
profits, feed and labor the largest items of cost, and wide 
variations in cost from farm to farm. 

1048. WILSON, H. L. Packaging sliced Cheddar and 
Swiss cheese in cans for sandwich dispensers. U. S. D. 
A. Misc. P. 386, 8 p. June 1940. 1 Ag84M 

Adaptation of the cheese-canning process to these two 
cheeses. Only good quality Swiss cheese should be used. 
Method of cutting and slicing, approximate cost of canning, 
and advantages of canned cheese. 

1049. WILSON, J. L. Problems in adopting the milk cow. 
U. S. Agr. Mktg. Serv. Mktg.Activ. 2(5): 11-21. May 
1940. 1.942 A8M34 

Also in Milk Dealer 29(11): 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 
58. Aug. 1940. 44.8 M595 

Deals in part with consumer preference in the matter of 
evaporated and fresh milk, and with utilization of milk, 
skim milk and buttermilk, as the case may be, for butter, 
cheese, ice cream, concentrated milk products, bakery 
products, animal food, casein, paper sizing, buttons, 
fountain pens, paints, glue, and artificial fibers. 



1050. WILSTER, G. H., and CARPENTER, P. Marketing 
Oregon butter and cheese. Oreg. State Col. Ext. B. 541, 
56 p. May 1940. 275.29 Or32B 

Information on the status of the industry, quality im- 
provement programs including grading and standardiza- 
tion, and activities of dairy organizations in the State. 

1051. WISE, W. S. Pennsylvania's milk marketing prob- 
lem. Pa. Farmer 122(9): 6-7, 22, 30. May 4, 1940. 

6 P3«3 

Discusses the Pennsylvania Milk Control Law and offers 
suggestions for future legislation to revise it. 

1052. WOLD, H. Efterfragan pa jordbruksprodukter och 
dess k'anslighet for pris- och inkomstfbr'andringar. 
Stockholm, 1940. 144 p. 281.173 W83 

Effect of prices on consumer demand for agricultural 
products; including milk, butter and margarine. 
1053 YALE, M. W. Italian cheese industry growing in 
New York State. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta. Farm 
Res. 6(2): 7. Apr. 1, 1940. 100 N48A 

Production has increased nearly 100 percent in the past 
5 years and represents nearly one -third of Italian-type 
cheese made in the United States. 



OFFICIAL SOURCES OF STATISTICS 



AUSTRALIA. BUR. OF CENSUS AND STATISTICS. 
Official year book of the commonwealth of Australia, 
no. 29-31, 1936-38. 3 v. Canberra, 1936-39. 
271 Au72C 

BELGIUM. OFFICE CENTRAL DE STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du congo Beige, v. 
58-62, 1936-1940. Bruxelles, 1936-40. 5 v. 258 B41A 

CANADA. DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 
The Canada yearbook, 1936-1940. Ottawa, 1936-40. 
5 v. 253 Ag8yc 

DENMARK. STATISTISKE DEPARTEMENT. 
Statistisk aarbog, 1936-1940. Copenhagen, 1936-40. 
5 v. 257.1 St2 

ESTONIA. BUREAU CENTRAL DE STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire de la statistique, v. 15-16, 1936-1937. 
Tallinn, 1937-38. 2 v. 267 Es83 

FINLAND. BUREAU CENTRAL DE STATISTIQUE. 
Annuaire statistique, (N. S.) v. 34-36, 1936-38. Helsinki, 
1936-38. 3 v. 267.5 St2S 

FRANCE. DIRECTION de L'AGRICULTURE. 
OFFICE DE RENSEIGNEMENTS AGRICOLES. Sta- 
tistique agricole annuelle, 1936-1938. Paris. 1937-39. 
3 v. 260 Ag8Ag 

GERMANY. STATISTISCHE3 REICHSAMT. 
Statistisches jahrbuch fur das Deutsche Reich, v. 55-57, 
1936-1938. Berlin, 1936-38. 3 v. 265 St2St 

GT. BRIT. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES. Agricultural statistics, 1936 pt. 1-2; 
1937-1938 pt. 1. London, 1937-40. 4 v. 
256.01 Ag82Ag 

IRELAND (EIRE). DEPT. OF INDUSTRY AND COM- 
MERCE. Statistical abstract, 1936-1940. Dublin, 
1936-40. 5 v. 256.12 In2S 

ITALY. ISTITUTO CENTRALE DI STATISTICA. 
Annuario statistico dell'agricoltura italiana, vol. 1, 1936- 
1938. Rome, 1940. 529 p. 261 Is7An 

LATVIA. BUREAU DE STATISTIQUE DE L'ETAT. 
Etat de l'agriculture en Lettonie, v. 11-13, 1936-1938. 
Riga, 1937-1939. 3 v. 267 L354E 



LITHUANIA. CENTRALINIS STATISTIKOS BIURAS. 
Annuaire statistique, v. 10-12, 1937-1939. Kaunas, 1938- 
40. 3 v. 267 L71L 

LUXEMBOURG. OFFICE DE STATISTIQUE. 
Apercu statistique. Annexe a l'Annuaire official, 1936- 
1939. Luxembourg, 1936-39. 4 v. 258 L97A 

NETHERLANDS. CENTRAAL BUREAU VOOR DE- 
STATISTISK Jaarcijfers voor Nederland, 1936-1939. 
'S-Gravenhage, 1937-40. 4 v. 259 N38 

NETHERLANDS. DIRECTIE VAN DEN LANDBOUW. 
Verslag over den landbouw in Nederland, 1936-1938. 
'S-Gravenhage, 1937-39. 3 v. 12 N38 

NEW ZEALAND. CENSUS AND STATISTICS DEPT. 
The New Zealand official year-book, 1936-1940. 5 v. 
Wellington, 1936-40. 271.2 R26N 

NORWAY. STATISTISKE CENTRALBUREAU. 
Jordbruksstatistikk (Landbruksareal og husdyrhold M. V.) 
1936-1938. Oslo, 1936-39. 3 v. 257.2 St2La 

NORWAY. STATISTISKE CENTRALBUREAU. 
Statistisk arbok for Norge, 1936-1940. Oslo, 1936-40. 
5 v. 257.2 St2S 

PORTUGAL. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTA- 
TISTICA. Anuario estatistico, 1936-1938. Lisbon. 
1937-40. 4 v. 264 F49A 

SCOTLAND. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Agri- 
cultural statistics, v. 25-27, 1936-1938, Edinburgh, 
1938-40. 3 v. 256.01 Sco82A -„ 

SWEDEN. STATISTISKA CENTRALBYRAN. 
Statistisk arsbok for Sverige, 1936-1940. Stockholm, 
1936-40. 5 v. 257.3 St2Nc 

SWITZERLAND. STATISTISCHES BUREAU. 
Statistisches jahrbuch der Schweiz. 1936-1939. 
Berne 1937-40. 4 v. 262 St2S 

U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. Agricultural 
statistics, 1936-1940. Washington, 1936-40. 5 v. 
1 Ag84Yas 



INDEX 







Item 






Item 








Item 






Item 


Abbott F H 




r 


Bennett K R 




~BM 


Butter—Continued. 






Butter' — Continued. 






Abbott J S 




876 


Bentham L C 




571 


consumption- 


-continued. 




prices — continued. 






Abele C A 


m 


877 


Bercaw L O 




891-2 


See also Families 


, low in- 


regulation — continued. 




Abraham S 




994 


Beresford H 




393 


come, distribution of butter 


Estonia 




541 


Accredited Milk Scheme 




Bergfeld A J 




893 


to 








Europe 




934 


British 91 


24» 


280 


Berlin Institut fur 






demand 








Germany 


288 


606 




356 


801 


Konjunkturforschung 


191 


Great Britain 




259 






847 


Acidity in ice cream 




Berry A E 




13 


Sweden 






1052 


Netherlands 


464 


641 


mixes 




232 


Bertrand R 




192 


futures trading 




643 


Sweden 


617 


725 


Agenjo Cecilia C 




878 


Besana G 




14 






948-9 


Switzerland 




421 


Agr. Adjust. Act 


1027 


Biddle F 




142 


grading and standardiza- 




retail n Sweden 




15 






1044 


Bishop G R 


870 


894 


tion 


12 


156 


234 


supports 




49 


Agr. Mktg. Agreement 




Bitzan R 




193 


379-81 


440 


485 


490 


Ireland 




833 


Act436 638 735 


931 


1001 


Black J D 




895 


642 835 


851 


947 


985 


Sweden 




1052 


Agr. Mktg. Acts, G< 


. Brit. 


276 


Blanch G T 




896 






1020 


1045 


production 287 


438 


538 






492 


Blanford C 476 


671-4 


820 


California 






201 


623 838- 


1038 


Aktiebolaget Alka 




175 


Blanford C J 




194-5 


Canada 






269 


Albania 




719 


Alberta. Dept. Agr. 




16 




473-5 


897 


Denmark 




462 


596 


Australia 




259 


Alka milk bottle sealing 




Blink G J 




190 


Eire 






597 


Belgium 




719 


machine 




175 


BlundeU J E 




36-7 


Finland 






298 


Bulgaria 




719 


Allen R H 




879 


Boker H 




675 


Germany 






397 


costs 437A 


587 


797 


Allred C E 2 


46G 


580 


Bond G E 




196 


Iowa 




96 


360 






991 


Aluminum foil 




741 


Bonow M 




15 


Netherlands 






756 


Austria 




316 


Amer. Assoc, cf Medical 




Booker H S 




676 


Oregon 






201 


Canada 302 


373 


396 


Milk- Comns 


99 


881 


Boucher G P 16 


536 


677 


Wisconsin 






754 


Alberta 




582 


Amer. Chamber of Com. in 




Bowling G A 


66 


293 


industry 






446 


Manitoba 




582 


France 




176 


Brabant Van 




197 


Nebraska 






549 


Saskatchewan 




582 


Amer. Dairy Sci. Assoc. 


461 


Brandt K 




477 


Italy 






912 


Idaho 




393 


Amer. Fares Econ. Assoc. 


336 


Brannon J M 




81 


labeling 




1 


738 


New Zealand 


136 


337 


Amer. Munic. Assoc. 




177 


Breazeale D F 




360 


marketing 


46 


275 


791 


Denmark 


259 


719 


Amer. Pub.Kealth Assoc. 




Breed R S 173 


198 


678 






839 


947 


Estonia 


541 


719 


Com, on ^Milk and Dairv 








814 


Belgium 






291 


Finland 




719 


Prod. 


248 


512 


Bremer H E 




679 


Canada 






954 


Greece 




719 


Amess A H R 




3 


Bremer K 




199 


costs 






437 


Iceland 




719 


Andersen L F 




462 


Bressler R G Jr 


478 


899 


Germany 




477 


606 


Iowa 






Anderson E F 




660 


Bridges A 


680-82 


Minnesota 






755 


Butler County 




802 


Anderson H B 




178 


Bristol U. Dept. of Agr. and 




New Zealanc 






10 


Irish Free State 




597 


Anderson L C 




882 


Hort. 




36-7 


Oregon 






1050 


Latvia 




119 


Andes J 




179 


Broadbent D A 




896 


postwar 






793 


Lithuania 




719 


Arbuckle W S 


592-3 


807 


Brock F D 




900 


regulation 








Minnesota 




646 


Ark. Agr. Col- 




166 


Bronson W H 


200 


895 


Estonia 






307 


Netherlands 




259 


Armentrout W W 




5 


Brooke Sir B 




17 


Germany 






397 


New York 




109 


Armstrong T V 




828 


Brother G H 




683 


Great Britain 


729 


865 


New Zealand 




259 


Arnold L 


463 


661 


Brown A A 




584-5 


Italy 






268 


Norway 




719 


Vshby A W 




180 


Brown A J 


201 


479 


Norway 






359 


on farms 




846 


Australian Equalization 




Brown B 




686 


moisture test 






186 


Poland 




719 


Scheme 




767 


Brown C A 




18 


nutritive value 




627 


regulation 




432 


Avenex 




229 


Brown E F IP 


687 


301-6 


packing and packages 


35 


Rumania 




719 








Brown 3 H 


480 


688 


210 


229 


314 


741 


Sweden 


15 


719 


Babbitt M 




181 


Brown H L 




20 




765 


804 


947 


Switzerland 




719 


Baccheti S 




182 


Brown L O 




481 


Connecticut, 


Bridgeport 


425 


Texas 




482 


Battel an J 6 


464-5 


884 


Browne F L 




831 


Germany 




272 


390 


types 




275 


Bacon L B 




18S 


Brucellosis 


430 


573 


Illinois 






581 


Yugoslavia 




719 


Baker O E 




466 


Buck RE 




607 


Italy 






268 


quality 581 


594 


883 


Bakkes H K 




467 


Buckingham S M 
Buechei F A 




889 


Michigan, D- 


stroit 




367 


California 




1 


Baldwin F B 




662 




432 


weights 






713 


Illinois 




479 


Ballard C D 




544 


Buell R L 




690 


prices 94 


143 


425 


438 


regulation 






Baltzer A C 


170-1 


673 


Buffalo U. Bur. Business & 




446 


601 


804 


888 


Belgium 




197 


Barnhart J L 




393 


Social Res. 




504 


Belgium 




291 


495 


California 




595 


Barns 






Bulmer J 




483 


California, San Francisco 


Denmark 


308 


331 


sanitation 


118 


881 


Bulmer L C 




484 






201 


479 


Germany 


212 


434 


Barr W L 




885 


Bundesen H N 




202-3 


Canada 






940 


Utah 




618 


Barsky G 




867 


Burgess L A 
Burlingame B B 




185-6 


Connecticut, 


Bridgeport 


425 


research 




990 


Bartlett R W 


7-8 184-6 




204 


Denmark 






604 


residues, utilization 


14 


468-9 601 663-6 886-9 


Burtis E L 


848 


J08-9 


effects of tariff 




576 


sanitation, regulation 


512 


Barns 




392 


Business Res. Corp. 




800 


England 






531 


Wisconsin 




944 


Basic-Surplus Plan 


18 


21, 


Butler J B 




691 


France 




76 


247 


storage and warehousing 






179 


1015 


Butter 


178 


371 


Great Britain 


25& 


621 


costs 


795 


947 


Baudoin 




392 


consumer preferences. 




Illinois 






479 


Germany 




390 


Bauer H 




187 


Burlington, Vt. 




508 


Chicago 


201 


479 


775 


supply, world 




675 


Bauer P T 




667 


consumption 


627 


947 








948 


surplus 




69 


Baxter T 


9 


470 






1Q38 


Minnesota 






646 


Canada 693 


767 


954 


BeU E W 188 


582 


890 


Belgium 




495 


New York 






584 


tariff 


576 


690 


Bell R W 




189 


Canada 




940 


New Zealand 




10 


136 


trade 538 604 


838 


947 


Belshaw K 




10 


Minnesota 




646 








604 


Australia 




767 


Bendixen H A 


11-12 


190 


Minneapolis 




699 


regulation 






465 


Canada 




840 




471-2 


668 


Sweden 




15 


Argentina 
Australia 






659 


Denmark 


308 


331 


Bennett J J Jr 




574 








6 


464 


767 


subsidies 




49 






















Sweden 




85 



65 



Item 



Item 



Item 



Butter--Continued. 




Casein- -Continued. 






Cheese — Continued. 






transportation 




production 189 


251 


265 


packing and packages 


273 


bibliography 


697 


538 


740 


831 


313 


472 


506 


costs, France 


247 


France 




329 


Canada 




911 


refrigeration 


79 


statistics 




1021 


Germany 




272 


utilization 


1006 


storage and warehousing 


831 


Wisconsin 




244 


ice cream mixes 


591 


trade 265 


538 


831 


prices 122 


143 


884 


regulation 


432 


utilization 251 


580 


787 


Canada 




940 


Butter substitutes 


69 


805 831 


868 


947 


France 


76 


247 


consumption 


665 




1006 


1034 


Illinois, Chicago 




158 


See also Margarine. 




adhesives 




265 


New Zealand 


10 


136 


Butterfat 




film material 




683 


regulation 






prices 306 446 


836 


foods 




265 


Estonia 




541 


Canada 


840 


Germany 


350 


405 


Europe 




934 


Minnesota 


1017 


insecticides 




265 


Germany 


241 


847 


New Zealand 


337 


medicines 




265 


Netherlands 




641 


Oklahoma 


306 


paper 




265 


Switzerland 




421 


production costs 


991 


plastics 265 


683 


1034 


supports, Eire 




833 


California 


204 


synthetic wool 




683 


production 231 


287 


312 


tests 75 


78 


textiles 




265 


519 538 


838 


846 


utilization 


136 


Caskey W 




21-2 




1021 


1038 


See also Milk, butterfat 




Caskey W F 


185 


636 


Albania 




719 


content. 




Casseiman P H 




940 


Belgium 




719 


Buttermilk 


178 


Cassels J M 128 


183 


208 


Bulgaria 




719 


consumption 


1038 






489 


Canada 




693 


Canada 536 


940 


Caulfield W J 




972 


costs 34 


338 


437A 


prices, Canada 


940 


Cell-glass for butter 










797 


problems 


119 


packaging 




314 


Austria 




316 


production 


1038 


Cent. Milk Distributive 




Canada 


302 


396 


utilization 251 651 


947 


Com. 




58 


Minnesota 




126 




1049 


Chain stores 






New Zealand 


136 


337 


England 


207 


milk marketing 


7 


208 


Denmark 




719 


France 


329 


Buffalo, N. Y. 




670 


Eire 




347 


Germany 


389 


taxation, Wisconsin 




209 


England 




347 


Buttermilk, dried. See 




Champaign Co. Milk 






Estonia 




719 


Dried buttermilk. 




Producers Assoc- 




841 


Europe 




347 


Butterworth T H 


692 


Champaign-Urbana Dairy 


1008 


farm, Great Britain 


727 






Champlin L F 




799 


Finland 




719 


Cadwallader R C 


487 


Cheese 




34 


Germany 




347 


Calif. Agr. Col. 


205 


Canada 




206 


Greece 


_ 


719 


Ext. 204 


515 


consumer preferences 


472 


Iceland 




719 


Calif. Agr. Expt Sta. 145 


1007 


Tennessee, Knoxville 


880 


Illinois 




161 


Giannini Found Agr. Econ 




Vermont, Burlington 


508 


Italy 




182 


See Giannini Found. Agr 




consumption 




1038 


Latvia 




719 


Econ. 




Canada 


677 


940 


Lithuania 




719 


Calif. Dept. Agr. 164 


488 


Montreal 




71 


Nebraska 




550 


595 


861 


Oshawa 




71 


New York 




875 


Calif. U. Bur. Pub. Admin. 


226 


demand 




472 


Norway 




719 


Cambridge U. Dept. Agr. 




France 




176 


Poland 




719 


Farm Econ. Br. 


992 


grading and standardiza- 




Rumania 




719 


Cambridge Food Recording 


tion 156 


234 


407 


St. Lawrence Valley 


374 


Scheme for Dairy Cows 


992 


440 


490 


1045 


Sweden 




719 


Camenga C C 


910 


Canada, Manitoba 




269 


Switzerland 




719 


Canad.Polit.Sci. Assoc. 


236 


France 




402 


Texas 286 


482 


961 


Canada Bur. Statis. 


206 


Germany 




241 


Yugoslavia 




719 


Canada Dept. Agr. 16 


677 


international 




782 


quality 273 


402 


618 




955 


Netherlands 




756 


regulation 


241 


455 


Dairy Products Div. 


911 


industry 






refrigeration 




745 


Mktg. Serv. 


693 


France 




782 


sales by types 




533 


Econ Div. 


940 


Illinois 




161 


sanitation, regulation 


512 


Canned milk, See Condensed 


Minnesota 




126 






944 


milk; Evaporated milk. 




Netherlands 




782 


trade 347 


538 


838 


Cans 




public relations 


493 


533 






845 


metal, for ice cream 


548 






790 


Canada 


767 


771 




558 


Wisconsin 


104 


708 


regulation, Sweden 


85 


costs 


746 


Italy 




912 


transportation 






valve-vented, for cheese 


506 


marketing 






bibliography 




697 


Capstick E 


207 


Canada 




771 


costs, France 




247 


Carpenter P 


1050 


costs 




437A 


types 




273 


Cartons 




methods 




790 


utilization 250 


493 


1006 


design 


181 


New York 




875 


Cheese, Cheddar 






Casalim M 


912 


New Zealand 




10 


grading and standardiza- 




Casein 14 


287 


Oregon 




1050 


tion 


768 


971 


Italy 


912 


post-war 




792 


packing and packag 


es 


424 


packing and packages, 




regulation 










1048 


Germany 


272 


Great Britain 




729 


prices 




786 


prices 


1021 


Norway 




359 


production, Nebraska 


550 


regulation, Europe 


934 








trade 




857 



Item 
Cheese, Cheshire 

marketing regulation, 

Great Britain 865 

Cheese, cottage 178 

Germany 389 

marketing 404 

nutritive value 404 

packing and packages 367 

404 

prices 404 

Cheese, Emmental 317 

Cheese, Hollander 347 

Cheese, Italian-type 1053 

Cheese, skim-milk 

grading and standards 440 
Cheese, Swiss 104 

packing and packages 1048 
Cheese, Tilsiter 347 

Cheese boxes, design and 

labeling 911 

Chicago. Mayor Kelly Milk 

Ordinance 202 

Chicago Mercantile Exch. 626 
643 
Children, milk consumption 

172 730 
Chinn A 694 

Chiplets 210 

Chocolate coatings 155 

Chocolate milk 

grading and standardiza- 
tion 430 932 980 

industry, public relations 932 



packing and packages 


367 


production 155 


868 


Claborn H V 


817 


Clausen P 


211 


Clauss W 212-3 


490 


Clement C E 214 


491 


Clement F M 


215 


Clerkin P 


216 


Cocoa 


155 


Cohen R 492 395-6 


Cohen R L 


23 


Colebank A W 636 


716 


Colvin E M 


697 


Combs W B 


46 


Com. of Invest. for England 


58 
696 


Com. on Milk Frod.Prob. 


Mass. 


562 


Concentrated milk 




consumer preferences 


150 


consumption 


1038 


packing and packages 


272 


prices, Ohio 


64 


production 


1038 


quality 


150 


stocks, Canada 


206 


Condensed milk 




consumption 


663 


British Malaya 


366 


Canada 


536 


grading and standardiza- 




tion 156 440 


1024 


Netherlands 


756 


Italy 


912 


marketing, regulation, 




Great Britain 


729 


prices 888 


1023 


supports, Eire 


833 


production 287 519 


1003 


costs 964 


1023 


France 


328 


receipts, New York City 


799 


sanitation 




Spain 


878 



66 







Item 






Item 






Item 


Condensed milk — Continued. 


Cows — Continued. 






Cream — Continued. 






sanitation — continued. 




size, effect on milk 






supply, Florida 




712 


Wisconsin 




944 


production 




784 


trade 


845 


857 


trade 




1003 


tubercular 




444 


transportation 




138 


British Malaya 




366 


tuberculin-tested 




233 


costs 




138 


Great Britain 




139 


England 227 260 


503 


609 


Canada 




373 


utilization 


250 


964 


CoxR W 


646 


699 


Iowa 




803 


Condensed skim milk 




591 


Craig G H 




223 


Massachusetts 


586 


1010 






868 


Crawford W S 




880 


New York 




162 


Conforti E 




493 


Crazannes C De 




224 


utilization 591 


615 


973 


Conklin C T 




494 


Cream 






Maine 




919 


Conn. Agr. Col. Ext. 




345 


butterfat content 




240 


Cream, canned, discolora- 




Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta. 




285 


care and handling 




947 


tion 




74 


Conn. Milk Mktg. Program 




Alabama, Birmingham 


484 


Cream, frozen, utiliza- 




Com. 25 219-20 


consumer preferences, 




tion 




1006 


Consumers' Com. for 






Vermont, Burlington 


508 


Cream, sour 






England 




26 


consumption 




1038 


grading and standardization, 


Container caps 






Canada 536 


940 


955 


Arkansas 




166 


aluminum 




217 


estimating methods 


640 


packing and packages, 




See also Milk bottle 


caps 




New York 




612 


Detroit, Mich. 




367 


Containers 






Buffalo 




894 


utilization in butter 




432 


fiber, for milk 




649 


New York City 


i 


672-3 


Creameries 




137 


glass. See Milk bottles. 




Rochester 




450 


management 


582 


947 


metal, for milk 




644 


grading and standardiza- 




price problems 




305 


paper 






tion 110 115 


137 


156 


See also Butter. 






for dairy products 




343 


234 240 


440 


571 


Credicott J W 




30 






367 


587 620 


839 


947 


Cripps J 225 


498-5'. 


costs 




1043 






973 


Crowe L K 




914 


for ice cream 


548 


558 


Australia 




523 


Culver D C 




226 


costs 




746 


Canada, Manitoba 




269 


Cumber W J 




227 


for milk 42 


133 


142 


equipment 


759 


770 


Cunningham L C ! 


31-3 


228 


469 476 


578 


634 


Mid-western States 


378 




502 


915 


649 724 


828 
944 


886 
974 


Minnesota 
supervision 




152 
340 


Currie J R 




503 


costs 


469 


723 


Wisconsin 




754 


Dahlberg A C 




702 


sanitation 


198 


589 


market area, Rochester, 




Dahle C D 




229 


602 603 


622 


814 


N. Y. 




450 


Dairies 








832 


1002 


marketing 






sanitation 


478 


881 


rail-truck 




101 


Arkansas 




166 


See also Dairy plants. 




types 






costs, Massachusetts 


90 


Dairy farms 




3 


for cream 




217 






1010 


England 




290 


for ice cream 




548 


Illinois 




479 


Florida, Miami area 


712 


for milk 


423 


894 


Iowa 




803 


Illinois 




922 


Italy 




268 


Maine 


706 


919 


Louisiana 




925 


regulation 




430 


New York City 




897 


Kentwood area 




924 


sizes 


894 


974 


regulation 






management 


190 


509 


wax, for milk 




588 


California 




87 




545 


867 


See also Cans: Milk bottles: 


District of Columbia 854-5 


California 




1007 


Milk jugs; Packing 


and 




Great Britain 




729 


San Joaquin County 


204 


packages; and subhead 




packing and packages 


217 


Canada, Ontario 




530 


packing and packages 




Germany 




272 


733-4 


935 


under names of dairy prod- 


prices 






England 36 


511 


866 


ucts. 






Canada 




940 


Florida 




776 


Cooke B A 




698 


Elwell Plan 




384 


Maine 




1042 


Cools L J 




495 


Maine 




919 


Michigan 


170 


873 


Cooper R J 




895 


New York City 


672 


Nebraska 




318 


Co-op. Cong. Parliamentary 




regulation 




587 


New York 114 


502 


783 


Com. 




58 


Europe 




934 


Pennsylvania 




885 


Cooperatives. See Dairy 




Minnesota 




152 


Chester County 




311 


industry, cooperative asso- 


New York 




40 


Wales 




866 


ciations. 






supports, Eire 




833 


West Virginia 




1026 


Corbett R B 


221 


production 287 


312 


1038 


Maryland 




38 


Corbin C I 




27 


quality 519 


594 


883 


Michigan 




171 


Council of State Govts. 


28 


California 




1 


Minnesota 




1017 






806 


Illinois 




479 


Mississippi 




529 


Cowan H B 




913 


Kansas 




67 


Nebraska 




550 


Cowden T K 29 


327 


336 


Michigan 




953 


Northeastern States 




494 


Cows 






Utah 




618 


New York 


32 


915 


Canada 




206 


receipts, New York 


City 


799 


Ohio 




967 


costs and returns 




871 


sales 




80 


sanitation 






feeds. See Feeds. 






New York, Buffalo 




894 


regulation 
Finland 




662 


freshening 




205 


New York City 




671 




243 


prices 






sanitation 






Pennsylvania 




950 


New York 




94 


Eastern States 




615 


Vermont 




679 


Tennessee 




460 


Mid-western States 


615 


Scotland 




653 


sanitation, regulation 


99 


New York 




813 


size 




345 


190 688 


806 


881 


Wisconsin 




943 


Styrian Enns Valley 




193 



Item 

Dairy farms — Continued. 

Vermont 532 926 

Champlain Valley 68 196 

Wisconsin 550 922 

Dairy industry 169 611 

687 766 

Albania 719 

Belgium 719 

bibliography 853 891 

Bulgaria 719 

California, San Joaquin 

County 515 

. Canada 206 302 395-6 

Fraser Valley 302 

Manitoba 269 

Connecticut, New Haven 825 

cooperative associations 936 

Illinois, Chicago 158 

Maryland, Baltimore 157 

Massachusetts, Boston 157 

Missouri, St. Louis 157 

Ohio, Cincinnati 157 

costs and returns 112 132 

357 

Austria 316 

Denmark 462 596 719 

England 128 616 810 

equipment 519 

Estonia 386 541 719 

Europe 326 

Finland 719 

France 224 

Germany 266 288 405 

471 477 774 

Great Britain 168 281-2 

462 808 

Greece 719 

Iceland 719 

Iowa 907 

Irish Free State 597 

Italy 24 182 431 

large scale organization 936 

Latvia 719 

Lithuania 719 

Minnesota 755 959 

New England 1036 

New York 411 789 821 

824 1012 

New Zealand 136 375 

Norway 719 

Poland 719 

problems 312 

public relations 169 238 

245 253 258 264 

416 422 657 715 

506 

Denmark 399 

England 362 

Great Britain 57 280 

524 

Massachusetts 348 

New York City 518 612 

Scotland 527 

regulation 

bibliography 414 

Germany 471 

research 131 1025 

Rumania 719 

Sweden 85 419 617 719 

Switzerland 719 

Tennessee 874 

Vermont 334 

Virginia 235 

Wales 616 

Washington 120 

Wisconsin 209 652 716 

Yugoslavia 719 



67 



Item 
Dairy industry- -Continued. 

See a ls o Dairy farming; Milk. 
Dairy industry Act, 
Canada 911 

Dairy Industry Com. 34 

Dairy organizations 
Germany 266 

Oregon 1050 

See also Dairy industry, 
cooperative associations. 
Dairy plants. See Milk plants. 
Dairy Produce (Price 
Stabilization) Act, 
Ireland 542 

Dairy products 287 

care and handling 936 

Germany 266 

consumer preferences 510 
consumption 208 333 357 
416 437A 466 1038 
England, Oxford 361 

Germany 339 

Tennessee 2 

Texas 482 

Vermont, Burlington 508 
510 
See also Families, low 
income, distribution of 
dairy products to; Income, 
relation to consumption, of 
Hairy products, 
delivery 
costs 442 

New York City 195 

grading and standardiza- 
tion 3 156 234 971 
Germany 213 
Netherlands 756 
New Zealand 375 
Oregon 368 1050 
Great Britain 539 
Italy 912 
marketing 159 416 545 
856 863 928 958 
costs 159 
Mississippi 529 
New York 575 
New York City 195 
Germany 266 477 
Great Britain 276 
Illinois, Chicago 158 
Minnesota, Twin City 
area 160 
New Zealand 10 
regulation 149 439 621 
624 720 772 938 
977 1027 1030 
California 654 
France 123 
Germany 563 
Great Britain726 729 865 
Italy 346 
Maryland, Baltimore 157 
Massachusetts, Boston 157 
Missouri, St. Louis 157 
New York City 441 
New Zealand 10 
Ohio, Cincinnati 157 
research 73 121 
roadside 92 
services 258 
Sweden 572 
Wisconsin 716 
packing and packages 42 127 
New v Zealand 375 
Wisconsin 1041 



Item 

Dairy products — Continued. 

prices 39 143 169 333 

357 460 850 958 

1021 

Canada 206 236 

farm 262 

France 392 

futures 626 

Germany 339 

Great Britain 23 

Michigan, Detroit 775 

New York 94 

New Zealand 10 

regulation 442 663 858 

1022 

California 654 

Europe 934 

Great Britain 726 

Netherlands 363 

supports 261 

Netherlands 83 

Sweden 572 621 

460 

652 

262 357 437A 

740 939 1038 

719 

719 

719 

205 

170-1 873 

719 

719 

448 719 

408 

266 339 

719 

719 

719 

719 

719 

719 

1025 

719 

1021 

719 

719 

874 

482 

719 



Item 
Dairy products— Continued, 
utilization 155 313 715 
787 805 
France 224 

research 1025 

See also specific prodacts. 
Dairy Prod. Mktg Assoc 928 
Dairy science, development, 
Great Britain 764 

Dairying. See Dairy farms; 
Dairy industry. 
Dairymen's League 575 822 



Tennessee 

Wisconsin 
production 
538 

Albania 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

costs 
Michigan 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

Florida 

Germany 

Greece 

Iceland 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Norway 

Poland 

research 

Rumania 

statistics 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Yugoslavia 
quality 

control 
France 
Netherlands 

regulation 
Italy 

research 
receipts, Tennessee, 

Knoxville 

New York City 
sanitation 

regulation 

research 
shipments, Wisconsin 



Estonia 
Germany 
statistics 
transportation 
bibliography 
Minnesota 



Dalla Torre G 
Danker s W H 
Darlington J B 
Davidson D R 
Davis E M 
Davis W P 
Dawe C V 
Dean A S 
Del Guerra M 
Deloach D B 
De Paul U Res Bur 
Desmond Act, California 
630 
Deutsche Markenbutter 
Devault S H 
Dewhurst J F 
Dietrich F J M 
Dietze C Von 
Dinsdale DH 
Dixey R N 
Doan F J 
Donley J E 
Dooling M 
Dougherty D S 
Douthitt Corp 
DowG F 
Downs FHJr 
Downs P A 234 

Drew R J 

Dried buttermilk, trade 
Dried milk 34 

consumption 



271 
756 
169 
230 
1025 

880 
778 
441 
287 



351 442 

1025 

880 

surplus 261 703 917 

tariff 318 

trade 10 154 169 452 

538 645 857 889 

1027 1033 

541 

339 

539 



41 

684-5 



706-7 

914 
592 



230 
703 
916 
809 

35 

917 

36-37 

504 

14 
918 
800 
488 
632 
212 

38 
826 
231 

39 
505 
233 

42 
705 
809 
319 

43 
919 
921 
1045 
807 
857 

43 
1038 



grading and standardization 



France 

Netherlands 
Italy 
marketing 46 

regulation, Great 
Britain 
packing and packages 
prices 

production 251 287 
1063 

Canada 

France 
quality 
trade 

Great Britain 
utilization 250 365 



401 
756 
912 

818 



729 
272 

ms 

557 
1038 
818 
328 
401 
1003 
139 
557 
868 

Dried skim milk. See Non-fat 
milk solids. 

Drinker G 

Drummond I C 

Drummond W M 236 

Duane M 



697 
959 



DuckRW 
Dugan Mrs F C 
Durand L Jr 
Durham H L 
Duryee W B 
Duryee WH 

Eastlack J O 



708 



235 
190 
302 
45 
507 
237 
922 
702 
709-10 
238 

239 



Item 
Eckles C H ~M 

Eddy-Rucker-Nickels Co 864 
Edel H 240 923 

Efferson J N 924-25 

Efkes U 241 

Eggs 

consumption, Tennessee 

futures trading 643 

marketing, Belgium 

production 

trade 
Ehrlich G 
Ehrstrom W 
Ellenberger H 3 



Elwell Plan 



384 701 



2 

948 
291 
538 
538 
242 
243 
508-10 
711 
882 
953 
275 
302 



Elwood creamery 
English R E 
English Milk Marketing 
Scheme. See Milk Marketing 
Schemes, Great Britain. 
Ertel H 245 

Erwin RE 27 

Esche E 246 

Etling J 247 

European War, 1914-18 

effect on prices 23 850 

Evans D M 511 

Evans H E 300 

Evans R M 926 

Evaporated milk 
consumer preference 



34 
993 
1049 
819 
536 
674 



consumption 153 663 
Canada 

New York City 672 
See also Income, relation 
to consumption, of evapo- 
rated milk, 
demand 1011 

grading and standardiza- 
tion 156 440 1024 
marketing 
Connecticut, New Haven 825 
costs, Wisconsin 467 
prices 819 1011 1023 
New York City 613 
672-74 
retail 469 
production 287 312 846 
costs 1023 
Wisconsin 467 
Germany 211 
New York 109 
Texas 482 
sales, retail, New York 
City 476 673-74 
utilization 250 1006 

Fabian F W 47 248 

Fairer J A 249 

Families, low-income 
attitudes toward milk 
companies, New York 
area 780 

distribution of butter to, 
Canada 954 

distribution of dairy 
products to 928 

distribution of milk to 570 
844 963 
See also Income, relation 
to consumption. 
Faron S 927 

Farr R 513 

Farr R H 1019 



68 







Item 






Item 


Feed 






Gauntt E A 




"267 


costs 95 143 


345 


446 


Gawlikowski I T 




264 




669 


996 


Gehl's Guernsey Farms 


923 


England 37 


107 


353 


Genin G 


265 


519 


505 680 


691 


760 


Genung A 3 




939 




869 


992 


Geraghty M L 




559 


Great Britain 




682 


Germany Reichsministerium 


Iowa 




907 


fur Ernahrung und 






New York 33 


502 


584 


Landwirtschaft 




266 


Scotland 


496-7 


Germany Reichsnahrstand 


471 


Vermont 196 


310 


334 


Geyer D N 




721 


Wales 


869 


880 


Geyer K 




895 


West Virginia 


66 


289 


Geyer K E 




520 


effects on milk production 952 


Ghezzi E 




268 


from whey 


207 


342 


Giannini Found. Agr Econ. 




homegrown, Austria 


330 


146 


-8 427-8 


Louisiana 




925 


Gibson L A 




269 


production 






Gifford C G 




52L 


costs 




714 


Gillett R L 




270 


Finland 




448 


Giltner W 




722 


Sweden 




546 


Giroux I 




271 


Fellows E S 




741 


Glasgow U Hannah Dairy 




Fellows I F 




513 


Res. Inst 




172 


Fermentation test 




528 


Glass Container Assoc, of 




Fermented milk 




287 


Amer. 


723-4 


Ferrari A 


250 


251 


Gockel A 




272 


Field L 




826 


Golding N S 


« 


273 


Filled milk 




753 


Goldsmith I B 




54 


Finneran E J 




252 


Golte W 




274 


Fisher R C 




253 


Gosney G F 




276 


Fiske M 




779 


Grade A Milk Assoc. 




633 


Fleming R J 




801 


Grade A Milk Law, Illinois 962 


Fleming W C 


204 


515 


Gt Brit. Com. of Invest 




55 


Fletcher C W 




254 


Gt. Brit. Food Council 




278 


Flint Ted 




537 






726 


Fla-Dept Agr Milk.Insp 




Gt. Brit. Milk Mktg.Bd 




9 


Div. 




712 


56-58 91 


96 


141 


Foelsch G G 640 


713 


851 


279-81 470 


483 


498 


Foils, for packaging 






524 565 


647 


667 


butter 




314 


727-30 1039-40 


cheese 




424 


Gt. Brit Milk Mktg.Scheme 




See also Aluminum foil. 




See Milk Mktg- Schemes 




Food and Drug Act 




738 


Great Britain 






Forest H L 619 


636 


928 


Gt- Brit Min. of Agr. and 








1019 


Fisheries 57-8 227 280-2 


Foster A H 




255 




>24-6 


730 


Foster D H 




270 


GtBrit.Min.of Food 


930 


1040 


Fouse E G 




29 


Gt.Brit.Min.of Health 




731 


Fouts E L 




1045 


Advisory Committee on 




Fowler H C 




714 


Nutrition 




483 


Frank L C 27 


48 


303 
717 


Gt. Brit, Scot. Off 


59 


283 
527 


Frederick J K 




257 


Committee of Investigation 


Fribley Mrs W E 




258 


for Scotland 




60 




516 


715 


Greenberg P 




567 


Friedman I K 




517 


Greene H T 




61 


Frietema H J 




259 


Greenway J E 




809 


Frisbie D M 




518 


Gregg V L 




166 


Froker R K 




716 


Griffith S 


779 


974 


Frozen Dessert Ordinance 




Griffiths J D 




300 


Tennessee, Memphis 


'-277 


Griffiths M J 




528 


Frozen desserts 






Grigsby R M 




931 


sanitation 






Grimes M 




284 


regulation 512 


561 


859 


Guild H C 




62 






877 


Guin M 




529 


See also Ice cream 


Sherbet 








Fryhofer C W 




642 


Hadary G 




932 


Fuchs A W 




718 


Haenszel W M 




504 


Futures trading 




643 


Hale R W 


63 


732 


Chicago 




626 


Hall Sir D 
Hamilton A B 




764 
38 


Garrad G H 




260 


Hamilton W 




629 


Garrett F 




581 


Hamilton W A 




65 


Gasser E 




719 


Hammerberg D O 


285 


933 


Gaumnitz E W 


49 


50 


Hannay A M 




934 


51 52 


261 


262 


Hanson F E 




286 


619 


720 


929 


Hanson J R 


636 


1019 



Item 
Hare H R 530 733-4 

835 

Harmon E M 735 
Harper Adams Agr.Col.Dept. 

Econ. 6S1 

Harris E S 1019 

Harry E L 736 

Harvey W C 287 

Haskell W H 737 

Hauck E 288 

Hauser 392 

Hayes G G 290 

Heebink G 289 
Heifers 

costs, Northern Ireland 732 

prices, New York 94 
tuberculin-tested, Northern 

Ireland 732 

Henderson H O 289 

Henderson R 290 

Hening 3 C 702 

Henry A 291 

Hepburn N W 738 
Herrman L F 66 292-3 

Herz H 294 

Hibben R C 295 

Hilfer I 531 

Hill H 287 

Hinde W 296 

Hine G S 67 

Hitchcock J A >68 186 532 

Hoar T P 74 

Hobson A 533 

Hochleitner A 297 

Hoffman A C 716 73S 936 

Hoffman O H Jr 436 636 

Hole E 879 1017 

Holford F D 937 

Holland G 867 

Holm G E 740 

Holman C W 69 534 938 

Holman H P 939 

Holmsten E 298 
Holstein-Friesian Assoc. of 

Amer- 103 

Milk Program Comn. 387 

Homen A 298 

Homogenized milk 70 135 
535 
consumer 

preference^ 151 

marketing 151 842 

sales 80 

Hood EG 741 

Hood H P & sons 560 

Hopkins J A 907 

Hopper WC 71 536 677 940 

955 

Hopson G H 742 

Horak K 299 

Horn D W 72 

Horse and Mule Assoc, of 

Amer. 82 

Horses 

for milk delivery 82 707 

South Dakota 129 

Hotels, Consumption of cheese 

493 

Hoton L 941 

Houston J 216 

Howat G E 74 

Howe F C 942 

Howell J P 300 

Hudson S C 73 

Huebner E 943 

Huffer EG 81 

Huffman G L 944 

Hughes EM 945-6 



Humrickhouse C W 743 

Hunziker O F 947 

Ice 62 

Ice cream 34 295 

consumer preferences 454 
481 592-3 598 694 
807 829 860 
consumption 1037-8 

Illinois 516 

See al so Income, rela- 
tion to consumption, of 
ice cream, 
delivery 547 

equipment, sanitation 72 

319 
formulas 872 

grading and standardization 

47 232 248 440 
1008 1045 
Tennessee, Memphis 277 
industry, public relations 481 
1046 
marketing 
costs 30 547 

methods 773 872 

regulation, District of Co- 
lumbia 855 
packing and packages 181 
548 551 558 635 
1031 
costs 746 
IUinois, Joliet 537 
Michigan, Detroit 367 
prices 864 814 
production 287 312 519 
1038 
costs 30 309 752 
787 
Europe 11 
Nebraska 551 
regulation 248 
Texas 482 
quality 814 
judging 234 
Kansas 872 
regulation 877 
Nebraska 551 
sanitation 72 295 
regulation 47 512 658 
California 585 
Eire 284 
Pennsylvania 785 
Wisconsin 354 
testing 865 
transportation 
costs 458 
refrigeration 78 
Ice cream mixes 864 
care and handling 484 
grading and standardization 

232 248 

California 595 

production costs 581 

Ill.Agr.Col.Ext.Serv 7 

Ill.Agr.Expt.Sta, 8 185 581 

841 

I1L Cheese Mfrs.Assoc. 

public relations 161 

111 Dairy Prod.Assoc. 744 

IU.U- 883 

Dept.Dairy Husb 558 832 

887 1001 

Imper, Econ.Com.Intell.Br, 

538-9 
Income 
effects 
on prices, of dairy products 
601 



S9 



Item 
Income - -Continued, 
farm 
from dairy products 205 
New York 568 

Texas 482 

from milk 357 

relation to consumption of 
evaporated milk 674 

ice cream 516 

milk 476 536 601 672 
Wales 736 

See also Families, low in- 
come. 
Ind Milk Control Bd. 301 540 
Innis H A 302 

Institut de Recherches Ecnom 
Economiques 495 

Inst of Pacific Relations. New 
Zeal Br. 136 

Internatl. Assoc. Dairy and Milk 
Insp. 27 48 72 

Internatl. Assoc. Ice Cream 
Mfrs. 548 746 

Internatl. Assoc. Milk Dealers 

62 167 352 429 997 
Internatl. Assoc Milk Sanit. 47 
174 303 
Internatl. Conf , Agr. Econ . 200 
215 563 
Internatl, Dairy Cong. 175 

182 187 193 197 
199 207 211-3 216 
224 230-1 241-3 245-6 
250-1 264 9.68 271-2 
274 276 284 294 297-9 
308 313-7 320-2 328-32 
335 338 342-3 346 
350 359 365 383 
386 389-90 392 394 
397-404, 417-9 422-3 431 
433-4 448-9 453 455 
Internatl.Inst Agr, 541-3 747 
Internatl, Vet .Cong, 722 

Interstate trade barriers. 
See Trade barriers, inter- 
Iowa Agr. ExptSta. 96 360 
791-2 802 907 
Irish Butter Testing Sta. 597 
Irradiated milk, gee Vitamin D 
milk. 
Irwin H S 948-50 



Jackson C J 
Jackson H C 
Jackson J C 
Jackson R C 
Jacob A W 
Jacobson M S 
Jarrell T D 
JaYvik M 
Jeanneney J M 
Jennings J R 
Jensen E 
Jensen J 
Jensen J M 
Jesness O B 
Johansson I 
Johnson E H 
Johnson H C 
Johnson O M 
Johnson S M 
Johnson T D 
Johnston C I 
Jones E H 
Josephson D V 
Judicial decisions 
dairy industry 
California 



74 

305 545 

440 

951 

306 

75 

939 

307 

76 

48 

952 

308 

953 

77 959 

546 

482 

3 

547-8 

310 

311 

954-5 

748 

229 

149 969 
544 



Item 
Judicial decisions—Continued, 
milk 
containers 

New York 142 

control ■ 430 

Oregon 369 

„ 686 

marketing 429 

prices 45 821 1030 

Nebbia vs. New York 54 

Judkins H F 312 

Kahler KM 78 

Kans. State 3d of Agr. 67 

Kelly E 74S 

Kelly S 562 

Kennedy M 750-1 956 

Ky Agr ExptSta. 391 

Kessler L M 752 
Kieferle F 313-4 
Kings' Col. Newcastle upon 

Tyne Dept. Agr 505 

Kjaergaard-Jensen N 315 

KlangJ 316 

Klinefelter H E 753 

Kling H 1013 

Klueter H 754 

Knight H W 957 

Koenig N 958 

Koestler G 317 

Koller E F 755 £59 
Kollmorgen W 318 549-51 

Krauss W E 960 

Kriegel N W 961 

KrogAJ 318 

Krueger P F 552 

Kruisheer C I 756 

Kugler A 320 

Kuhrt W J 87 

Kurmann O 321 

Labor 

costs £01 

wages, West Virginia 292 

Labor, farm 923 

England 108 691 
Great Britain 505 680-1 

866 

New York 33 566 

783 

Scotland 4S7 

Vermont 196 532 

efficiency 68 345 

New York 568 



wages 
Germany 
Lactalbumin 
Lactic acid 



309 



267 

287 580 

14 740 

805 817 

Ljactoflavin 868 

Lactose 14 251 287 

580 740 787 830 

868 1006 

Lamprecht F 322 

Larsen C 83E 

Lasnet de Lanty J 323 

Lattimer J E 302 

Lauterbach AH 324 

Layson S V 48 80-1 325 

553-4 £62 

League of Nations Health Or - 

gan. 1£0 

Lecuyer R 757 

Leete C S 809 

Lefebure R 82 

Legislation 

agricultural prices, Sweden 

420 



Item 
Legislation- -Continued, 

butter 594 738 

butterfat testing, Ohio 78 
cream control, California 

86-7 
cream grading, Minnesota 

152 

cream standardization 620 

dairy industry 3 848 

856 1027-8 

California 654 

France 100 

Pennsylvania 950 

Wisconsin £43 

dairy products 14E 156 

43c 53c 

781 858 1001 
Canada 6E3 
Great Britain 276 
Massachusetts 561 
Netherlands 363 
New Zealand 375 
Oregon 368 
Wisconsin 1041 
dairy sanitation 553 
filled milk 430 
Missouri 753 
ice cream industry, Califor- 
nia 565 
milk £7 £38 
District of Columbia 854 
Germany 212 405 
Great Britain 7£6 
Illinois 349 
Indiana 301 540 743 
Ireland 542 
marketing 638 720 735 
£77 1030 
California 86-7 226 
428 488 630-2 
861 
Canada 
British Columbia 215 
Nova Scotia 102 
Great Britain 9 276 
525 616 
Italy 268 
Louisiana 931 
New York 637 610 
Pennsylvania 1051 
uniformity 103 
Wisconsin 254 
New Jersey 583 763 
New York 125 355 364 
457 
New York City 867 
Oregon £86 
Pennsylvania 583 
prices 45 487 
Connecticut 1044 
constitutionality 426 
Great Britain 492 730 
Massachusetts 1044 
New Jersey 1044 
New York 45 457 
821 1044 
New York City 613 
Oregon 686 
Pennsylvania 45 1044 
Vermont 1044 
Wisconsin 406 
sanitation 
Illinois 325 662 
Chicago 202 
Irish Free State 284 
New England 478 
New York 813 
Pennsylvania 785 
Texas 692 



Item 

Legislation- -Continued. 

milk- -continued. 

uniformity 718 

Vermont 748 

Virginia 447 

West Virginia 165 

Leroy A M 190 

Levowitz D 555 

Licenses, milk 

England 249 

Germany 187 

Latvia 394 

Massachusetts 188 372 

Light, effect on butter 390 

Lininger F F 326-7 556 

Little J L 759 

Lizee D 328-9 

Lohr L 330 

Lohse T 331 

Long H F 356 

Long W H 760-1 

Lonza-Werke Elektrochemische 

Fabriken 332 

Loomis A M 333 

La Agr ExptSta 924-5 

La State U and Agr and Mech 

Col 352 

Louwes S L 83 

Loveland E H 334 

Lucas I E 335 

Lucas P S 964 

Lucia F B 557 

Luebke B H 880 

Lueck R H 649 

Maack AC 965 

McBride C G 336 815 966-7 

McCarthy D A 762 

McClelland M 558 

MacCollom D B 562 

McCord J E 311 

McDermott L M 800 

Macdonald Col Econ Dept 757 

McDonough W F 763 

McDowall F H 84 337-8 

MacGillivray J C 339 

McGrath A E 340 
Machine-milking, Great Britain 
581 
Machines, for milking. See 
Milking machines. 

Mack M J 85 1045 

McKay G L 839 

Mackintosh J 764 

Macklin T 86-7 

MacLeod A 341 559 968 

MacLeod A G 969 

Macy H 46 765 

Maddox W V 232 

Maine. Agr. Expt. Sta. 44 

706 919 1042 

Majer G 342 

Mality H 343 

Malone C C 907 

Malott D W 560 766 

Malted milk 1038 

Manhart V C 88-9 344 
Manitoba. Dept. Agr. 

Dairy Comnr. 269 
Manitoba. Milk Control Bd. 970 

Mann A I 345 

Marchi A 346 
Margarine 

Belgium 291 

consumption 663 

Belgium 495 

demand, Sweden 1052 



70 



Item 
Margarine - -Continued, 
marketing 

control 690 
Nebraska 549 
prices 143 
Belgium 495 
Sweden 1052 
production 287 
Sweden 15 
taxation 371 
Marion J A 767 
Market analysts 780 
Marketing Agreement Amend- 
ment Act 938 
Marquardt J C 347 768 971 
Martin B F 766 
Martin D L 795 
Martin W H 72 795 
Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. 38 92 
705 
Mass. Milk Control Bd. 90 
348 
Mass. State Col. 
Dept. Bacter. and Chem. 

980 

Dept. Dairy Indus. 980 

Ext. Serv. 188 562 890 

Mastitis, bovine, control 590 
688 

Masurovsky B I 769 770 

Mattheus H T 91 

Matthews T A 349 

Maxwell SB 53 

Mayberrv R H 771 

Mead R K 92 

Meade D 92 

Meadow moor Dairies 777 

Medlock F W 356 

Mehrens B 563 

Melder F E 772 
Memphis, Tenn. Dept. Health 

277 

Menafra A 773 

Menke H H 350 

Merchant I A 351 

Mereness H A 440 

Merkel H 266 

Merket H 774 

Merrick F 924 925 

Merrill A R 345 

Methylene blue test 167 344 

528 628 

Metzger M J 352 

Meyer C H 360 

Meyrowitz A 779 974 

Michaelian M B 360 

Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. 170 

843 873 953 

Mich. Milk Prod. Assoc. 775 

Mich. State Col. 171 456 

Midland Agr. Col Dept Agr Econ 

353 564 

Mighell R L 879 

Miley D G 776 

Milk 

accreditation. See Accredited 

Milk Scheme, British. 

butterfat content 240 388 

461 507 650 925 

labeling 103 

New England 75 

tests 573 763 

buying plans 312 560 

Chicago 352 

care and handling 43 190 

252 423 577 812 

881 899 937 947 



Item 



Item 



Tilk- -Continued. 






Milk- -Continued. 






care and handling- - 


continued. 


delivering- -continued. 




Alabama, Birmingham 


484 


New York 






costs, New York City 


574 


Buffalo 




1016 


Germany 




266 


Schenectady 




984 


New York City market 


irea 


New York City r 




194-5 






474 


473 475 


995 


1013 


regulation 




99 


Wales 


501 


736 


Canada, Ontario 




13 


demand 51 


208 


1000 


certified 


480 


881 






1011 


consumer preferences 


535 


research 




163 


666 903 


906 


1049 


Sweden 




1052 


Canada 


70 


535 


flavor 






Massachusetts, Boston 


951 


effect of container 




42 


New York City 


779 


974 


research 




862 


Pennsylvania, Johnstown 


grading and standardization 






993 


156 167 


169 


174 


Vermont, Burlingt 


on 


508 


234 240 


323 


387 






510 


440 461 


490 


528 


young people 




566-7 


718 812 


881 


947 


consumption 27 


98 


153 




973 


1045 


208 422 


519 


588 


Alabama 




921 


664 709-10 


819 


827 


Eastern States 




633 


887 


895 


1000 


equipment 


759 


770 


Albania 




719 


farm 




555 


Austria 




655 


Germany 


213 


417 


Belgium 




719 


Great Britain 


168 


808 


Bulgaria 




719 


Illinois 




962 


Canada 16 


536 


940 


Chicago 




203 






955 


Moline 




296 


Denmark 




719 


Indiana 




344 


effect of price 


468 


663 


Ireland 




542 




665 


888 


New Jersey 




459 


England 




361 


New York 




904 


estimating methods 


640 


New York City 




239 


Estonia 




719 






897 


Finland 




719 


Northern Ireland 




17 


Germany 




191 






216 


Great Britain 


57 


59 


regulation 




737 


280-1 


483 


676 


Scotland 




124 




695-6 


Texas 


692 


900 


Greece 




719 


Vermont 




679 


Iceland 




719 


handling. See Milk, 


care 


and 


Italy 




24 


handling. 






Latvia 




719 


industry. See Dairy 


industry. 


Lithuania 




719 


inspection 


430 


628 


Massachusetts, Boston 


19 


costs, Illinois 




957 






951 


New York 




994 


New York 




612 


labeling 




461 


Buffalo 


504 


894 


market areas 


51 


208 


New York City 


19 


672 


Bettendorf Iowa 




1019 


Rochester 


19 


450 


Boston, Mass. 


310 


562 


Norway 




719 




586 


636 


Philadelphia 




19 


Buffalo, N. Y. 




894 


Poland 




719 


Calumet, 111. 




1019 


research 




163 


Canada 






Rumania 




719 


Calgary 




223 


Scotland 


172 


527 


Edmonton 




223 


Sweden 


419 


719 


Ontario 




935 


Switzerland 




719 


Chicago, 111. 888 




1019 


urban areas 




717 






1047 


Vermont, Burlingt 


on 


510 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


636 


639 


Wales 




736 


Council Bluffs Iowa 


1019 


Yugoslavia 




719 


Davenport, Iowa 




1019 


cooling, costs 




117 


District of Columbia 


836 


delivering 111 


599 


929 






1019 






1035 


Dubuque, Iowa 


636 


1019 


costs 20 82 


255 


442 


Fall River, Mass 


562 


636 




700 


751 


Fort Wayne, Ind. 




636 


Connecticut, New Haven 


Germany, Rhein-Westphalia 






825 






274 


England 


225 498 


Great Britain 




866 


Maine 




707 


Indiana 




540 


Minnesota, Minneapolis 


Kansas City, Mo. 




636 






701 


La Porte County, Ind. 


636 


South Dakota 




129 


Lexington, Ky. 




391 


Great Britain 


501 


930 









Item 

Milk- -Continued, 
market areas --continued. 
Louisville, Ky. 636 1019 
Lowell-Laurence, Mass 

1019 

Maine 44 919 

Moline, 111. 1019 

New Bedford, Mass 562 

New Hampshire 341 

New Orleans, La. 931 

1019 

New York City 21 125 

218 474 514 556 

574 814 910 1019 

1044 

Ogden, Utah 896 

Omaha, Nebr. 1019 

Philadelphia, Pa. 21 

556 636 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 376 556 

Providence, R. I. 1019 

Rochester, N. Y. 450 

Rock Island, 111. 1019 

St. Louis, Mo. 8 185 

636 888 103 9 1047 

San Diego, Calif. 636 

Shreveport, La. 1019 

Sioux City, Iowa 1019 

Springfield, Mass 684 

Toledo, Ohio 1019 

Topeka, Kans , 636 

marketing 3 46 103 

113 159 190 262 

387 812 856 

as public utility 977-8 

Austria, Burgenland 320 

bibliography 414 

by producers 68 

Canada, Ontario 734 

Connecticut 513 

Maine 44 

Nebraska 550 

New York 945-6 

Ohio 608 815 967 

West Virginia 292 1026 

California 145 

Los Angeles 146 

Connecticut 25 219-20 

933 

New Haven 825 

costs 21-2 98 131 

208 469 509 588 

797 826 886 895 

901 927 

California 837 

Canada, Manitoba 970 

Connecticut 285 513 

689 

New Haven 893 

Florida, Jacksonville area 

776 

Great Britain 354 

Illinois, Danville 184 

Indiana 743 

Kentucky, Lexington 391 

Maine 706-7 

Massachusetts, Boston 

90 184 1010 

Michigan, Kalamazoo 843 

Minnesota 

Minneapolis 77 

St. Paul 77 

New Jersey 811 

New York 574-5 945-6 

New York City 195 

473 824 

Vermont 443 

West Virginia 5 292 



71 



Item 

Milk- -Continued. 

marketing — continued. 

England, Tynedale 810 

Europe 144 

Germany 192 266 

Great Britain 9 55 

139-40 483 500 

565 647 

Illinois 922 

Chicago 158 823 

Rockford 834 

Italy 431 

Massachusetts 562 890 

Boston 619 823 951 

Springfield area 685 

Worcester 705 

methods 7 18 185 

257 469 650 668 

836 887 929 1013 

1035 

New England 721 981 

New York 130 218 

228 

Buffalo 670 

New York City 820 

823 897 1013 

New Zealand, Wellington 

913 

Ohio, Cincinnati 966 

Pennsylvania 29 

Chester County 3tl 

problems 336 666 

quotas, Connecticut 219' 

regulation 97 149 174 

177 199 246 294 

304 324 336 436 

489 560 616 629 

638 656 709 720 

809 895 942 969 

989 998 1004 1030 

Alabama 1018 

Austria 297 

California 86 164 226 

428 488 544 631-2 

861 1018 

Canada, British Columbia 

215 870 

Nova Scotia 102 

Connecticut 1018 

Denmark 315 

District of Columbia 854-5 

England 26 383 

Estonia 307 

France 123 

Germany 267 274 398 

433 453 563 

Great Britain 56 128 

141 180 278 282 

326 354 356 370 

410 451 524-5 726-7 

747 796 1039-40 

Illinois 349 

Indiana 301 1018 

Italy 268 

Latvia 394 

Louisiana, New Orleans 

931 

Maine 919 

Maryland, Baltimore 157 

Massachusetts 348 561-2 

890 1018 

Boston 157 200 372 

882 

Missouri, St. Louis 157 

New England 1036 

New Hampshire 1018 



Item 

Milk- -C ontinued, 

marketing— continued. 

regulation — continued. 

New Jersey 459 583 

788 1018 

New York 28 93 125 355 

364 441 514 637 

648 735 910 982 

1012 1016 1018 1044 

Northern Ireland 17 

Norway 359 

Ohio, Cincinnati 157 

Oregon 369 1018 

Pennsylvania 358 583 

585 1018 1051 

Rhode Island 1018 

Scotland 409 526 

small communities 303 

Sweden 419 725 

Vermont 748 1018 

Virginia 1018 

Wales 383 798 

Wisconsin 406 605 

1018 

Scotland 60 409 526 

services 758 

surveys 895 

Buffalo, N. Y. 670 

Chicago, 111. 800 

Great Britain 

Battersea area 676 

Somerset 410 

Milwaukee, Wis. 437 

New Hampshire 118 

New York City 974 

Ohio 967 

Pennsylvania, Luzerne 

County 762 

Switzerland 543 

Tennessee 874 

Twin City area 160 

Vermont 445 

Washington 120 

Wisconsin 922 

municipal distribution 

New Zealand, Wellington 

913 
North Carolina, Tarboro 

579 

urban communities 717 

Wisconsin 254 

non-fat solids content 75 

388 

Northeastern States 614 

Northern Ireland 17 

nutritive value 116 190 

650 688 

packing and packages 42 

61 198 423 463 

578 588-9 602 649 

723-4 828 929 944 

1035 1043 

consumer preferences 634 

costs 574 975 

Detroit, Mich. 367 

Germany 272 403 

New York 142 897 

standards 644 

See also Containers; Milk 

bottles. 

pasteurization 99 480 

costs 574 

Pennsylvania 762 

regulation 430 

Germany 187 

Illinois 325 



Item 



Mllk--Continue< 


L 






prices 7 


48 


51 


112 


208 


257 


262 


338 


384 


519 


534 


601 


611 


758 


778 


819 


905 


929 


1000 


1005 
1011 


California 








Los Angele 


s 




148 


San Diego 






147 


Canada 




236 


940 


Manitoba 






970 


Ontario 




530 


935 


Connecticut 




25 


220 


effect on 








consumptio 


n 




468 


demand 






570 


England 






564 


Midlands 






353 


farm 




132 


418 

744 


California 






146 


Indiana 






88-9 


Massachusetts 




562 








619 


New York 




822 


983 


Pennsylvania 




556 


for butter manufacture 


55 


for cheesem 
France 


aking 


76 


84 
247 


Germany 




274 


417 


Great Britain 


23 


727 


Illinois 






922 


Chicago 


158 


352 


744 
777 


Indiana 




89 


344 


Italy 






24 


Louisiana, Kentwood area 








924 


Maine 






1042 


Massachusetts 






Boston 






208 



Boston 




208 


Springfield 




685 


Worcester 




705 


Michigan 




775 


Detroit 




775 


Kalamazoo 




843 


Minnesota 






Twin City area 


160 


701 
744 


Nebraska 




318 


New England 




478 


New York 


94 


106 


142 208 


270 


411 


413 


584 


678 


New York City 
672 780 


21 


239 


820 


824 






867 


New Zealand, Wellington 






913 


Ohio 




64 


Pennsylvania 


311 


327 
999 


plans 305 


882 


976 


quantity discounts 




898 


Iowa 


751 


956 


legality 
Minnesota 


751 


40 
956 


Wisconsin 




751 


regulation 246 


323 


412 


415 429-30 


442 


465 


487 570 


629 


660 


663-5 698 


821 


888 


942 969 


976 


989 


998 


Argentina 




659 



Item 
Milk- -Continued, 
prices — continued, 
regulation - -continued. 

California 428 488 
630-2 
Canada 

British Columbia 870 

Chicago 105 

Connecticut 105 

Denmark 315 

District of Columbia 4 

854 

Eire 542 

England 26 279 383 

730 

Europe 934 

France 183 392 

Germany 183 192 267 

288 398 417 774 

847 

Great Britain 9 55 

58 180 278 282 326 

435 470 492 499 

667 695-6 726 731 

747 

Indiana 301 540 743 

Maine 919 

Massachusetts 105 188 

200 

Netherlands 641 

New England ■_ 1036 

New York 40 45 54 

105 109 130 228 

364 382 457 514 

613 735 982 1012 

1015-16" 

Northern Ireland 17 

747 

Oregon 686 918 

Pennsylvania 45 179 

916 

Rome 183 

Scotland 59 283 

Sweden 420 617 

Switzerland 421 

Wales 279 383 730 

798 

resale, fixing 427 

retail 132 469 

Great Britain 483 

Minneapolis 77 

New York City 476 

St. Paul 77 

Scotland 653 

supports 335 1027 

Great Britain 483 1040 

Sweden 546 621 1052 

Switzerland 543 

urban areas 717 

Vermont 310 443 879 

Wisconsin 744 928 

production 607 

Albania 719 

Austria 655 

Burgenland 320 

Belgium 719 

Bulgaria 719 

Canada 206 302 395 

Calgary area 223 

Edmonton area 223 

__city market areas 717 

costs 18 22 95 

112 113 143 190 

312 335 345 507 

580 588 611 698 

709 711 714 740 

797 805 849 895 

960 996-7 1000 



72 



Item 
Milk- -Continued, 
production- -continued, 
costs- -continued. 
California 147 

Marin County 1007 

San Joaquin County 204 
515 
San Joaquin Valley 1007 
Sonoma County 1007 

Canada 
Montreal area 757 

Ontario 530 733-4 935 
Connecticut 25 

England 37 107-8 

505 609 680-1 
988 992 
Bristol area 36 

Devon -Cornwall area 

290 

Midlands 353 564 

691 

Tynedale 810 

Yorkshire 760-1 

Florida, Jacksonville area 

776 

Germany 

Rhein- Westphalia area 

274 

Great Britain 233 503 

682 866 869 

Illinois 1047 

Indiana 743 

Italy 24 

Louisiana 852 

Kentwood area 924 

southeastern 925 

Maine 44 

Androscoggin County 

1042 

Oxford County 1042 

Maryland 38 

Michigan 456 

Minnesota 1017 

Missouri 1047 

New Jersey 788 

New York 32-3 114 502 

584 648 783 915 

1012 1015 

Orange County 31 

Tully Homer area 114 

568-9 784 

Northern Ireland 63 

Oregon 918 

Pennsylvania 885 916 

Chester County 311 

Scotland 496-7 653 

Styrian Enns Valley 193 

Sweden 546 

Utah 896 

Vermont 334 532 

Lake Champlain Valley 

196 

Wales 300 680-2 988 

West Virginia 289 1026 

Charleston area 293 

Fairmont area 66 

Huntington area 293 

Morgantown area 66 

Wisconsin 

Milwaukee area 923 

Denmark 719 

effect of feed 952 

effect of price 663 665 

Estonia 541 719 

Finland 448 719 

Florida 408 

Germany 266 



Item 



Item 



Item 



Milk- -Continued. 






Milk- -Continued. 






Milk- -Continued. 







production- -continued. 




sanitation- -continued. 




testing, regulation 






Great Britain 


483 


696 


Connecticut 




25 


West Virginia 




165 




727 


764 


farm methods 




521 


trade 


845 


857 


Greece 




719 


Great Britain 


462 


764 


Canada 




395 


Italy 


14 


182 


Illinois 




81 


Italy 




24 


Latvia 




719 


Massachusetts 




222 


transportation 


111 


214 


Lithuania 




719 


New England 




221 


423 519 


812 


920 


Massachusetts 




348 


New Hampshire 




118 


bibliography 




697 


Nebraska 




318 


New York 




1014 


costs 20 


22 


101 


New England 




721 


regulation 415 


442 


512 


162 185 


292 


299 


New Jersey 




573 


553 662 


698 


718 


574 727 


RS9 


920 


New York 106 


270 


814A 


722 749 


806 


877 


Boston market area 


586 






918 


908 


1001 


1032 






1010 


New York City area 


474 


Buffalo, N. Y. 




1016 


Connecticut 


285 


933 


Northeastern States 


494 


Canada, Ontario 




13 


France 




247 


Norway 




719 


Connecticut 




520 


Germany 




267 


Pennsylvania 


29 


36 

556 


Denmark 
Eire 




315 
284 


Great Britain 
Massachusetts 




58 


per cow 


68 


204 


England 




801 


Springfield 






Poland 




719 


Kent 




260 


South wick- Agawam 




problems 




545 


Europe 




941 


area 




684 


regulation 




177 


Finland 




243 


Nebraska 




550 


Germany 




405 


France 




100 


New Hampshire 




559 


Great Britain 


91 


227 


Paris 




183 






968 






370 


Germany 183 


242 


433 


Pennsylvania 




585 


Indiana 




301 


Berlin 




183 


farm to plant 




937 


Italy 




431 


Great Britain 


370 


377 


Great Britain 


41 


282 


New England 


478 


1036 


Illinois 


325 


957 


methods 


299 


321 


New Jersey 




459 


Chicago 


202 


552 


Missouri 




8 


Rumania 




719 


Italy 






New York 




162 


seasonal 


21-2 


185 


Rome 




183 


rates and services 


208 


statistics 




1021 


Kentucky 




237 


refrigeration 




79 


Sweden 419 


621 


719 


Latvia 




394 


utilization 14 


34 


43 


Switzerland 




719 


Minnesota 






84 109 


155 


287 


Tennessee 




874 


Twin City area 




160 


295 338 


444 


591 


Vermont 310 


445 


879 


New England 




478 


607 614 623 708-9 


Yugoslavia 




719 


New Jersey 




573 


797 830 


846 


868 


profits 




905 


New York 


590 


813 


877 932 


939 


955 


Austria 




330 


New York City 


239 


441 




1006 


1021 


Iowa 




907 


Northern Irelanc 


1 


17 


Albania 




719 


producer -dealer division 


Pennsylvania 




785 


Belgium 




719 






668 


Pittsburgh 




376 


Bulgaria 




719 


Vermont 




68 


Texas 




900 


Canada 


16 


955 


quality 48 


321 


519 


Vermont 




679 


Denmark 




719 






521 


Wales 




801 


Estonia 




719 


California 




1 


Wisconsin 




943 


farm 


262 


607 


Germany 




398 


shipments 






Finland 




719 


Great Britain 




462 


interstate regulati 


ion 


218 


France 


224 


250 


Nebraska 




313 


into New Jersey 




263 


Germany 191 


211 


288 


Oregon 




918 


standardization. See Milk, 




417 


regulation 


668 


742 


grading and standardization. 


Great Britain 




808 


costs 




335 


storage and warehousing 


321 


Greece 




719 


Denmark 




315 


supplies 




1000 


Iceland 




719 


England, Tynedale 


810 


factors affecting 




208 


Illinois, Chicago 




800 


France 




271 


Florida 




712 


Latvia 




719 


Germany 


417 


434 


London 




65 


Lithuania 




719 


Italy 




230 


New York 




1014 


Maine 




919 


Tennessee 




874 


New Zealand 




337 


Nebraska 




318 


Utah 




618 


surplus 257 


382 


413 


Norway 




719 


receipts, New York 




799 


487 614 


668 


816 


Pennsylvania 


29 


336 


refrigeration, costs 




117 


Connecticut 




220 


Poland 




719 


research 




979 


Germany 




211 


Rumania 




719 


sales 






Illinois 




922 


Sweden 




719 


Denmark 




399 


Kentucky 




391 


Switzerland 




719 


in bottles 




778 


Massachusetts 




348 


Wales 




736 


New Hampshire 




341 


Boston 




844 


Yugoslavia 




719 


New York 






Springfield area 




685 


See also Chocolate milk; i 


Con- 


Buffalo 




894 


Michigan 




775 


densed milk; Evaporated 




New York City 


441 


476 


New York 


109 


514 


milk; Families, low income, 






671 


New York City market ; 


area 


distribution of milk to; Fer- 


Ohio 




966 






983 


mented milk; Filled milk 




Pennsylvania 




556 


Ohio 


608 


815 


Income, relation to 


consume - 


sampling 


173 


841 


utilization 


178 


231 


tion of milk; Malted milk. 




sanitation 167 


190 


418 


France 




328 


Soft curd milk; Vitamin D 


480 588 


688 


722 
920 


Wisconsin 
tariff 




922 
534 


milk. 







73 



Item 
Milk, canned ~"EB6" 

consumer preferences 

Vermont, Burlington 508 

consumption 105 468 

production 538 

Milk, cultured 868 

Milk, dried skim. SSS Non-fat 

milk solids. 

Milk and Cream Producers' 
Protective Act, Nova Scotia 

102 
Milk and Dairies Act, Ireland 

542 

Milk and Market Products Act 

(Northern Ireland) 17 

Milk and Milk Products Act, 

Northern Ireland 216 

Milk bottle caps 484 

Milk bottles 42 476 588 

778 987 

care and handling 491 

cases, zinc-coated 449 

consumer preferences 332 

724 

New York City 974 

contamination 463 

costs 554 723 1043 

design 463 

Europe 144 

Germany 403 

losses 385 554 600 

707 

sanitation 661 814 

Illinois 81 

sealing equipment 175 

sizes 517 704 927 

Great Britain 930 

Milk Consumers Protective 

Com., New York City 867 

Milk containers. £fie_ Milk 

bottles. 

Milk Control Act, Oregon 

686 986 
Milk control boards, opera- 
tion 698 
Milk Control Law 
New York 355 364 457 
Pennsylvania 1051 
Milk Costs Investigation 
Scheme, Great Britain 869 
Milk cows. See Cows. 
Milk Indus. Act, Gt. Brit. 796 
Milk Indus. Found. 778 
Milk jugs 704 1008 
sanitation, Illinois 81 
Milk mktg. agreements 52 
560 660 720 1019 
District of Columbia 4 
Massachusetts, Boston 372 
New York 648 735 
Ohio, Cincinnati 639 
programs 926 958 
Milk Mktg. Bd. §ee Gt. Brit. 
Milk Mktg. Bd. 

Milk mktg. Indus. 660 720 

931 989 1016 

Milk Mktg. Scheme 282 

British Columbia 215 870 

Great Britain 23 26 55-6 

58 65 128 140 

180 278-9 326 383 

410 435 451 470 

492 522 525 616 

726-8 764 808 865 

1039 

Scotland 60 283 409 

526-7 747 



Item 
Milk Mktg. Scheme —Con- 
tinued. 

Sweden 420 617 

Wales 616 798 

Milk Pasteurization Plant Law, 

Illinois 325 

Milk plants 

California 145 

cost of operation 21 

efficiency 336 

milk losses 702 

policies 750 

quality program, Indiana 

88-9 344 

sanitation 881 

Mid-western States 615 

regulation 662 

Canada 13 

Massachusetts 561 

New York 1014 

Vermont 679 

Texas 482 

waste 519 
See also Creameries. 
Milk powder. See_Dried milk; 
non-fat milk solids. 
Milk products. See Dairy 
products. 
Milk protein 

utilization 322 

Germany 211 
Milk receiving stations 

country 214 

New York City 820 

Milk (Regulation of Supply and 

Price) Act, Ireland 542 
Milk Res. Council 19 566-7 

779-80 902 904 974 
Milk (Special Designations) 

Order, Gt Britain 356 
Milk Stabilization and Mktg. 

Act, California 861 

Milk stamp plan 823 
Milking machines 

costs, Michigan 170 

England and Wales 681 

Milkmeter 769 
Milksheds. See Milk, market 
areas. 

Miller I C 78 781 

Miller P L 636 1019 

Miller S L 357 

Minn. Agr. Expt.Sta. 77 

646 1017 
Minn. Cream Grading and 

Testing Law 152 

Minn.U. 126 

MioUis R 782 

Misner E G 94 568-9 783-4 

Mo. Agr. Expt.Sta. 593 

Mo Filled Milk Law 753 

Moffett W K 358 785 

Moffitt EL 95 

Molyneaux G W 809 

Montgomery D E 570 

Monthly Quota Plan 1015 

Moon HA 975 

Mooney G L 786 

Moore A V 89 

Moore H C 118 

Morbeck G C 35 

Mork R 359 

Morris C G 976 

Mortensen M 96 360 

Mortenson W P 97 336 
977-8 

Moss F J 979 



Mueller W S 
Munn M D 
Murray D 
Murray K A H 



Item 

980 

98 

795 

361 



Item 



Nair J H 571 

Nanneson L 572 

National Assoc. Mktg. Oft 1004 

National Dairy Council 99 

National Dairy Prod.Corp. 252 

National Farm Chemurgic 

Council 787 

National Milk Publicity 

Council, London 362 

Natural Products Marketing 

Act, Canada 215 840 

Nebr. Agr. Expt Sta. 234 

Nelson F E 972 

Nevot A 100 

New England Inst Coop- 518 

520 624 

New England Res. Council on 

Mktg. and Food Supply 221-2 

478 714 981 

New Fabian Res Bur. 483 

N H Agr. Expt.Sta. 118 

N H Milk Control Bd. 341 

N J Agr. Expt.Sta. 811 

N J Dept.Agr. 459 573 

N J Milk Control Bd. 263 

412 788 

N Y Agr- Col. 130 411 446 

669 799 819-20 822 

871 894 915 1012-3 

1015 

N Y City Bd.of Health 239 

N Y (CorneU) Agr. Expt.Sta. 

31 106 114 162 
173 473 568-9 584 
784 875 897 945 
971 1053 
N Y Mercantile Exch. 643 

N Y State Assoc. Dairy and 
Milklnsp. 117 763 809 

814A 910 937 950 
994 
N Y State Attorney General's 
Off. 574 

N Y State Dept.Agr. and Mkts. 
91 575 813 982 
Div. of Milk Control 195 

N Y State Legislature 
Com. to Investigate the Milk 
Control Law 364 

Joint Com. for the Study of 
Milk Control 218 

N Y State Milk Com. 789 

N Y State Milk Control Bd. 

142 412 457 

N Y State Supreme Court 142 

NYU. School of Law 1044 

New Zealand Dairy Control 

Bd. 10 

Newark U. Res. Centre 566-7 

Newman W A 576 

Nichita G 365 

Nicholas J E 577 

Nicholls W H 790-3 

Nightingale E 578 

Nixon A J 579 

Non-fat milk solids 134 461 

830 868 

marketing, regulation 52 

Great Britain 729 

prices 305 

production costs 305 426 

testing 75 769 



Non-fat milk solids— Con- 
tinued. 

trade, subsidies 
utilization 365 591 
France 
Germany 

Norman P B 

Northeastern Dairy Conf. 

Northern Ireland Agr.Res.Inst 
63 732 

Northern Ireland Joint Milk 
Council 17 

Northern Ireland Min.Agr. 17 

Northwestern U. 

Nova Scotia Econ.Council 

Nova Scotia Health Act 

Noyes H V 103 

Nugent R 



50 
947 
329 
405 
867 
893 



481 
102 
102 
983 
984 



Oat flour concentrate. See 
Avenex. 

Odell E A 104 

Ohio Agr. Expt.Sta. 608 815 

960 967 

Ohio State U. 78 

Col. Agr. and Domestic Sci- 

Dairy Technol.Conf. 454 

598 694 829 

Dept.of Rural Econ. 966 

Okla.Agr.and Mech. Col. Dairy 

Mfg. Short Course 232 

Okla.Agr.Expt.Sta. 306 862 

Oleomargarine. See Margarine. 

Olson J C 765 

Olson T M 580 

Ommodt B J 985 

Ontario Cream Patrons' 

Assoc. 794 

OregDeptAgr. 368 

Or eg. Milk Control Act 918 

Oreg.Milk Control Bd . 369 

986 

Oreg. State Col. 1050 

Orr T 370 

Osterholm B 243 

Overman OR 581 

Owen R L 987 

Owens J S 345 

Oxford Agr. Econ.Res.Inst. 23 

410 492 498 500 

988 

PabstWR Jr 371 

Packard A 372 

Packard A A 989 

Packlce 62 

Packing and packages. See 

Cans; Cartons; Containers; 

Milk bottles; and under 

specific subjects. 
Palmer J T 105 

Palmer M E 990 

Palmer W B 48 248 

Paquette L N 532 

Parchment 
for butter packaging 314 

741 765 
Germany 390 

Parchment, treated. See 

Avenex. 

Parker C V 373 582 

ParneU G S 583 

Parsons F L 795 

Parsons M S 106 584 

Pasteurization, milk. See 

Milk, pasteurization. 
Pasteurization Law, Illinois 

962 



74 



Item 
Pasteurized milk, Pennsyl- 
vania 327 
Pasteurizing, plants, sanita- 
tion, regulation 
Canada, Ontario 13 
Patents, in dairy industry 716 
739 
Paterson Butter Plan, 
Australia 6 464 
Pease V A 939 
Pelton G M 991 
Pa.Agr ExptSta. 311 327 
556 560 
Pa. Assoc. Dairy Sanit. 521 
Pa.Milk Control Bd. 585 
916 
Pa State CoL 883 
Perga-package 343 
Perring C 796 
Petersen W E 797 
PettttGHU 107-8 992 
Phelps C S 374 
Phillips IRE 180 736 798 
Philpott H G 375 
Phipard E F 827 
Pierce C W 109 556 993 
Pincus S 994 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Dept. Public 
Health 376 
Plastics 265 683 1034 
Pollard A J 586 799 995 
Pollard J 377 
Population, relation to agri- 
culture 466 
Population, fluctuations 
effects on milk consumption 
7 
Post J W 110 378 587 
Potter P 800 
Potts R C 379-81 642 
Poultry feed 830 
Poultry products, trade 857 
Powdered skim milk. See 
Non-fat milk solids. 
Powell J C 2 
Premium payments 
butter 804 
California 479 
Minnesota 201 479 
Oregon 479 
cream, Minnesota 201 
milk 568 816 
Great Britain 522 
New York 173 239 678 
Prentice E P 111-2 
Prescott M S 382 
Price H B 391 
Price W T 356 801 
Priestley H 588 
Primary Products Marketing 
Act, New Zealand 375 
Pringle C 383 
Producer Settlement Fund 

735 
Proskie J 223 

Protein, milk. £ge Milk 
protein. 

Prucha M J 589 

Public Admin. Serv. 177 

Purdue U. Dairy Dept . 344 

Putnam PL 345 

Pyie J F 113 

Quebec Dept Agr. 16 

Quintus P 77 802-4 884 



Item 



Railroads for milk trans- 




portation 


111 


162 


920 


Randell H H 






115 


Rauchenstein E 






1042 


Reed O E 


805 


! 


)96-7 


Reed O M 


49 


51 


262 


579 


619 


636 


998 
1019 


Regan J J 




590 


809 


Reichart E L 






591 


Reichart G 






266 


Reid W H E 


592 


807 


Reinart A 






386 


Renner K M 






594 


Reorganization Comn.for 




Gt Brit. 






282 


Restaurants, consumption of 


cheese 






493 


Reynolds A E 






595 


Reynolds H C 






999 


Rice E B 


596 


803 


Rice J L 






809 


Richards H I 






636 


Richardson C S 






810 


Riddell W H 




116 


388 


Riedel P 






389 


Riedel W 






390 


Riley E D 






440 


Riley H W 






117 


Rinear E H 




118 


811 


Roberts H E 




598 


829 


Roberts J B 






391 


Robineau M 






392 


Robotka F 




1 


J02-3 


Rochester A 






1000 


Rochester Dairy Co. 




750 


Rodgers J B 






393 


Rogers F E 






599 


Rogers L A 




119-20 


Rogers -Allen Law, New York 








735 


Roland C T 






600 


Rolle M 






394 


Ross H A 






121 


Ross H E 






812 


Ross R C 






232 


Rothery W 






809 


Royal Sanit Inst 






249 


Ruddick J A 




302 


395 


Ruehe H A 


581 


601 


1001 


Rupel I W 






545 



Raeburn 7 R 



114 



Saddington 6 W 396 

Sadler W P 636 

Safford C E 813 

Saitner M 397-8 

San Joaquin County Farm Bur. 

204 
Sanborn J B 602-3 814 1002 
Sando G 399 

Sandwich dispensers 1048 

Sant P E 460 

Sauer H 400 

Savage WG 356 

Savini E 401-2 

Schilling K 403 

Schneider G 404 

Scho 405 

Schoen A 123 

Schools, Milk programs, 
Scotland 59 283 

SchubringW 604 1003 

Schultheiss F 406-7 605 

Schurmann R N 606 

Scotland. Dept. Health 124 

Scotland.Sec. State 526 

Scott J M 408 



Item 
Scottish Milk Mktg. Bd. ~~4TJ5 
Scottish Milk Mktg . Scheme. 
See Milk Mktg. Schemes 
Scotland. 

Seale-Hayne Agr.Col.Dept. 
Econ. 290 

Sealtest System Laboratories 

252 

Sediment milk test 344 528 

628 

Selby H W 1004-5 

Senseman C E 939 

Seuss A 313-14 

Sexauer F H 125 

Sharp P F 1006 

Shaul K A 814A 

Sheffield Farms 822 

Shepard J B 607 

Sherbets 

consumer preferences 593 

grading and standardization 

California 595 654 

Sherman R W 608 815 966 

Sherrard F R G N 609 680 

Sherwood E J 239 

Shultis A 1007 

Shurts T M 1008 

Silcox W B 126 857 

Skim cheese. 

prices 786 

production 868 

Skim milk 14 

consumption 1036 

Canada 940 

grading and standardization 

156 440 
prices, Canada 940 

problems 119 

production 1038 

trade \ 857 

utilization 651 740 868 
947 1038 1049 
bread 251 

casein 189 251 

cheese 251 786 

cottage cheese 404 

dried milk 251 

for feed 996 

Germany 191 288-9 350 
whey 189 

waste 876 

Skim milk, condensed, market- 
ing, regulation, Great Britain 
789 
Skim milk, dried, 8&e Non-fat 
milk solids. 

Slide rule 759 769-T0 

Small E 642 851 

Smith B L 110 

Smith C W 1019 

Smith H P 610 

Smith L T 817 

Smith R G C 818 

Smith R K 607 

Snow C H 1009 

Snow H P 689 

Soda fountains, sanitation, 
Alabama, Birmingham 484 
Sodium caaeinate, utilization, 
Germany 350 

Soft curd milk 116 

Soil Conservation and Domes- 
tic Allotment Act 1027-8 
Solids -not -fat. gfifi Non-fat 
milk solids. 

Sommer H H 424 

Sonley L T 1010 



Item 
Sorenson H 128 

Sour cream. See Cream, sour. 
So. Dak. Agr. Expt. Sta. 129 
Spencer L 130-3 195 336 
411-15 450 611-14 
819-24 1005 1011-16 
Sprague G W 640 851 

Stamp plan. See under specific 

commodity. 
Standard Metal Container Act 

644 
Stanford U. Food Res. Inst. 

477 
Stanley L 134 

Stearns J T 508 510 

Steck L J 49-50 616 

SteenH 416 

Steere L V 617 

Stelzer R O 5 66 

Stephens F B 10 136 

Stevens G P 618 

Stevenson, Jordan & Harrison 

825 
Stewart P W 826 

Stiebeling H K 827 

Stine O C 849 

Stiritz B A 137 

StittsTG 138 619 

Stacker W 417 

Stoltz R B . - 828-9 

Stores 
milk sales, Buffalo, N. Y. 

670 
See also Chain stores. 
Strainer -dipper milk test 628 
Strand E G 1017 

Strikes, Chicago 777 

Stringer W E 830 

Stuurman S 418 

Sullivan W 205 

Sullivan W G 285 636 

Sunlight, effects on milk 

flavors 42 

Sutermelster E 831 

Svardstrom F 621 

Svardstrom K F 419 

Synthetic wool 683 

Szanyi I 422 

Taffoureau M 423 
Tanks, milk 299 
Tanner F W 622 649 832 
Tariff (U. S.), effect on dairy 
industry in Canada 302 
Tatar S W 689 
Taussig St 623 
Taylor C C 139-41 833 
Taylor G R 624-5 848 
Taylor H B 456 
Templetoa H L 424 
Ten Eyck P G 142 218 
Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. 2 460 
880 
Tenny L S 626 
Tetro R C 1019 
Tex.Cream Impr. Assoc. 626 
Tex. Milk Grading and Label- 
ing Law 692 
Tex.U. 961 
Bur. of Business Res. 482 
Theophilus D R 393 
ThieuUn G 444 
Thomsen F L 143 
Thomsen L C 426 627 835 
Thomson G S 836 
Tiedeman W D 628 
Till I 629 



75 



Item 

Tilson D H 144 
Tin foil. See Foils. 

Tinley J M 145-8 336 

427-8 630-2 837 
Tobey J A 149 429-30 

Toma R 431 

Tomlinson F R 838 

Totman C C 839 

Tovell G W 840 

Tracy P H 150-1 610 634 

841-2 965 

Trade Agreement Act 938 
Trade agreements program 

69 154 186 452 

534 539 645 652 

857 1033 

Trade barriers 

international 49 

interstate 520 625 690 

772 781 824 848 

858 892 908-9 1001 

1029 

Trebler H A 600 

Trelogan H C 797 

Trimble C S 432 

Trout G M 1045 

Trovatten R A 152 

Trucks 

for delivering milk 20 

129 700 707 

for hauling milk 937 

refrigeration 79 

tank 299 

Tuberculosis, bovine 

control 430 

Denmark 462 

eradication 542 590 

Nebraska 318 

France , 444 

Tuckey S L 841 

Tufft J E 635 

Twin City Milk Prod. Assoc. 160 

Ulrey O 843 

Dmbrecht J 433-4 

Union Nationale des Laiteries 
Beiges 197 

U S Agr. Adjust. Admin. 49 

50-2 153 261-2 436-7 
465 514 570 579 
616 636-9 777 844-5 
1018 1021 
See also Milk Mktg. Agree- 
ments. 
U. S. Agr. Mktg. Serv. 846 

1020 1049 
U S Bur. Agr. C hem and 
Engin. • 939 

U S Bur. Agr. Econ . 154-5 

437A-8 607 640-2 713 
739 799 819 847-8 
850-2 880-1 891-2 
1017 1022 1026 
reports, accuracy 586 



Item 
U S Bur of Dairy Indus 156 

189 805 817 852-3 
1023-6 
U S Commod-Exch. Admin 643 
948-9 
U S Cong. House 
Com- on Agr. 1027 

Com.on Coinage. Weights and 
Measures 644 

Com.on the Dist.of Columb- • 
854-5 
U S Cong.Senate.Com.on Agr. 
and Forestry 439 1028 

U S Container Act 127 

U S Delegto the Internatl 
Dairy Cong- 
U S Dept.of Agr. 205 



U S Dept Labor. 

U S Dept.State 

U S Ext.Serv- -857 

U S Farm Credit Admin 



856 

942 

1038 

440 

645 

963 

614 

619 

U S Fed.Surplus Commod. 

Corp 928 

U S Fed. Trade Comn. 157-60 

441-2 

U S Food and Drug Admin 67 

U S Mktg. Laws Survey 858 

1029-30 

U S Natl. Bur- Standards 127 

1031 

U S Pub. Health Serv. 717 

859 877 942 1032 

Off .Milk Invest. 979 

Standard Milk Ordinance and 

Code 27 202-3 237 

552 692 718 737 

900 957 1032 

U S Supreme Court 54 

226 369 

U S Surplus Mktg- Admin. £28 

U S Tariff Comn- 1033 

U S Temporary Natl. Econ. 

Com. 936 942 

Utah.Agr.E3rot.Sta. 896 

Vacuum packing 61 
Van Arsdel W B 1034 
Varney H R 162 443 1036 
Vehicles 
horse-drawn 20 
See also Trucks. 
Vehlow EL 87 
Verge J 444 
Verger ont G W 545 
Vt. Agr. Col 443 
Vt.Agr.Expt.Sta 196 310 
508 1010 
Vt. Special Milk Investiga- 
tional Com 445 
Vt.U.and State Agr Col. Dept.of 
Anim.and Dairy Husb. 334 
509 651 664 666 
679 710 721 748 
983 1006 1036 



Item 
Vial E E 437-8 446 1037-3 

Vinter P 483 

Va. Dept Agr 447 

Va. State Milk Law 447 

Vlrtanen A I 44 S 

Vitamin D milk 116 

marketing 256 

nutritive value 256 

Vopelius O 266 
Vouchers, distribution and 

redemption, Canada 654 

Wagner R 44 i 
Waite W C 77 163 646 699 
WaUace L K 1019 
Walworth G 647 1039-40 
Warner E E 636 
Warner G 1041 
Warth AH 831 
Washburn R M 860 
WashState Col 12 
Inst.Dairying 12 96 
119-20 273 
Watson A E 1042 
Watson J 164 
Watson J F 1043 
Watson J S 861 
Waugh F V 848 909 
Weather 
conditions 
Canada 206 
Scotland 4S6 
relation to ice cream con- 
sumption 1037 
Weaver E 862 
Weinstein SB 369 
WeldenWC 619 
Wellinghoff E F 863 
WeUwood R M 648 
Wentworth W A 469 
Werne B 1044 
West G A 450 
West W A 918 
W. Va Agr Expt Sta 5 
WVaColAgr 1026 
W.Va Dept. Agr 165 
Wheaton E 64 S 
Wheeler L A 451-2 
Whey 14 189 287 
problems 119 
production 189 
utilization 251 651 805 
868 1006 
England 207 
for feed 342 996 
France 329 
Germany 350 389 
Whey protein, production 
costs, Germany 400 
Whitby H 410 
White AH 741 
White E D 166 
White F C 865 
White G C 650 





Item 


White R G 


866 


White W 


1045 


Whitmore B F 


1046 


Whitney C 


867 


Whittier E O 


651 




868 


Wiedemann W 


453 


Wilcox R H 


1047 


Williams D O 


10 


Williams H T 


869 


Williams S W 


68 


Williams W E 


870 


Williamson P 


871 


Wilson G S 


167-8 




190 


Wilson H L 


1048 


Wilson J L 


607 1049 


Wilson T E 


440 


Wilster G H 


1050 


Winks G W 


54 



Winnebago Cheese Co- 244 
Winning P J 454 

Winsauer K 455 

Winter T 505 

Wis. Agr Col. Ext Serv 652 

Wis Agr Expt Sta 122 

533 
Wis. U. Dept .of Dairy Indus. 

903 906 943-4 
Dairy Mfrs.Conf 1041 

Wise W S 1051 

Witney D 653 

Wold H 1052 

Wood V A 223 

Wood, for butter containers 

35 741 
Woodward B T 654 

Wool, synthetic. SLee 

Synthetic wool. 
World War I, effects on 

prices 850 

Wrappers, paper, for soft 

cheeses 313 

Wright KT 170-1 456 

873 
Wright N C 172 

Wutz A T 655 

Wylie C E 874 

Wynne S W 457 

Yale M W 173 875 

1053 
Yarnell R 458 

Yarnell Ice Cream Co- 

458 
Yates J W 656 

Young G 657 

Young J L 459 

Young M G 658 

Young Act, California 488 

630 632